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Technical Paper

Yielding Strengh Analysis for Self Supported Pressure Vessels

The hazardous bulk chemical liquid cargo transportation is usually made through highways, using special automotive devices, named semitrailer tank, a kind of mobile tank specially developed to perform this task, manufactured with many types of steel, selected according to the chemical characteristics of the product to be transported. Equipment sizing is made based on specific standards which include specified formulas, loading, and safety factors representing the design criteria of this type of device. Despite of the detailed design criteria for semitrailer tank, it has been observed failure of some pieces of equipment during operation, in a shorter effective life than that one considered in the design phase itself. Considering a detailed study of the stress distribution in this type of equipment, this paper shows a verification of the possibility of yielding failure in the semitrailer tank structure.
Training / Education

Wrought Aluminum Metallurgy

There are a wide variety of wrought aluminum alloys, each developed to provide specific properties. Getting the strength you need in an aluminum alloy requires knowledge of the effects of alloy composition, cold-working, and heat treating on aluminum metallurgy and properties. A good understanding of how aluminum alloys behave and what can be done to modify their properties is critical for being more productive and profitable. The course takes about one hour to complete and consists of one module and a final exam. Also, quizzes and problems give you opportunities to apply the concepts taught.
Technical Paper

Winterization Of Construction Equipment - Report of CIMTC Subcommittee XV—Winterization

SINCE 1954 the CIMTC Subcommittee has been engaged in a program to meet military requirements through industry's production of construction equipment which can give satisfactory cold weather performance down to temperatures of −65 F. Individual contracts for three crawler tractors and one motor grader were negotiated by ERDL for these projects, and their performance is discussed. Industry participation was subsequently expanded to include engineering tests in the cold weather conditions of the Mesabi Iron Range. This joint report of the Winterization Sub-committee of the CIMTC and ERDL Winterization Section consists of separate papers by various members and consultants of this Sub-committee and ERDL personnel.
Technical Paper

Why Not Convert to Ductile Iron?

Cast iron is generally thought of as a weak, dirty, cheap, brittle material that does not have a place in applications requiring high strength and defined engineering properties. While gray cast iron is relatively brittle by comparison with steel, ductile iron is not. In fact, ductile iron has strengths and toughness very similar to steel and the machinability advantages make an attractive opportunity for significant cost reductions. Gray and ductile iron bar stock is commercially available and can be used as a direct replacement in applications that are currently being made from carbon steel bar. Ductile iron bar stock conversions are very prevalent in many fluid power applications including glands and rod guides, cylinders, hydrostatic transmission barrels and in high-pressure manifolds. Automotive gears are being converted to ductile iron for its damping capacity and cost reductions.
Technical Paper

Wheel Durability and Life Improvement - Valve Hole Position Optimization in Commercial Vehicle Wheel Using Segmental Loading Conditions

In Automotive, Steel wheels are exponentially replaced by Aluminum wheels because of its feather light, agile performance and better acceleration. One such widely used size is 11.75 x 22.5 wheels for trucks and trailer segment. During the design stage of 11.75 x 22.5 wheel, the valve hole was placed away from the stress concentration zone to reduce the stress on the holes and also the design was validated through all conventional wheel rim testing methodologies (Like CFT, RFT and Bi-axial) and the wheel passed all the test requirements. During the field trials, failures were observed on the valve holes, despite of this hole was away from stress concentration region. Understood from the field trials that, the regular testing was not able to simulate the real field conditions for this particular size and changed the boundary condition in our FEA to simulate the actual conditions. After changing the boundary conditions, we could able to observe more stress in valve hole.
Technical Paper

Weld Process Modeling and It's Importance in a Manufacturing Environment

An important emerging technical area is computer-based modeling of the various manufacturing processes that are used in many diverse industries. These models are used to optimize manufacturing techniques to reduce fabrication costs and improve the service performance. One manufacturing process important in steel fabrication is welding. It can be a useful tool to aid in reducing fabrication costs and service durability by optimizing the weld process and is the subject of this paper.
Technical Paper

Weld Durability Analysis by Equilibrium-Equivalent Structural Stress Approach

Welding has been used extensively in automotive components design due to its flexibility to be applied in manufacturing, high structural strength and low cost. To improve fuel economy and reduce material cost, weight reduction by optimized structural design has been a high priority in auto industry. In the majority of heavy duty vehicle's chassis components design, the ability to predict the mechanical performance of welded joints is the key to success of structural optimization. FEA (finite element analysis) has been used in the industry to analyze welded parts. However, mesh sensitivity and material properties have been major issues due to geometry irregularity, metallurgical degradation of the base material, and inherent residual stress associated with welded joints. An approach, equilibrium-equivalent structural stress method, led by Battelle and through several joint industrial projects (JIP), has been developed.
Technical Paper

Weight and Cost Effective FUPD Design for N3 Category Vehicles

Front under run protection device (FUPD) is a regulatory requirement for passive safety of N2 & N3 category vehicle. This device gives effective protection for small vehicles (M1 or N1 category) against under running of big vehicles (N2 & N3 category) in the event of a frontal collision. FUPD generally consists of the front under run protector (FUP) and its mounting structure. As the compliance load target for N3 category is high, the FUP required achieving regulation target need to have high rigidity. This increases its size and hence the weight, Increase in weight has impact on payload and cost. To curtail the weight of FUP, in general Aluminum with higher strength is in use, but use of Aluminum increases the cost. So the main challenge in FUPD design is to achieve the design with optimal system weight & cost.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction of Shifter Forks using Steel Inserts

Shift quality of a manual transmission is a critical characteristic that is requires utmost care by the designers while structuring the transmission. Shift quality is affected by many factors viz. synchronizer design, shift fork design, shifter design, gear design, transmission oil selection etc. Designers have realized that shift fork is critical element for improving shift feel of a transmission. This paper focuses upon the reduction in weight of the overall transmission shift system by using steel inserts in aluminum shifter forks. No compromise on the stiffness and strength of the shift fork of a manual transmission is done. Stiffness and strength of shifter fork is optimized using contact pattern analysis and stiffness analysis on MSC Nastran. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A 5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the same.
Technical Paper

Weight Optimisation of Dumper Body Structure Conserving Stiffness, Buckling and Dent Performance

The entire commercial vehicle industry is moving towards weight reduction to leverage on the latest materials available to benefit in payload & fuel efficiency. General practice of weight reduction using high strength steel with reduced thickness in reference to Roark’s formula does not consider the stiffness & dent performance. While this helps to meet the targeted weight reduction keeping the stress levels within the acceptable limit, but with a penalty on stiffness & dent performance. The parameters of stiffener like thickness, section & pitching are very important while considering the Stiffness, bucking & dent performance of a dumper body. The Finite Element Model of subject dumper body has been studied in general particularly on impact of dent performance and is correlated with road load data to provide unique solution to the product. The impact of payload during loading of dumper is the major load case.
Technical Paper

Wear of Bearing Materials

Wear characteristics of four bearing materials have been investigated under different sliding conditions. The bearing materials used were CDA 954, CDA 863, CDA 932, and CDA 938. Using a Taber Wear Tester, a cylinder on a flat geometry was used as a tribo contact pair. All bearing materials in the form of a thick cylindrical disk were subjected to combined sliding-rolling motion against a rotating flat disk. The flat disk was either an abrasive disk, or a very soft steel disk, or a hardened steel disk with and without lubrication. Wear was measured as weight loss after several thousand cycles of rotation. Maximum wear of the bearing materials occurred when the counter body was a very soft steel disk. These results together with the wear rate of each bearing material sliding against four different counter bodies are presented. These results are found to be of practical importance in the design and application of journal bearings made of materials used in this investigation.
Technical Paper

Virtual Testing: Fatigue Life (S-N Curves) Simulations for Commercial Vehicle Axle Components

Current trends in vehicle development, including both automotive and commercial vehicles, are characterized by short model life cycles, reduced development time, concurrent design and manufacturing development, reduced design changes, and reduced total cost. All of these are driven by customer demand of higher load capacity, reduced weight, extended durability and warranty requirement, better NVH performance and reduced cost. These trends have resulted in increased usage of computational simulation tools in design, manufacturing, and testing, i.e. virtual testing or virtual prototyping. This paper summarizes our work in virtual testing, i.e. fatigue life simulations using computational fracture mechanics for commercial vehicle axle gearing development. First, fatigue life simulation results by using computational fracture mechanics CRACKS software were verified by comparing with gear teeth bending fatigue test data and three point bending fatigue test data.
Technical Paper

Virtual Simulation of Door Slam Test, Study of Relative Sensitive Parameters and Correlation with Physical Test

Door slam test is one of the important durability tests in door design and development. Door requires to meet certain performance requirements like it should close properly (no metal to metal contact), there should not be any leakage, and closing operation should be smooth & with minimal effort and it should survive the life of the vehicle. Virtual simulation of door slam test, correlation with physical test results and effect of various parameters like seals stiffness are demonstrated in this study. Slam Analysis was carried out in LS-Dyna solver before physical test. This not only helped in avoiding initial structural design flaws, but also helped us in deciding door latch position, effect of mass distribution in the door and study of force distribution between primary seal, secondary seal and door latch. Primary and secondary seals played a critical role in the analysis. An intended length of both the seals was tested first to get its stiffness curve.
Technical Paper

Virtual Instrumentation of a Soil Bin for Improved Precision

The existing instrumentation of a soil bin was retrofitted with virtual instrumentation techniques to achieve improved repeatability and more precise measurements. Current-loop sensors were added to the prime mover for improved speed control. Soil preparation operations were instrumented to determine penetrometer forces as a function of soil penetration depth, soil surface smoothness, compaction force, and soil surface elevation. Test hitch-points for agricultural implements were instrumented with wheatstone bridge force transducers. Implement depth was found with ratiometric linear transducers. Distance and speed determinations utilized an optical encoder with a resolution of 3.0 × 10-4 m. Temperature measurements were also recorded with solid state current transducers.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Analysis for Modeling Propeller Shaft Liner Material

In recent truck applications, single-piece large-diameter propshafts, in lieu of two-piece propshafts, have become more prevalent to reduce cost and mass. These large-diameter props, however, amplify driveline radiated noise. The challenge presented is to optimize prop shaft modal tuning to achieve acceptable radiated noise levels. Historically, CAE methods and capabilities have not been able to accurately predict propshaft airborne noise making it impossible to cascade subsystem noise requirements needed to achieve desired vehicle level performance. As a result, late and costly changes can be needed to make a given vehicle commercially acceptable for N&V performance prior to launch. This paper will cover the development of a two-step CAE method to predict modal characteristics and airborne noise sensitivities of large-diameter single piece aluminum propshafts fitted with different liner treatments.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Integration, Gear Material and Heat Treatment Effects on Rear Axle Whining Noise

This paper will focus whining noise on rear axles applied in mid-size trucks. Vehicle integration changes during development affect directly the gear noise perception, in which it may be intensified. Also, gear material and heat treatment choices for the rear axle need to be done carefully, taking into consideration the integration changes and also the driver usage. A lessons learned collection over the diverse aspects of a rear axle whining noise will be the basis of this paper.
Technical Paper

Variability of Strain-Controlled Fatigue Properties of USS Dual Phase 80 Steel

Because sheet-steel users are requesting strain-controlled fatigue properties of sheet steels for automotive use, a program is being conducted to characterize single grades of steel and to examine the variability of their fatigue properties. As part of that program, monotonic tension tests and low-cycle strain-controlled fatigue tests were performed on smooth longitudinal and transverse specimens from sheets of USS Dual Phase 80 steel. An 0.096-inch (2.4 mm) thick sheet from one heat and 0.131 inch (3.3 mm) and 0.188-inch (4.8 mm) thick sheets from a second heat were evaluated. The sheets were tested in the “as-shipped” (unstrained) and prestrained conditions. Prestraining was accomplished with a single uniaxial tension load sufficient to cause strains as high as 8 percent prior to fatigue testing. The results of this study showed that the unstrained material was cyclically stable; that is, the cyclic yield strength was approximately the same as the monotonic yield strength.
Technical Paper

Vacuum Die Casting Technology with True T6 Heat Treating Capability

Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) developed its own vacuum die casting process to produce true T6 heat treatable aluminum die castings. This process was initiated by OMC Research and developed jointly with OMC Waukegan. The project began 1990 and was put into production in 1992 on the outboard motor lower mount bracket shown in figure 1. OMC is producing vacuum die cast aluminum parts made with 356.0 alloy and T6 heat treated which meet or exceed the strength of similarly alloyed and processed permanent mold or lost foam cast parts. The application of this process is being expanded within the realm of structural outboard motor parts to include other mounting brackets, as well as fuel system components. An automotive die caster is using the technology and equipment provided by OMC to produce leak tight air conditioner compressor housings.
Technical Paper

Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques to Prototype Metal Castings

Several methods have been developed which use rapid prototyping techniques to assist in the creation of prototype metal castings. Methods exist for a number of casting processes such as sand casting, die casting, investment casting, and evaporative pattern casting. In many cases, these methods can reduce both the time and cost required to create prototype castings.
Technical Paper

Using MCAE and Rapid Prototyping for Casting Design

The conceptualization, design, analysis, prototyping, and testing of a steel casting are described. The methods used include 2D CAD, 3D solid modeling, finite element analysis, Solid Ground Curing rapid prototyping, and laboratory prototype testing. The part was successfully delivered to field testing on time. The use of the MCAE techniques provided a more optimal part more quickly than the use of standard CAD techniques would have provided. A minor cost penalty was paid for the prototype pattern versus conventional prototyping.