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Technical Paper

“Dynamic Analysis of Cabin Tilting System of Heavy Trucks Using ADAMS-View for Development of a Software Interface for Optimization”

2008-10-07
2008-01-2683
Design of a Cabin Tilting System of heavy trucks, a multi degree of freedom mechanism, is a challenge. Factors like adequate tilting angle, cabin styling, packaging, non interference of tilting system with ride comfort, forces in the system, specifications of the hydraulic system, are all very important for designing the system. Numerous considerations make the design process highly iterative hence longer design time. This paper primarily focuses on Kinematics and Dynamic analysis of the system in ADAMS and validation of system with real time testing results. Intention of this work is to make a parametric ADAMS model and link it to a Knowledge Based Engineering application to facilitate designer to quickly carry out design iterations for reducing development time. The Knowledge Based Engineering software is made using object oriented language called ‘Object Definition Language’ which has been developed using C and C++ software languages.
Technical Paper

pCBT: A New Material for High Performance Composites in Automotive Applications1

2004-10-26
2004-01-2698
Cyclic oligomers of butylene terephthalate (CBT™)† represent a new chemical route to semi-crystalline thermoplastic polybutylene terephthalate (PBT). The oligomers of interest melt completely at about 150°C to produce a low viscosity fluid that is ideal for wetting and dispersing fibrous fillers and reinforcements thereby enabling the development of composites that were previously not possible when working with high viscosity commercial PBT. Introduction of catalyst to undiluted molten cyclic oligomer leads to rapid ring opening polymerization and the formation of high molecular weight thermoplastic PBT without the generation of volatile organic compounds. The polymer resulting from this polymerization will be hereby referred to as pCBT. Treatment of cyclic oligomers in this fashion results in pCBT thermoplastic resin with a high melting point (230°C) and physical performance similar to that of other commercially available PBT resins.
Technical Paper

modeFRONTIER for Virtual Design and Optimization of Compact Heat Exchangers

2014-09-30
2014-01-2406
The main purpose of this study is the development of an innovative methodology for Heat Exchangers (HE) design to replace the conventional design procedures. The new procedure is based on the definition of a software package managed by modeFRONTIER, a multi-objective optimization software produced by ESTECO, able to create HE virtual models by targeting several objectives, like HE performance, optimal use of material, HE minimal weight and size and optimal manufacturability. The proposed methodology consists first in the definition of a workflow for the automatic CFD simulation of a parametric model of a periodic HE cellular element.
Technical Paper

Zero Emission Vehicles

1994-04-01
941108
Recharging electric vehicles with photovoltaics (PV) results in a truer “zero-emission” vehicle. Other papers have discussed the complex issue of distributed tailpipe emissions versus displaced emissions from centralized generating stations. The use of PV to recharge electric vehicles avoids the distributed versus centralized emission controversy because PV has minimal environmental impact. Even when considering the total fuel cycle, including fuel extraction and plant construction, PV still retains a significant environmental advantage over conventional electrical generation technologies. This paper reviews total fuel cycle emissions and then addresses the use of PV to recharge electric vehicles. The data presented in this paper applies also to hybrid electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

You're Not Out There Alone: High-Tech and Other Aids for Your Career Planning and Management

1988-09-01
881249
Career development planning is critical to getting the most out of one's working years. It should start when one starts a career, but even if you start in mid-career, it's not too late. For those who haven't done it, career planning may seem difficult and confusing. Increasingly, your community library and state employment service agency provides valuable help in the form of computerized and manual aids to career planning and job-getting. This article follows Dave Brown, a mid-career engineer, through the career-planning process, introduces library and government resources to you and provides a list of computer programs relating to career planning and job getting.
Technical Paper

Yield Monitors, Combines, and Their Interactions

1999-09-14
1999-01-2846
Instantaneous combine grain yield monitors need to provide reliable yield measurements since yield as a function of location is key information needed to manage fields by management zones. A scale and a yield monitor measured the same stream of grain and provided similar results when compared to each other. Data from either device may be misinterpreted if care in calibration and operation is not taken. Careful operators who pay attention to calibration, maintenance, and manufacturer's instructions will be required.
Technical Paper

Yield Mapping with Digital Aerial Color Infrared (CIR) Images

1999-09-14
1999-01-2847
Yield potential was predicted and mapped for three corn fields in Central Illinois, using digital aerial color infrared images. Three methods, namely statistical (regression) modeling, genetic algorithm optimization and artificial neural networks, were used for developing yield models. Two image resolutions of 3 and 6 m/pixel were used for modeling. All the models were trained using July 31 image and tested using images from July 2 and August 31, all from 1998. Among the three models, artificial neural networks gave best performance, with a prediction error less than 30%. The statistical model resulted in prediction errors in the range of 23 to 54%. The lower resolution images resulted in better prediction accuracy compared to resolutions higher than or equal to the yield resolution. Images after pollination resulted in better accuracy compared to images before pollination.
Journal Article

Yaw Stability Enhancement of Articulated Commercial Vehicles via Gain-Scheduling Optimal Control Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0437
In this paper, a gain-scheduling optimal control approach is proposed to enhance yaw stability of articulated commercial vehicles through active braking of the proper wheel(s). For this purpose, an optimal feedback control is used to design a family of yaw moment controllers considering a broad range of vehicle velocities. The yaw moment controller is designed such that the instantaneous tractor yaw rate and articulation angle responses are forced to track the target values at each specific vehicle velocity. A gain scheduling mechanism is subsequently constructed via interpolations among the controllers. Furthermore, yaw moments derived from the proposed controller are realized by braking torque distribution among the appropriate wheels. The effectiveness of the proposed yaw stability control scheme is evaluated through software-in-the-loop (SIL) co-simulations involving Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim under lane change maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Yaw Stability Control of Tractor Semi-Trailers

2008-10-07
2008-01-2595
Tractor semi-trailer stability during emergency braking and steering maneuvers has been an issue that was improved through implementation of Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS). Although some improvements have been achieved, the need for new control methodologies is evident from the number of accidents reported by NHTSA involving tractor semi-trailers. In this paper, a new control algorithm has been developed for improving the tractor semi-trailer stability through utilization of yaw moment, i.e., tire differential braking strategy. This new, multifaceted, adaptive control algorithm which allows the estimation of the unknown vehicle parameters through use of the adaptation laws is based on the Lyapunov Direct Method. A tractor semi-trailer model with four degrees of freedom was used to develop the control algorithm and the adaptation laws. The controller was implemented on a 2-axle tractor 1-axle van trailer in TruckSim 7©.
Technical Paper

Yaw Dynamics of Command Steered Multi Axle Semitrailer

2017-01-10
2017-26-0345
This paper investigates the yaw dynamic behaviour of a seven axle tractor semitrailer combination vehicle developed by VRDE (Vehicle Research & Development). The semitrailer has four steerable axles which follow command steering law i.e. all axles of semitrailer are steered in a particular relation with articulation of tractor. A 4 dof (degree of freedom) linear yaw plane model was developed for this combination vehicle. Yaw response characteristics such as lateral acceleration, yaw rate and articulation angle for step and sine steer is obtained from this model. Effects of speed on the above parameters are also studied to the same steering inputs. Lateral tyre forces due to semitrailer steering at various speeds are estimated to understand its distribution on each axle. Steady state yaw rate and articulation angle gain are obtained to predict the understeer / oversteer behaviour of combination vehicle.
Technical Paper

Working Load Measurement and Analysis of Bolted Joint under Off-road Vehicle Operation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1234
In this study, we propose a method of measuring and analyzing the load on bolted joints used in a machine under off-road vehicle operation. Working load measurement under actual machine operation and the results of its analysis are shown as load frequency diagrams. An example of the measurement analysis of a load (three types of load: axial force, bending moment, and torsional torque) added to a bolted joint shank during actual machine operation is shown. In this paper, we describe how to apply the results of load analysis to the load condition at the design and experimental development stages.
Technical Paper

Work Solenoids-Environmental and Design Considerations for Earthmoving Equipment Applications

1986-04-01
860760
Work solenoids are widely used in household appliances. The environment and design of this type application does not lead to solenoids for the earthmoving industry. This paper presents the environmental effects to be considered when designing a solenoid for the earthmoving industry. It further explains the need for, and type of, test necessary to validate the design. Finally a review of production quality procedures, necessary to insure reliable production parts is discussed.
Technical Paper

Winterization Of Construction Equipment - Report of CIMTC Subcommittee XV—Winterization

1957-01-01
570031
SINCE 1954 the CIMTC Subcommittee has been engaged in a program to meet military requirements through industry's production of construction equipment which can give satisfactory cold weather performance down to temperatures of −65 F. Individual contracts for three crawler tractors and one motor grader were negotiated by ERDL for these projects, and their performance is discussed. Industry participation was subsequently expanded to include engineering tests in the cold weather conditions of the Mesabi Iron Range. This joint report of the Winterization Sub-committee of the CIMTC and ERDL Winterization Section consists of separate papers by various members and consultants of this Sub-committee and ERDL personnel.
Technical Paper

Wind-Averaged Drag Determination for Heavy-Duty Vehicles Using On-Road Constant-Speed Torque Tests

2016-09-27
2016-01-8153
To investigate the feasibility of various test procedures to determine aerodynamic performance for the Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Regulations for Heavy-Duty Vehicles in the United States, the US Environmental Protection Agency commissioned, through Southwest Research Institute, constant-speed torque tests of several heavy-duty tractors matched to a conventional 53-foot dry-van trailer. Torque was measured at the transmission output shaft and, for most tests, also on each of the drive wheels. Air speed was measured onboard the vehicle, and wind conditions were measured using a weather station placed along the road side. Tests were performed on a rural road in Texas. Measuring wind-averaged drag from on-road tests has historically been a challenge. By collecting data in various wind conditions at multiple speeds over multiple days, a regression-based method was developed to estimate wind-averaged drag with a low precision error for multiple tractor-trailer combinations.
Journal Article

Wind Tunnel and Track Tests of Class 8 Tractors Pulling Single and Tandem Trailers Fitted with Side Skirts and Boat-tails

2012-04-16
2012-01-0104
A 1:10-scale wind tunnel development program was undertaken by the National Research Council of Canada and Airshield Inc. in 1994 to develop trailer side skirts that would reduce the aerodynamic drag of single and tandem trailers. Additionally, a second wind tunnel program was performed by the NRC to evaluate the fuel-saving performance of boat-tail panels when used in conjunction with the skirt-equipped single and tandem trailers. Side skirts on tandem, 8.2-m-long trailers (all model dimensions converted to full scale) were found to reduce the wind-averaged drag coefficient at 105 km/h (65 mi/h) by 0.0758. The front pair of skirts alone produced 75% of the total drag reduction from both sets of skirts and the rear pair alone produced 40% of that from both pairs. The sum of the drag reductions from front and rear skirts separately was 115% of that when both sets were fitted, suggesting an interaction between both.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Test of Cab Extender Incidence on Heavy Truck Aerodynamics

2005-11-01
2005-01-3527
A wind tunnel experiment has been conducted to determine the changes in drag and side force due to the presence and position of cab extenders on a model of a commercial tractor-trailer truck. The geometric variables investigated are the cab extenders angle of incidence, the tractor-trailer spacing and the yaw angle of the vehicle. Three cab extender angles were tested-0°, 15° (out) and -15° (in) with respect to the side of the tractor. The cab and trailer models have the same width and height. The minimum drag coefficient was found for the tractor and trailer combination when the cab extenders were set to 0° angle of incidence with respect to the headwind. This result holds for all yaw angles with moderate gap spacing between the tractor and trailer. This study suggests that commercial tractor-trailer trucks can benefit from adjustable cab extender settings; 0° when using a trailer and -15° when no trailer is used.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Potential Aerodynamic Drag Reductions from Trailer Aerodynamic Component Combinations

2015-09-29
2015-01-2884
The use of devices to reduce aerodynamic drag on large trailers and save fuel in long-haul, over-the-road freight operations has spurred innovation and prompted some trucking fleets to use them in combinations to achieve even greater gains in fuel-efficiency. This paper examines aerodynamic performance and potential drag reduction benefits of using trailer aerodynamic components in combinations based upon wind tunnel test data. Representations of SmartWay-verified trailer aerodynamic components were tested on a one-eighth scale model of a class 8 sleeper tractor and a fifty three foot, van trailer model. The open-jet wind tunnel employed a rolling floor to reduce floor boundary layer interference. The drag impacts of aerodynamic packages are evaluated for both van and refrigerated trailers. Additionally, the interactions between individual aerodynamic devices is investigated.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Concepts for Testing Heavy Trucks

2016-09-27
2016-01-8144
The trucking industry is being encouraged by environmental and cost factors to improve fuel efficiency. One factor that affects fuel efficiency is the aerodynamic design of the vehicles; that is, the vehicles with lower aerodynamic drag will get better mileage, reducing carbon emissions and reducing costs through lower fuel usage. A significant tool towards developing vehicles with lower drag is the wind tunnel. The automobile industry has made great improvements in fuel efficiency by using wind tunnels to determine the best designs to achieve lower drag. Those wind tunnels are not optimum for testing the larger, longer heavy trucks since the wind tunnels are smaller than needed. The estimated costs for a heavy truck wind tunnel based on automotive wind tunnel technology are quite high. A potential nozzle concept to reduce wind tunnel cost and several other new possible approaches to lower wind tunnel costs are presented.
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Wiley SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package

2018-03-23
Committed to being the primary source for aerospace and ground vehicle engineering resources, SAE International has added the full compilation of our Wiley eBook collections to the SAE MOBILUS® technical resource platform. Purchasable as an annual subscription and containing the titles from the Wiley Aerospace Collection, the Wiley Automotive Collection, the Wiley Computer Systems Collection, and the Wiley Cyber Security Collection.
SAE MOBILUS Subscription

Wiley Cyber Security Collection Add-On

2018-03-23
As an annual subscription, the Wiley Cyber Security Collection Add-On is available for purchase along with one or both of the following: Wiley Aerospace Collection Wiley Automotive Collection The titles from the Wiley Cyber Security Collection are included in the SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package. Titles: Network Forensics Penetration Testing Essentials Security in Fixed and Wireless Networks, 2nd Edition The Network Security Test Lab: A Step-by-Step Guide Risk Centric Threat Modeling: Process for Attack Simulation and Threat Analysis Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms and Source Code in C, 20th Anniversary Edition Computer Security Handbook, Set, 6th Edition Threat Modeling: Designing for Security Other available Wiley collections: Wiley SAE MOBILUS eBook Package Wiley Aerospace Collection Wiley Automotive Collection Wiley Computer Systems Collection Add-On (purchasable with the Wiley Aerospace Collection and/or the Wiley Automotive Collection)
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