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Technical Paper

“SHIFT-MATE” A Fuel Efficiency Monitor

1985-12-01
852340
The SHIFT-MATE is a dashboard mounted computer based device that cues a truck driver to shift more efficiently. Through electronic circuitry, key vehicle parameters are monitored, computed, then via graphic display, instructs the driver when to shift for improved fuel economy. The theory of operation is described in the text.
Technical Paper

Yield Mapping with Digital Aerial Color Infrared (CIR) Images

1999-09-14
1999-01-2847
Yield potential was predicted and mapped for three corn fields in Central Illinois, using digital aerial color infrared images. Three methods, namely statistical (regression) modeling, genetic algorithm optimization and artificial neural networks, were used for developing yield models. Two image resolutions of 3 and 6 m/pixel were used for modeling. All the models were trained using July 31 image and tested using images from July 2 and August 31, all from 1998. Among the three models, artificial neural networks gave best performance, with a prediction error less than 30%. The statistical model resulted in prediction errors in the range of 23 to 54%. The lower resolution images resulted in better prediction accuracy compared to resolutions higher than or equal to the yield resolution. Images after pollination resulted in better accuracy compared to images before pollination.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Truck Electronic Systems -- Trends for the 90s

1986-11-01
861970
It is the goal of this paper, to discuss the impact of electronics on modern day commercial vehicles an buses. Seen from the position of advanced engineering of an European commercial vehicle manufacturer, the emphasis will be placed on the mechanical-electronical system itself, rather than the electronics themselves. User friendly, logic protected systems will minimize operator unfamiliarity and misapplication and will offer not only component control, but shortly the integration of all of these subsystems in the total vehicle control. Total vehicle control will be the ultimate result, when the driver, the truck and the environment are brought together. Such vehicles will be more responsive, safer and easier to drive than today's commercial vehicles and buses and offer a cost effective utilization of these new technologies to the customer.
Standard

Windshield Wiper Systems - Trucks, Buses, and Multipurpose Vehicles

2012-10-11
CURRENT
J198_201210
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes for left-hand steer on-road trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles with GVW of 4500 kg (10 000 lb) or greater: a Minimum performance requirements for windshield wiping systems. b Uniform test procedures that include those tests that can be conducted on uniform test equipment by commercially available laboratory facilities. c Uniform terminology of windshield wiper system characteristics and phenomena consistent with those found in guides for the use of engineering layout studies to evaluate system performance. d Guides for the design and location of components of the systems for function, servicing of the system, etc. The test procedures and minimum performance requirements, outlined in this document, are based on currently available engineering data. It is the intent that all portions of the document will be periodically reviewed and revised as additional data regarding windshield wiping system performance are developed.
SAE MOBILUS Subscription

Wiley SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package

2018-03-23
Committed to being the primary source for aerospace and ground vehicle engineering resources, SAE International has added the full compilation of our Wiley eBook collections to the SAE MOBILUS® technical resource platform. Purchasable as an annual subscription and containing the titles from the Wiley Aerospace Collection, the Wiley Automotive Collection, the Wiley Computer Systems Collection, and the Wiley Cyber Security Collection.
SAE MOBILUS Subscription

Wiley Automotive Collection

2018-03-23
Purchasable as an annual subscription, the Wiley Automotive Collection contains 20 eBook titles and focuses on a wide range of categories, including engines, transmission, chassis, body, electrical, safety, and manufacturing. Titles covering new and emerging topics such as battery technology and electric and hybrid vehicles are included as well, making the series an essential addition to any institution’s automotive resources.
Technical Paper

Why Not 125 BMEP in an L-Head Truck Engine?

1939-01-01
390130
HIGH output per cubic inch of piston displacement is desirable not alone for the purpose of being able to transport more payload faster, but more particularly for the invariably associated byproduct of lower specific fuel consumption, and especially at road-load requirements. The only way of accomplishing this purpose is through the use of higher compression ratios, and the limiting factors for this objective are fuel distribution and the operating temperatures of the component parts. A manifold is proposed which not only definitely improves distribution at both full and road loads, but has the inherent additional advantage of reducing the formation of condensate, thus still further facilitating a reduction in road-load specific fuel consumption. Hydraulic valve lifters, obviation of mechanical and thermal distortion, and controlled water flow are the essentials in improved cooling.
Technical Paper

Whole-Body Vibration Exposures in Urban Bus Drivers: The Influence of Road Type

2014-11-04
2014-36-0793
Bus drivers are daily exposed to whole-body vibrations (WBV) submitted to risks for develop health problems related to these conditions. Numerous studies focused to quantify and identify the risks that drivers are exposed have been developed in recent years. Many factors influence the transmission of vibration to the body. Road type may be an important factor in determining the WBV exposure a bus driver receives. In urban areas, common types of routes include several road surfaces like: smooth highway, older rough freeway, pavement, bumpy, speed humps, and others. The purpose of this study was to determine whether different kinds of road surfaces, found in urban routes, cause different WBV responses, and determine the influence for each road type in daily exposure to WBV according the standard ISO 2631-1 (1997).
Technical Paper

Whole Body Vibration Levels: A Realistic Baseline for Standards

1976-02-01
760415
Statistical measures of whole-body vibration from ambulation are shown to be higher than those from operation of earthmoving machinery and significantly higher than published guidelines for human exposure to whole-body vibration. The inconsistency of human response to low level vibration of technological origin as compared to human imperceptiveness to high level vibration from ambulation is discussed.
Journal Article

Wheel Chock Key Design Elements and Geometrical Profile for Truck Vehicle Restraint

2018-06-06
Abstract Wheel chocks are rather simple compliant mechanisms for stabilizing vehicles at rest. However, chocks must be carefully designed given the complex interaction between the chock and the tire/suspension system. Despite their importance for safety, literature is surprisingly limited in terms of what makes a wheel chock efficient. Using simple but reliable quasi-static mechanical models, this study identifies mechanical requirements that help to avoid a number of failure modes associated with many existing wheel chocks. Given that chock grounding is not always possible, a chock’s maximum restraining capacity is only obtained when the wheel is completely supported by the chock. A generic chock profile is proposed to achieve this objective while mitigating undesirable failure modes. The profile is based on fundamental mechanical principles and no assumption is made on the load interaction between the chock and the wheel.
Technical Paper

What SPC Can Do for You

1986-09-01
861219
Quality improvement, widely accepted as the key to survival in today's global marketplace, can only be achieved through a disciplined approach to problem solving based on proven statistical process control (SPC) techniques. Improving quality also improves productivity, and SPC applications are generating substantial savings for both product and service organizations throughout industry.
Technical Paper

What Every Engineer Should Know About Finite Element Analysis Methods

1986-09-08
861294
The scope of Finite Element Analysis in the Product Development Cycle is given. A brief review of the development process is given. A brief description of the analysis method is presented. A description of how it works, how is it implemented, and where do I use it are included. The entire range of questions are answered through, how do I train for it, how do I manage it, along with what are the limitations and what are the benefits of this analysis method.
Book

What Engineers and Managers Need to Know About Human Factors

2003-04-25
This book provides an introduction to the role, value, scope and the unique contributions the field of human factors can bring to the design process for all products. Aimed at the engineer and manager with no formal training in the life and social sciences, it is not intended to train the methods of human factors, but rather to provide knowledge that will enable engineers and managers to determine if including human factors in the planning and execution of product design is justified. Chapters include: Reasons Engineers Provide for Limiting Emphasis on Human Factors The Academic Disciplines Supporting Human Factors Human Factors Engineering and more
Technical Paper

Weld Durability Analysis by Equilibrium-Equivalent Structural Stress Approach

2006-10-31
2006-01-3576
Welding has been used extensively in automotive components design due to its flexibility to be applied in manufacturing, high structural strength and low cost. To improve fuel economy and reduce material cost, weight reduction by optimized structural design has been a high priority in auto industry. In the majority of heavy duty vehicle's chassis components design, the ability to predict the mechanical performance of welded joints is the key to success of structural optimization. FEA (finite element analysis) has been used in the industry to analyze welded parts. However, mesh sensitivity and material properties have been major issues due to geometry irregularity, metallurgical degradation of the base material, and inherent residual stress associated with welded joints. An approach, equilibrium-equivalent structural stress method, led by Battelle and through several joint industrial projects (JIP), has been developed.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction of Shifter Forks using Steel Inserts

2013-09-24
2013-01-2444
Shift quality of a manual transmission is a critical characteristic that is requires utmost care by the designers while structuring the transmission. Shift quality is affected by many factors viz. synchronizer design, shift fork design, shifter design, gear design, transmission oil selection etc. Designers have realized that shift fork is critical element for improving shift feel of a transmission. This paper focuses upon the reduction in weight of the overall transmission shift system by using steel inserts in aluminum shifter forks. No compromise on the stiffness and strength of the shift fork of a manual transmission is done. Stiffness and strength of shifter fork is optimized using contact pattern analysis and stiffness analysis on MSC Nastran. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A 5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the same.
Training / Education

Weibull-Log Normal Analysis Workshop

2019-12-09
RMS (Reliability-Maintainability-Safety-Supportability) engineering is emerging as the newest discipline in product development due to new credible, accurate, quantitative methods. Weibull Analysis is foremost among these new tools. New and advanced Weibull techniques are a significant improvement over the original Weibull approach. This workshop, originally developed by Dr. Bob Abernethy, presents special methods developed for these data problems, such as Weibayes, with actual case studies in addition to the latest techniques in SuperSMITH® Weibull for risk forecasts with renewal and optimal component replacement.
Technical Paper

Wear Generation in Hydraulic Pumps

1990-09-01
901679
This paper is concerned with the synergistic effects of pump wear modes. The objective is to investigate the wear produced by cavitation, adhesion, abrasion, and corrosion and to verify a proposed model of the synergistic pump wear process. The approach followed includes identification of the combined effects of different wear modes (synergisms) in a pump and the development of a synergistic wear model that includes pump operating and environmental conditions as trigger factors of wear modes. An experimental program was designed to evaluate the cavitation, adhesion, and corrosion wear effects in conjunction with the abrasive wear produced in a pump by measuring wear debris, particle size and gravimetric levels of fluid. The generation of wear was traced to different pump locations. The results obtained here suggest that improved pump design and longer pump service life can be obtained when synergisms between failure modes are properly understood.
Technical Paper

Ways to Meet Future Emission Regulations for Agricultural Tractor Engines

2001-01-10
2001-26-0007
After a review of current and future emission legislation for non-road engines (India, Europe, USA), the various options available to reduce the emissions of diesel tractor engines are discussed. Special emphasis is put on naturally aspirated engines in the 37 - 50 kW power range. AVL has recently designed and developed several naturally aspirated heavy-duty diesel tractor engines to comply with current exhaust emissions standards for the Indian domestic and the US markets (EPA Tier 2). In doing so, different levels of technologies were applied. Their impact on mean effective pressure, specific fuel consumption and emissions will be shown. The future non-road engine exhaust emissions legislation in different markets will be addressed (India, Europe and USA). Compliance with the new emission standards will require the introduction of more advanced technology.
Journal Article

Waste Heat Recovery: The Next Challenge for Commercial Vehicle Thermomanagement

2012-04-16
2012-01-1205
A significant driver for the development of future commercial vehicles is likely to be the introduction of fuel consumption related legislation in various regions around the world. The application of a waste heat recovery system to the powertrain of such vehicles is seen as a possible step, amongst many, to help them achieve the required fuel economy. In particular, the Rankine Cycle (a closed steam cycle) is often proposed as a potential means for deriving work from the engine exhaust heat. Rankine Cycle systems are already in use in off-highway applications, such as stationary engines or marine power-packs. However, the technical and commercial viability of these systems for on-highway, principally long haul truck application is as yet unproven. Aspects such as the in-use economy benefits, the system performance density, the component robustness and all interactions with the other vehicle systems have to be evaluated.
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