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Magazine

Tech Briefs: September 2018

2018-09-01
Enhanced SATCOMs for Unmanned Aerial Systems The Bus Too Tough to Die Combating Infrared Threats on the Battlefield Optical Interconnect Design Challenges in Space High-Performance Computing for the Next-Generation Combat Vehicle Merging Antenna and Electronics Boosts Energy and Spectrum Efficiency Integrated Magneto-Optical Devices for On-Chip Photonic Systems Development of magneto-optical (MO) materials could lead to a range of nonreciprocal optical devices for emerging standardized photonic integrated circuit (PIC) fabrication processes. Low Power Optical Phase Array Using Graphene on Silicon Photonics Electrostatic doping of 2D materials embedded in waveguides could enable ultrafast devices with unprecedented power. Spatial Resolution and Contrast of a Focused Diffractive Plenoptic Camera New technology captures spectral and spatial information of a scene in one snapshot while raising pixel counts and improving image quality.
Magazine

Tech Briefs: June 2018

2018-06-01
Beyond VMEbus - A New Concept Taming the Thermal Behavior of Solid-State Military Lasers Solving the Challenge of Thermal Design in Aerospace Electronics Improving Component Life in Abrasive, Corrosive Aerospace Environments New Pulse Analysis Techniques for Radar and EW Validation of Ubiquitous 2D Radar Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber-Optically Controlled Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed Power Experiments Technological improvements make pulsed-power experiments with gunpowder- or air-driven guns safer. Low-Cost Ground Sensor Network for Intrusion Detection COTS-based system could provide increased level of security with less manpower. In-Network Processing on Low-Cost IoT Nodes for Maritime Surveillance Commercially available system of distributed wireless sensors could increase the Navy's intelligence collection footprint.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: April 2018

2018-04-05
Connectivity takes center stage Telematic links have become the norm, helping fleet owners and operators improve efficiency and letting OEMs predict component failures. More power, less noise, fewer emissions These key attributes drive development of new generators both big and small. TARDEC pursues advanced power generation U.S. Army, GM collaborate on fuel-cell-generated electricity to power the vehicle's propulsion system and onboard electronics, while providing off-vehicle power via an Exportable Power Take-Off unit. Developing an alternative engine concept Ricardo's CryoPower engine leverages two unique combustion techniques for reduced emissions and fuel consumption-liquid nitrogen and split combustion. Long-haul trucking and stationary power generation will be the first beneficiaries of the technologies. Technology time-warp The road to autonomous driving has been under construction for decades, as showcased by SAE's Mobility History Committee at the 2018 WCX in Detroit.
Standard

Reliability, Maintainability, and Sustainability Terms and Definitions

2020-04-21
CURRENT
J3119_202004
A glossary of basic terms and definitions useful for working in reliability, maintainability, and sustainability (RMS). The terms used in most engineering technologies tend to be physical characteristics such as speed, rate of turn, and fuel consumption. While they may require very careful definition and control of the way in which they are measured, the terms themselves are not subject to different interpretations. Reliability, maintainability, and sustainability (RMS), however, use terms that are defined in a variety of ways with multiple interpretations. The variety of definitions given to a single term creates problems when trying to compare the performance of one system to another. To eliminate the confusion, a literature search that listed current and past RMS terms and definitions was conducted. The literature search included input from the U.S. military, UK military, NATO, SAE, IEEE, NASA, ISO, university research, and other publications.
Technical Paper

Methodology and Results of Testing an Impact of F-34 Fuel on the Engine Reliability

2020-09-15
2020-01-2133
An application of the new kind of the fuel for the diesel engine requires to conduct the qualification tests of the engines powered by this his fuel which allow assessing an impact of fuel on the engine reliability. Such a qualification test of the piston and turbine engines of the aircraft stationed on the ground and land vehicles is described in the NATO standardisation agreement (STANAG) 4195 as the AEP-5 test. The methodology and selected results of the qualification tests of the SW-680 turbocharged multi-purpose diesel engine fuelled with F-34 fuel have been presented in this paper. A dynamometric stand with the SW-680 engine has been described. Based on the preliminary results of the investigation it has been found that a change in a type of the fuel from IZ-40 diesel fuel into F-34 kerosene-type one has reduced a maximum engine torque by about 4%. This has been primarily due to a lower fuel density of F-34 by about 3%.
Video

Methodology and Results of Testing an Impact of F-34 Fuel on the Engine Reliability

2020-10-02
An application of the new kind of the fuel for the diesel engine requires to conduct the qualification tests of the engines powered by this his fuel which allow assessing an impact of fuel on the engine reliability. Such a qualification test of the piston and turbine engines of the aircraft stationed on the ground and land vehicles is described in the NATO standardisation agreement (STANAG) 4195 as the AEP-5 test. The methodology and selected results of the qualification tests of the SW-680 turbocharged multi-purpose diesel engine fuelled with F-34 fuel have been presented in this paper. A dynamometric stand with the SW-680 engine has been described. Based on the preliminary results of the investigation it has been found that a change in a type of the fuel from IZ-40 diesel fuel into F-34 kerosene-type one has reduced a maximum engine torque by about 4%. This has been primarily due to a lower fuel density of F-34 by about 3%.
Technical Paper

Influence of the distances between the axles in the vertical dynamics of a military vehicle equipped with magnetorheological dampers

2018-09-03
2018-36-0232
While traveling on any type of ground, the damper of a vehicle has the critical task of attenuating the vibrations generated by its irregularities, to promote safety, stability, and comfort to the occupants. To reach that goal, several passive dampers projects are optimized to embrace a bigger frequency range, but, by its limitations, many studies in semiactive and active dampers stands out by promoting better control of the vehicle dynamics behavior. In the case of military vehicles, which usually have more significant dimensions than the common ones and can run on rough or unpaved lands, the use of semi-active or active dampers reveals itself as a promising alternative. Motivated by that, the present study performs an analysis of the vertical dynamics of a wheeled military vehicle with four axles, using magnetorheological dampers. This study is made using a configuration of the distances between the axles of the vehicle, which is chosen from five available options.
Technical Paper

Future Military APU Requirements

1991-09-01
912176
Future tactical aircraft will have increased capabilities that will place greater demands on their secondary power systems. Added capabilities such as low observability or internal weapons storage are being planned for without significantly increasing the aircraft's size and weight. The power system must therefore have reduced volume, weight, and complexity, while also being more reliable and maintainable. The auxiliary power unit (APU) is a critical component that must be improved to upgrade the capabilities of the power system. Increasing the APU's power density is one important way for reducing the power system's size and weight. Increased power density, however, will require a power unit operating with higher gas generator temperatures, so this condition will be the major challenge for new APU designs.
Training / Education

Fluids for Aerospace Hydraulic Systems

This four-hour short course provides an introduction to fluids for aerospace hydraulic systems. Topics covered include an introduction to basics fluid properties, rheology, tribology, and fluid product development. In addition, the history and performance of different classes of fluids are discussed in detail, and specific failure modes such as erosion and sludge formation will be described. Along with an introduction to fluid degradation, information on used oil analysis test methods and interpretation will be provided.
Technical Paper

Design of a Cover Plate Cum Powerpack Loading Platform for Armoured Engineering Vehicles

2020-09-25
2020-28-0356
Armoured engineering vehicles are a class of vehicles that cater to the engineering needs such as repair, recovery, technical maintenance, clearing obstacles etc. in field conditions for Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) during times of combat. In addition to the above needs, such vehicles are also supposed to carry sufficient spares including a spare powerpack that includes an engine cum transmission for MBTs as a piggyback during field replacement. Such requirements entail challenges in the design as locating such a powerpack on the vehicle impose additional structural strengthening and stability concerns during both static and dynamic conditions without obviating the need to carry vehicle spares and weight constraints. This paper tries to address these design challenges through a case study, wherein a cover plate that is supposed to seal the powerpack compartment from dust and water ingress is converted to a cover plate cum loading platform.
Standard

Coolant Hose - Normal Service Type Convoluted, Wire Support Hose (Supplement to SAE J20 for Government Use Replacing Part of MS51008)

2018-03-04
CURRENT
J20/2_201803
This SAE Standard provides ordering information for any SAE 20R5 hose type (such as “EC, HT, LT” or combination thereof.) This is a wire-reinforced hose for coolant circulating systems of automotive type engines. This hose consists of a convoluted section with plain ends. The hose shall contain a wire helix or helices in the convoluted section. It is a supplement for Government use but may be used by others.
Technical Paper

Computing Remaining Fatigue Life Under Incrementally Updated Loading Histories

2018-04-03
2018-01-0623
After manufacture, every military vehicle experiences a unique history of dynamic loads, depending on loads carried, missions completed, etc. Damage accumulates in vehicle structures and components accordingly, leading eventually to failures that can be difficult to anticipate, and to unpredictable consequences for mission objectives. The advent of simulation-based fatigue life prediction tools opens a path to Digital Twin based solutions for tracking damage, and for gaining control over vehicle reliability. An incremental damage updating feature has now been implemented in the Endurica CL fatigue solver with the aim of supporting such applications for elastomer components. The incremental updating feature is demonstrated via the example of a simple transmission mount component. The damage state of the mount is computed as it progresses towards failure under a series of typical loading histories.
Technical Paper

Comparison and Evaluation of Performance, Combustion and Particle Emissions of Diesel and Gasoline in a Military Heavy Duty 720 kW CIDI Engine Applying EGR

2020-09-15
2020-01-2057
Investigating the impact of Gasoline fuel on diesel engine performance and emission is very important for military heavy- duty combat vehicles. Gasoline has great potential as alternative fuel due to rapid depletion of petroleum reserves and stringent emission legislations, under multi fuel strategy program for military heavy- duty combat vehicle. There is a known torque, horsepower and fuel economy penalty associated with the operation of a diesel engine with Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, experimental studies have suggested that Gasoline fuel has the potential for lowering exhaust emissions, especially NOx, CO, CO2, HC and particulate matter as compared to diesel fuel. Recent emission legislations also restrict the total number of nano particles emitted in addition to particulate matter, which has adverse health impact.
Technical Paper

Challenging Power Density Requirements for Future Fighter APUs

1991-09-01
912177
Future fighters will require more compact, lighter weight, small gas turbine auxiliary power units (APUs) capable of faster starting, and operation, up to altitudes of 50,000 ft. The US Air Force is currently supporting an Advanced Components Auxiliary Power Unit (ACAPU) research program to demonstrate the technologies that will be required to accomplish projected secondary power requirements for these advanced fighters. The requirements of the ACAPU Program represent a challenging task requiring significant technical advancements over the current state-of-the-art, prominent among which are: Small high heat release high altitude airbreathing combustors. High temperature monolithic ceramic and metallic small turbines. Capability to operate, and transition from non-airbreathing to airbreathing modes. This paper discusses these challenging requirements and establishes technology paths to match and exceed the required goals.
Standard

Automotive Gear Lubricants for Commercial and Military Use

2020-07-01
WIP
J2360
The gear lubricants covered by this standard exceed American Petroleum Institute (API) Service Classification API GL-5 and are intended for hypoid-type, automotive gear units, operating under conditions of high-speed/shock load and low speed/high-torque. These lubricants may be appropriate for other gear applications where the position of the shafts relative to each other and the type of gear flank contact involve a large percentage of sliding contact. Such applications typically require extreme pressure (EP) additives to prevent the adhesion and subsequent tearing away of material from the loaded gear flanks. These lubricants are not appropriate for the lubrication of worm gears. Appendix A is a mandatory part of this standard. The information contained in Appendix A is intended for the demonstration of compliance with the requirements of this standard and for listing on the Qualified Products List (QPL) administered by the Lubricant Review Institute (LRI).
Standard

Automotive Gear Lubricants for Commercial and Military Use

2019-01-07
CURRENT
J2360_201901
The gear lubricants covered by this standard exceed American Petroleum Institute (API) Service Classification API GL-5 and are intended for hypoid-type, automotive gear units, operating under conditions of high-speed/shock load and low-speed/high-torque. These lubricants may be appropriate for other gear applications where the position of the shafts relative to each other and the type of gear flank contact involve a large percentage of sliding contact. Such applications typically require extreme pressure (EP) additives to prevent the adhesion and subsequent tearing away of material from the loaded gear flanks. These lubricants are not appropriate for the lubrication of worm gears. Appendix A is a mandatory part of this standard. The information contained in Appendix A is intended for the demonstration of compliance with the requirements of this standard and for listing on the Qualified Products List (QPL) administered by the Lubricant Review Institute (LRI).
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