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Technical Paper

• Oxidation Stability • Shear Stability • Rubber Swell Properties of Automatic Transmission Fluids

A NEW TEST is described for studying the oxidation stability of automatic transmission fluids (ATF). The test shows an excellent correlation with transmission oxidation tests and points out the importance of time as a variable in such studies. Carefully controlled automobile dynamometer tests have been used to study the shear stability of ATF's. Data are presented showing a comparison of driving conditions, transmissions, and V.I. improvers on shear stability. Results are related to the 50-hr Hydra-Matic durability test. The poor reproducibility of rubber swell measurements on commercial transmission seals is due largely to differences in the rubber compounds. A great improvement in the reproducibility may be made by taking into account the specific gravity of the rubber sample.*
Technical Paper

“Wetting” the Appetite of Spark Ignition Engines for Lean Combustion

Single-cylinder spark ignition engine experiments conducted at constant speed, fixed airflow, and using isooctane as the fuel, demonstrated the effects of fuel-air mixture preparation on lean operation. Mixture preparation was changed by varying the time of fuel injection in the induction manifold, near the intake valve port. For comparison, a prevaporized fuel-air mixture was also investigated. Emphasis was placed on determining the effects of mixture preparation on combustion characteristics. Based on the results from this study, the often favored prevaporized mixture of fuel and air may not be the best diet for lean engine operation.
Technical Paper

“Virtual Engine/Powertrain/Vehicle” Simulation Tool Solves Complex Interacting System Issues

An integrated simulation tool has been developed, which is applicable to a wide range of design issues. A key feature introduced for the first time by this new tool is that it is truly a single code, with identical handling of engine, powertrain, vehicle, hydraulics, electrical, thermal and control elements. Further, it contains multiple levels of engine models, so that the user can select the appropriate level for the time scale of the problem (e.g. real-time operation). One possible example of such a combined simulation is the present study of engine block vibration in the mounts. The simulation involved a fully coupled model of performance, thermodynamics and combustion, with the dynamics of the cranktrain, engine block and the driveline. It demonstrated the effect of combustion irregularity on engine shaking in the mounts.
Technical Paper

“Understanding Diesel Engine Lubrication at Low Temperature”

Oil pumpability in passenger car gasoline engines was well-characterized by an ASTM program and by individual researchers in the 1970's and early 1980's. Oil pumpability in diesel engines however, was not investigated to any significant extent until the mid-1980's. This study was initiated to define the performance of several commercial viscosity modifiers in different formulations containing 3 detergent-inhibitor (DI) additive packages and 4 basestock types. The test oils were run at -18°C (0°F) in a Cummins NTC-400 diesel engine. The results, when statistically analyzed, indicated that a new, second generation olefin copolymer (OCP) viscosity modifier had better performance than a first generation OCP and, furthermore, had performance equal to a polymethacrylate (PMA) viscosity modifier. The analysis also showed that one DI/base stock combination had a significant effect on performance.
Technical Paper

“Trapless” Trap – A Catalytic Combustion System of Diesel Particulates Using Ceramic Foam

“Trapless” Trap, which makes possible the effective collecting of particulates in diesel exhaust gas and their simultaneous combustion has been developed by use of a ceramic foam in combination with catalysts containing copper salt. From a TEM photograph, it was observed that the particulate was rapidly oxidized by mobile copper ion, showing worm-eaten like spots. Screening of various base metal salts by TGA presented CUCl2-KCl-NH4VO3 and CuCl2-KCl-(NH4)6Mo7O24 as very active catalysts for diesel particulate oxidation. They had thermal stability up to 900°C when they were supported on titania. The results obtained by measuring the back pressure using 1.8L diesel engine suggest the above trap to be a self-cleaning trapless trap.
Technical Paper

“Transet” Transmission Controller Development System

A program was developed that provides a user friendly interface for developing and testing shift tables in a powershift transmission. This program is Windows based and runs on an IBM compatible P.C. When coupled with a suitable controller, transmission designers have a useful tool for the development of transmission shift timing. The system is designed to be used in an engine test cell or for actual vehicle tests. This allows the vehicle operator to call up and edit shifts on a P.C. screen and then drive the vehicle using the new shifts. This allows the operator to evaluate results of real time shifts immediately.
Technical Paper

“The Turbo-Chief” - San Francisco Fire Department's Gas Turbine Powered Fire Apparatus

For the past four years the San Francisco Fire Department has owned and operated an American La France Triple Combination Engine Company powered with a Boeing Model 502 gas turbine engine. This engine company, in first line fire service, has illustrated the practicability of the gas turbine in vehicular applications. The purpose of this paper is to outline the experience gained by the use of a gas turbine engine in such an installation.
Technical Paper

“The Producers” New Row-Crop Tractors From John Deere

A line of five new row-crop tractors is being introduced by John Deere with innovative features including a 15-speed full power shift transmission, a high capacity, highly-maneuverable full-time mechanical front-wheel drive and micro-processor controlled instrumentation. In addition, the tractors have increased power, improved fuel economy, greater hydraulic power, improved hitch sensing, improved operator controls, lower sound levels, and revised styling. This paper documents the design and development of these new John Deere row-crop tractors.
Technical Paper

“TFC/IW in 1982”

TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia weight is reported with other engineering variables for recent EPA data for industry passenger cars and truck. TFC/IW is used in comparisons between gasoline and diesel engines, 49 States and California, passenger cars and trucks. The California fuel economy penalty due to more stringent emissions standards is discussed. The relationship between TFC/IW and ton miles per gallon is shown. Special attention is focused on 4 cylinder gasoline powered vehicles in 49 States passenger car fleet. The use of TFC/IW to answer the question, ‘What Changed?’ when comparing the fuel economies of two fleets is described.
Technical Paper

“Smart sensing” of Oil Degradation and Oil Level Measurements in Gasoline Engines

Proper lubrication of moving parts is a critical factor in internal combustion engine performance and longevity. Determination of ideal lubricant change intervals is a prerequisite to ensuring maximum engine efficiency and useful life. When oil change intervals are pushed too far, increased engine wear and even engine damage can result. On the other hand, premature oil changes are inconvenient, add to vehicle maintenance cost, and result in wasted natural resources. In order to determine the appropriate oil change interval, we have developed an oil condition sensor that measures the electrical properties of engine oil, and correlates these electrical properties to the physical and chemical properties of oil. This paper provides a brief background discussion of the oil degradation process, followed by a description of the sensor operational principles and the correlation of the sensor output with physical and chemical engine oil properties.
Technical Paper

“Second-Generation” SAE 5W-30 Passenger Car Engine Oils

High performance lubricant additive systems have been developed to formulate SAE 5W-30 passenger car engine oils which meet current and anticipated requirements of the North American original equipment manufacturers. The trend in North America is to recommend SAE 5W-30 oils that not only meet the API SF requirements for gasoline engines (“first-generation” oils), but also meet the stringent API CC requirement for light duty diesel engines (“second-generation” oils). Furthermore, the engine builders have issued “world specifications” for motor oils which incorporate additional “second-generation” SAE 5W-30 characteristics, such as enhanced API SF limits, improved fuel efficiency, an increased margin of bearing protection, and lower finished-oil phosphorus levels. The additive systems described herein exceed API SF and CC requirements as well as “second-generation” performance hurdles.
Technical Paper

“Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure, Temperature, and Loads Related to the Crank Slider Mechanism of I.C. Engines: A Computational Model”

This paper describes the initial works related to the study of Internal Combustion Engines, as an object of mechanical design, at the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. It is reported a concise, complete methodology for simple model of internal combustion engine. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the use of the in-cylinder parameters (pressure and temperature) and inertial loads in the crank-slider mechanism to derive the loads that act on all the components of the crank-slider mechanism as well as the theoretical output torque for a given geometrical structure and inertial properties. These loads can then be used to estimate the preliminary dimensions of engine components in the initial stage of engine development. To obtain the pressure and temperature inside the cylinder, under different operation parameters, such as air fuel ratio and spark angle advance, a Zero dimensional model is applied. The heat transfer from the cylinder and friction are not taken into account.
Technical Paper

“OptiVent” - A New Approach for Controlling Mass Air Flow and Combustion in Direct Injection SI-Engines

Combustion concepts for future SI engines try to meet CO2-emission commitments and legislation all over the world. Where the Diesel engine has an advantage by principle, the efficiency of the SI engine has to be improved significantly, while of course the exhaust emissions must not become worse. An approach is to reduce the gas exchange losses using fully variable valve trains on the intake side of the combustion engine. OptiVent is a patented new way of controlling the mass air flow in the cylinder of a combustion engine using opening valves during the compression phase of a four stroke engine. This technology regards a wider range of variability on the valvetrain components of the engine especially for opening the valves more than one time during a cycle. On the other hand it is necessary to combine this technology with direct injection to avoid fuel losses in the exhaust system and raising the exhaust hydrocarbon emission of the engine.
Technical Paper

“OPERAS” In Advanced Diesel Engines for Commercial and Military Applications

Advanced diesel engines developed for the commercial market need to be adapted to the military requirements by OPERAS (Optimizing the injection pressure P, the Exhaust gas recirculation E, injection events Retard and/or Advance and the swirl ratio S). The different after treatment devices, already used or expected to be applied to diesel engines, require feed gases of appropriate properties for their efficient operation. To produce these gases some OPERAS are needed to control the diesel combustion process. Since military vehicles do not need the after treatment devices, the OPERAS of the commercial engines should be modified to meet the military requirements for high power density, better fuel economy, reduction of parasitic losses caused by the cooled EGR system, and reduction of invisible black and white smoke in the field.
Technical Paper

“Nucleate Boiling Investigations and the Effects of Surface Roughness”

The findings presented in this paper are part of a long term project aimed at raising the science of heat transfer in internal combustion engine cooling galleries. Initial work has been undertaken by the authors and an experimental facility is able to simulate different sizes of coolant passages. External heat is applied and data for the forced convective, nucleate boiling and transition or critical heat flux (CHF) regimes has been obtained. The results highlighted in this paper attempt to quantify the effects of cooling passage surface roughness on the nucleate boiling regime. Tests have been conducted using aluminium test pieces with surface finishes described as smooth, intermediate and as-cast. It has been found that the as-cast surface increases the heat flux density in the nucleate boiling region over that of the smooth and intermediate surfaces.