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Technical Paper

• Oxidation Stability • Shear Stability • Rubber Swell Properties of Automatic Transmission Fluids

1960-01-01
600048
A NEW TEST is described for studying the oxidation stability of automatic transmission fluids (ATF). The test shows an excellent correlation with transmission oxidation tests and points out the importance of time as a variable in such studies. Carefully controlled automobile dynamometer tests have been used to study the shear stability of ATF's. Data are presented showing a comparison of driving conditions, transmissions, and V.I. improvers on shear stability. Results are related to the 50-hr Hydra-Matic durability test. The poor reproducibility of rubber swell measurements on commercial transmission seals is due largely to differences in the rubber compounds. A great improvement in the reproducibility may be made by taking into account the specific gravity of the rubber sample.*
Technical Paper

“Transet” Transmission Controller Development System

1996-08-01
961765
A program was developed that provides a user friendly interface for developing and testing shift tables in a powershift transmission. This program is Windows based and runs on an IBM compatible P.C. When coupled with a suitable controller, transmission designers have a useful tool for the development of transmission shift timing. The system is designed to be used in an engine test cell or for actual vehicle tests. This allows the vehicle operator to call up and edit shifts on a P.C. screen and then drive the vehicle using the new shifts. This allows the operator to evaluate results of real time shifts immediately.
Technical Paper

“The Producers” New Row-Crop Tractors From John Deere

1982-02-01
821062
A line of five new row-crop tractors is being introduced by John Deere with innovative features including a 15-speed full power shift transmission, a high capacity, highly-maneuverable full-time mechanical front-wheel drive and micro-processor controlled instrumentation. In addition, the tractors have increased power, improved fuel economy, greater hydraulic power, improved hitch sensing, improved operator controls, lower sound levels, and revised styling. This paper documents the design and development of these new John Deere row-crop tractors.
Technical Paper

“The Network Vehicle - A Glimpse into the Future of Mobile Multi-Media”

1998-11-09
982901
The Network Vehicle is the Delphi Automotive Systems' vision for the future convergence of the communications infrastructure, computers, and the automobile. It features many advanced functions such as: satellite video, Internet access, virtual navigation, remote vehicle diagnostics and control, games, mobile office, automotive web site, and customized real-time stock quotes and sports scores. These features are enabled by an integrated planar antenna that is capable of multiple satellite reception, a client-server network architecture, and unique human-vehicle-interfaces. The software application is written in Java, using API's (Application Programming Interfaces) to reduce the complexity and cost of the source code.
Technical Paper

“Second-Generation” SAE 5W-30 Passenger Car Engine Oils

1986-10-01
861515
High performance lubricant additive systems have been developed to formulate SAE 5W-30 passenger car engine oils which meet current and anticipated requirements of the North American original equipment manufacturers. The trend in North America is to recommend SAE 5W-30 oils that not only meet the API SF requirements for gasoline engines (“first-generation” oils), but also meet the stringent API CC requirement for light duty diesel engines (“second-generation” oils). Furthermore, the engine builders have issued “world specifications” for motor oils which incorporate additional “second-generation” SAE 5W-30 characteristics, such as enhanced API SF limits, improved fuel efficiency, an increased margin of bearing protection, and lower finished-oil phosphorus levels. The additive systems described herein exceed API SF and CC requirements as well as “second-generation” performance hurdles.
Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

2014-04-01
2014-01-0924
This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper

“POSSIBILITIES IN THE FIELD OF DRY LUBRICANTS”

1958-01-01
580278
Research information on solid lubricants has been compiled for consideration in the possible use of such materials in aircraft electrical equipment. Solid lubricants are capable of lubricating at the maximum temperatures (600° F) for aircraft electrical equipment. Many solids that adhere well to metals may be useful lubricants; those with layer-lattice structure usually give low friction. Solid lubricants are most commonly used as bonded films but the use of fluid carriers and surface reaction products have considerable merit.
Technical Paper

“GoldDrive”-Infinite Variable Drive Consisting of Fixed Displacement Pumps & Motors

2000-09-11
2000-01-2544
1 “GoldDrive” is an infinite variable, bi-directional drive consisting of hydraulic fixed displacement pumps and motors. As a matter of fact “GoldDrive” is the hydraulic equivalent of the mechanical differential. The idea behind the development of “GoldDrive” is to overcome the limitation of starting torque. According to the traditional equation, torque is equal to power over speed and as a result, we need an infinite amount of torque to start a load at zero output speed. The solution is Slippage, slippage of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic transmissions. “GoldDrive” enables us to achieve maximum efficiency and starting torque at zero output speed without slippage.
Technical Paper

“Condensation – Why it Needs to be Addressed in Every Aircraft”

2003-09-08
2003-01-3000
A wide body aircraft carries almost a half–ton of water and ice between the cabin and skin of the aircraft. The water can get on wires and connectors, which can cause electrical problems, cause corrosion and rust, and, eventually, “rain in the plane”. The speaker is the CEO of CTT Systems that has developed a system that solves the condensation by using dry air. The speaker will discuss how condensation can be prevented and how airlines can also save maintenance costs in the process. This topic is relevant for the attendees at the Aerospace Expo, as they are decision makers who need to be aware of this issue. It is also important for the MRO shows as the attendees are on the front lines of dealing with this problem.
Technical Paper

“CDaero” - A Parametric Aerodynamic Drag Prediction Tool

1998-02-23
980398
The objective of the development of the aerodynamic drag predictive tool CDaero was for use as a module for the Automobile Design Support System (AutoDSS). CDaero is an empirically based drag coefficient predictive tool based initially on the MIRA (Motor Industry Research Association) algorithm. The development philosophy was to be able to predict the aerodynamic drag coefficient of an automobile with knowledge of the features of the surface geometry control curves. These are the curves that control the 3-dimensional geometry as seen in the profile, plan and front and rear views. CDaero has been developed in a computing environment using the equation solver TKSolver™. Fifty-one input feature values are first determined from the automobile geometry and then entered into the program. CDaero models the drag coefficient with thirteen different components covering the basic body, as well as additional components such as the wheels, mud flaps, etc.
Technical Paper

the effects of … Machine and Foundation Resilience and of Wave Propagation on the Isolation Provided by Vibration Mounts

1958-01-01
580054
THE effects on the transmission of vibration through isolation mounts of machine and foundation resilience, and of wave propagation are investigated. The prediction of the effectiveness of mounts is discussed, and curves are presented for estimating their effectiveness under certain conditions. A number of conclusions are drawn relevant to the problems of mount design and selection.
Technical Paper

eNOTIFY: Definition of a Methodology and Tools for Automatic Identification and Notification of Road Accidents

2012-04-16
2012-01-1178
Worldwide, 1.2 million people die in road crashes yearly; 43,000 in Europe alone. This implies a cost to European society of approximately 160 billion euros, and takes up 10% of all healthcare resources. To reduce these rates, safety technologies have been developed which help to minimize the severity of injuries to vehicle occupants. However, studies have shown that most deaths due to road accidents occur in the time between the accident and the arrival of medical care. Therefore, a fast and efficient rescue operation would significantly increase the injured person's probability of survival. The aim of this project was to define the On-Board Unit (OBU) hardware and software installed in all modern vehicles which could request medical and technical support after a road accident. This device, based on the information from the vehicle sensors, automatically decides whether the car has suffered a road accident or not, the severity of the accident and the kind of accident (impact area).
Technical Paper

eFlite Dedicated Hybrid Transmission for Chrysler Pacifica

2018-04-03
2018-01-0396
Electrified powertrains will play a growing role in meeting global fuel consumption and CO2 requirements. In support of this, FCA US has developed its first dedicated hybrid transmission (the eFlite® transmission), used in the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid. The Chrysler Pacifica is the industry’s first electrified minivan. [2] The new eFlite hybrid transmission architecture optimizes performance, fuel economy, mass, packaging and NVH. The transmission is an electrically variable FWD transaxle with an input split configuration and incorporates two electric motors, both capable of driving in EV mode. The lubrication and cooling system makes use of two pumps, one electrically operated and one mechanically driven. The Chrysler Pacifica has a 16kWh lithium ion battery and a 3.6-liter Pentastar® engine which offers total system power of 260 hp with 84 MPGe, 33 miles of all electric range and 566 miles total driving range. [2] This paper’s focus is on the eFlite transmission.
Technical Paper

e-Thermal: A Vehicle-Level HVAC/PTC Simulation Tool

2004-03-08
2004-01-1510
This paper describes a vehicle-level simulation model for climate control and powertrain cooling developed and currently utilized at GM. The tool was developed in response to GM's need to speed vehicle development for HVAC and powertrain cooling to meet world-class program execution timing (18 to 24 month vehicle development cycles). At the same time the simulation tool had to complement GM's strategy to move additional engineering responsibility to its HVAC suppliers. This simulation tool called “e-Thermal” was quickly developed and currently is in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper describes GM's objectives and requirements for developing e-Thermal. The structure of the tool and the capabilities of the simulation tool modules (refrigeration, front end airflow, passenger compartment, engine, transmission, Interior air handling …) is introduced. Model data requirements and GM's strategy for acquiring component data are also described.
Technical Paper

design procedure forVIBRATION ISOLATION on Nonrigid Supporting Structures

1960-01-01
600037
PAPER DESCRIBES a procedure for the dynamical design of linear vibration isolators to protect a rigid equipment from the sinusoidal motions of a nonrigid supporting structure. A single degree of translational freedom of the equipment is assumed. Three types of data are required: (1) The equipment mass and its so-called fragility curve, (2) the mechanical admittance of the supporting structure and its amplitude of vibration when it supports no load, and (3) information to establish a minimum stiffness of the isolators. The procedure yields a region of permissible natural frequency and fraction of critical damping combinations for the isolator-mass system. The specification for the isolator dynamical requirements, including allowable tolerances, is derived from this region.*
Technical Paper

Zoonoses and Enclosed Environments

1991-07-01
911513
The likelihood of transmission of potential disease agents between animals and man during spaceflight is a real concern. Development of disease exclusion lists for animals and refinement of animal containment units have been the principal means of providing protection to the crew members. Awareness of potential latent infections and a judicious use of the higher risk category of animals such as wild-caught nonhuman primates provides another level of protection. Use of high efficiency filters, gasketing, and differential air pressures have all enabled increasing levels of safety through containment of potential aerosol escape from animal habitats.
Technical Paper

Zeroshift. A Seamless Automated Manual Transmission (AMT)With No Torque Interrupt

2007-04-16
2007-01-1307
Zeroshift technology allows a manual transmission to change gear in zero time. The Zeroshift automated manual transmission (AMT) is easy to manufacture and allows a cost effective alternative to the traditional torque converter based automatic transmission. Zeroshift offers potential fuel economy improvements from driveline efficiency and the best possible vehicle acceleration. Compared to an existing AMT, Zeroshift offers an uninterrupted torque path from the engine to vehicle which allows for a seamless gearshift. This paper provides an introduction to the technology together with test data from a demonstrator vehicle.
Technical Paper

Zeroshift Automated Manual Transmission (AMT)

2007-01-17
2007-26-061
Zeroshift technology allows a manual transmission to change gear in zero seconds. The Zeroshift Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) is easy to manufacture and allows a cost effective alternative to the traditional torque converter based automatic transmission. Zeroshift offers potential fuel economy improvements from driveline efficiency and the best possible vehicle acceleration. Compared to an existing AMT, Zeroshift offers an uninterrupted torque path from the engine to vehicle which allows for a seamless gearshift. This seminal paper provides an introduction to the technology together with test data from a demonstrator vehicle.
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