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Technical Paper

• Oxidation Stability • Shear Stability • Rubber Swell Properties of Automatic Transmission Fluids

1960-01-01
600048
A NEW TEST is described for studying the oxidation stability of automatic transmission fluids (ATF). The test shows an excellent correlation with transmission oxidation tests and points out the importance of time as a variable in such studies. Carefully controlled automobile dynamometer tests have been used to study the shear stability of ATF's. Data are presented showing a comparison of driving conditions, transmissions, and V.I. improvers on shear stability. Results are related to the 50-hr Hydra-Matic durability test. The poor reproducibility of rubber swell measurements on commercial transmission seals is due largely to differences in the rubber compounds. A great improvement in the reproducibility may be made by taking into account the specific gravity of the rubber sample.*
Technical Paper

“Transet” Transmission Controller Development System

1996-08-01
961765
A program was developed that provides a user friendly interface for developing and testing shift tables in a powershift transmission. This program is Windows based and runs on an IBM compatible P.C. When coupled with a suitable controller, transmission designers have a useful tool for the development of transmission shift timing. The system is designed to be used in an engine test cell or for actual vehicle tests. This allows the vehicle operator to call up and edit shifts on a P.C. screen and then drive the vehicle using the new shifts. This allows the operator to evaluate results of real time shifts immediately.
Technical Paper

“The Producers” New Row-Crop Tractors From John Deere

1982-02-01
821062
A line of five new row-crop tractors is being introduced by John Deere with innovative features including a 15-speed full power shift transmission, a high capacity, highly-maneuverable full-time mechanical front-wheel drive and micro-processor controlled instrumentation. In addition, the tractors have increased power, improved fuel economy, greater hydraulic power, improved hitch sensing, improved operator controls, lower sound levels, and revised styling. This paper documents the design and development of these new John Deere row-crop tractors.
Journal Article

“Sticky” Lining – the Phenomena, Mechanism and Prevention

2008-04-14
2008-01-0819
An unique bonding mechanism was studied after several instances, where the linings stuck to the brake drums on transit buses, were reported. Evidences suggested that the linings were “glued” to the brake drums surface after wear debris (dust) was turned into “adhesive paste” through complicated thermal and chemical changes. Factors such as the friction materials, environment and service conditions, which could activate and deactivate the lining bonding, were observed and discussed. The prevention measures are proposed.
Technical Paper

“Spacematic” Monitoring System

1998-09-15
982138
Pneumatic, manually operated, drilling machines are used to produce a significant proportion of all holes drilled during wing manufacture. Drilling machine design and the manual drilling process has not changed significantly in decades. By employing miniature, low power, electronics and interfacing techniques, a monitoring system has been developed. This system enables improved process control of the manual drilling operation. Machine calibration management, measurement of drill performance, jig drilling error control and asset management are some of the benefits attainable. This project will hopefully encourage others to discover the potential for improving historically established processes, by employing modern technological developments.
Technical Paper

“Smart sensing” of Oil Degradation and Oil Level Measurements in Gasoline Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1366
Proper lubrication of moving parts is a critical factor in internal combustion engine performance and longevity. Determination of ideal lubricant change intervals is a prerequisite to ensuring maximum engine efficiency and useful life. When oil change intervals are pushed too far, increased engine wear and even engine damage can result. On the other hand, premature oil changes are inconvenient, add to vehicle maintenance cost, and result in wasted natural resources. In order to determine the appropriate oil change interval, we have developed an oil condition sensor that measures the electrical properties of engine oil, and correlates these electrical properties to the physical and chemical properties of oil. This paper provides a brief background discussion of the oil degradation process, followed by a description of the sensor operational principles and the correlation of the sensor output with physical and chemical engine oil properties.
Technical Paper

“Seizure-Delay” Method for Determining the Seizure Protection of EP Lubricants

1939-01-01
390146
IT does not yet seem to be recognized fully that it is the local temperature at the surface of contact and not the local specific pressure that chiefly determines the occurrence of seizure under extreme-pressure-lubrication conditions. This local temperature is the result of the temperature level of the parts lubricated, considered as a whole (“bulk” temperature) and of a superimposed instantaneous temperature rise (temperature “flash”) which is localized in the surface of contact. It appears typical for extreme-pressure-lubrication conditions, as met in gear practice, that the temperature flash is much higher than the bulk temperature. With existing conventional test methods for the determination of the protection against seizure afforded by EP lubricants, a considerable rise of the bulk temperature mostly occurs; as it cannot be controlled sufficiently; thus, leaving an unknown margin for the temperature flash, it renders impossible a reliable determination.
Technical Paper

“Rubber Coupling” at a 4×4 Transmition System

2003-11-18
2003-01-3684
There are many different vibration sources in a car. Engine, gears, road roughness, impacts against the wheels cause vibration and sound that can decrease the parts and the car durability as well as affect drivability, safety and passengers and community comfort. In 4×4 cars, some extra vibration sources are the parts responsible for transmitting the torque and power to the rear wheels. Each of them has their own vibration modes, excited mostly by its imbalance or by the second order engine vibration. The engine vibration is a very well known phenomena and the rear driveshaft is designed not to have any vibration mode in the range of frequencies that the engine works or its second order. The imbalance of a driveshaft is also a design requirement. That means, the acceptable imbalance of the driveshaft is limited to a maximum value.
Technical Paper

“RoHS” Compliant Chrome - Free Conversion Coating for Aerospace Manufacturing

2006-09-12
2006-01-3130
This paper presents, chemistry, test data and processing procedures on a non toxic and environmentally friendly chrome-free conversion coating alternative with the same level of adhesion and secondary corrosion resistance as that found in chrome containing conversion coating systems. Test data from military and independent sources will be presented on secondary coating adhesion, electrical conductivity, filiform and neutral salt-spray corrosion resistance as compared to chromate based systems .on magnesium, aluminum and zinc and their respective alloys. The European “RoSH” initiative will not allow for the presence of any hexavalent chromium on imported electrical components as of July first of 2006. Trivalent chromium based systems generate hexavalent chromium due to the oxidation of the trivalent chromium and as such will not be allowed.
Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

2014-04-01
2014-01-0924
This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper

“One-Side Aluminized Steel Sheet” Development and Properties of a New Anti-Corrosion Material

1983-02-01
830519
Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. has developed a new process for the production of a “one-side aluminized steel sheet”. The process utilizes a double layer one-side “stop-off” coating to prevent the molten Al from adhering to the steel surface. The “Stop-off” coating is removed by simple mechanical brushing after hot dipping. The characteristics of this product by above mentioned process are: 1) The steel side was as clean as a conventional cold rolled surface and showed no trace of the “stop-off” layer. Thereby, phosphating and ED painting were performed. 2) In the salt spray test data was obtained from zinc and Al coated steel surfaces; the coatings on both surfaces being of equal thickness.
Technical Paper

“Next Generation” Means for Detecting Squeaks and Rattles in Instrument Panels

1997-05-20
972061
Engineers doing squeak and rattle testing of instrument panels (IP's) have successfully used large electrodynamic vibration systems to identify sources of squeaks and rattles (S&R's). Their successes led to demands to test more IP's, i.e., to increase throughput of IP's to reflect the many design, material, and/or manufacturing process changes that occur, and to do so at any stage of the development, production, or QA process. What is needed is a radically different and portable way to find S&R's in a fraction of the time and at lower capital cost without compromising S&R detection results.
Technical Paper

“Metallic Core Technology”…and the Production of One Piece, Hollow Composite Components Which Have Complex Internal Geometry

1992-02-01
920507
Engineers have long been restricted in designing and manufacturing one piece, hollow composite components with complex internal geometry. Complex core pulls in the plastic tool, major concessions made in the actual component design or components joined from several pieces were the early means of producing such components. Progressive thinking led to the use of matrix materials such as sand, salt and wax, which provided a measure of flexibility in allowing designed-in undercut areas. These materials, however, lacked the capability to meet the required demands of dimensional accuracy and internal surface, as well as proving themselves unsuitable for high volume production. The concerns for repetitive dimensional accuracy, quality internal surface and high volume production capability has now been satisfied with the use of low melting temperature metal alloys.
Technical Paper

“Mechanical Brake Assist - A Potential New Standard Safety Feature”

1999-03-01
1999-01-0480
This paper presents an innovative brake booster which permits the brake assist function of the electric brake assist system to be implemented with mechanical means. The resultant significant reduction of manufacturing costs enhances the chances for a wide-spread use of this feature in all vehicle classes, thereby making an important contribution to the general improvement of traffic safety. Based on an analysis of the mechanically detectable physical variables for recognizing a panic situation and an evaluation of possible methods of mechanical valve activation, the paper presents a mass production solution and describes its functional properties. In particular, it should be noted that the possibility of controlling the braking pressure within the brake assist function even represents a functional advantage
Technical Paper

“In-Car” Fatigue Data Acquisition

1969-02-01
690172
“In-car” measurement of vehicle loads and stresses is a basic step in solving fatigue design problems associated with passenger cars. The application includes measuring systems and techniques for evaluating fatigue design problems related to energy-absorbing steering columns and automotive gas turbines.
Technical Paper

“GoldDrive”-Infinite Variable Drive Consisting of Fixed Displacement Pumps & Motors

2000-09-11
2000-01-2544
1 “GoldDrive” is an infinite variable, bi-directional drive consisting of hydraulic fixed displacement pumps and motors. As a matter of fact “GoldDrive” is the hydraulic equivalent of the mechanical differential. The idea behind the development of “GoldDrive” is to overcome the limitation of starting torque. According to the traditional equation, torque is equal to power over speed and as a result, we need an infinite amount of torque to start a load at zero output speed. The solution is Slippage, slippage of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic transmissions. “GoldDrive” enables us to achieve maximum efficiency and starting torque at zero output speed without slippage.
Technical Paper

“Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing”

1968-02-01
680488
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is both a “language” and a “technique.” Its objective is to facilitate design, production, and inspection and, simultaneously, provide the most economic results. This paper describes the implementation and practice to accomplish these through illustrating methods to state design requirements specifically and clearly and to provide for maximum producibility, uniformity of interpretation, etc. The need to reflect a common objective for design, production, and inspection via the stated drawing requirement is emphasized. Application and interpretation of geometric characteristics (emphasizing symbology), fundamentals, rules, etc. are presented. Basis for the content of this paper is USASI Y14.5-1966 “Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Engineering Drawings.”
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