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Technical Paper

"Quattro"-Drive for Every Day Driving

An essential feature of the Audi Quattro permanent four-wheel drive system is in the inter-axle differential located on the hollow output shaft in the gearbox: the drive is taken from this differential forward to the front differential through the inside of the hollow shaft, and rearward to a propellor shaft driving the rear differential. The major advantages in everyday driving include improved traction and a reduced tendency toward throttle induced changes of attitude. The greater traction allows not only better progress in difficult road conditions; it also gives better acceleration in difficult traffic situations, such as when joining a busy main road. The more easily predictable handling response to throttle changes means that Quattro vehicles have better tracking stability. Altogether, the active safety and "roadability" are considerably improved.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

110 Ton Payload on Two Axles with Hydro-Mechanical Drive

Late developments in tires and in lightweight, high horsepower engines and transmissions have enabled the earthmoving and mining industry equipment manufacturers to design and produce several types of preproduction 100-ton capacity trucks. A straight-forward approach to the design of a 110-ton end dump truck on two axles with a hydro-mechanical drive was followed by KW-Dart Truck Co. to produce a low cost per ton-mile vehicle.
Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

1998/1999 AIAA Foundation Graduate Team Aircraft Design Competition: Super STOL Carrier On-board Delivery Aircraft

The Cardinal is a Super Short Takeoff and Landing (SSTOL) aircraft, which is designed to fulfill the desire for center-city to center-city travel by utilizing river “barges” for short takeoffs and landings to avoid construction of new runways or heliports. In addition, the Cardinal will fulfill the needs of the U.S. Navy for a Carrier On-board Delivery (COD) aircraft to replace the C-2 Greyhound. Design requirements for the Cardinal included a takeoff ground roll of 300 ft, a landing ground roll of 400 ft, cruise at 350 knots with a range of up to 1500 nm with reserves, payload of 24 passengers and baggage for a commercial version or a military version with a 10,000 lb payload, capable of carrying two GE F110 engines for the F-14D, and a spot factor requirement of 60 feet by 29 feet.
Technical Paper

1D Tire Model Parameter Synthesis for Vehicle Handling Targets Assessment “A Strategy of Optimization and Evaluation of Tire Math’s”

Handling performance of a vehicle is a key characteristic determining the response of vehicle under different operating scenarios. An insight into these vehicle-handling characteristics at early stage can be extremely useful in the design and development process. Tire characterization and tuning is important and mandatory to scrutinize each functional and individual parameter of tire. Tire force and moment data is having a significant effect in vehicle handling. Segregation of tire parameter, which is contributing vehicle-handling performance, helps to identify and perform optimization for improvisation. The main objective of this study is development and integration optimized 1D tire model into multibody dynamics model of the vehicle to observe various vehicle compliances towards its handling performance target.
Technical Paper

1st Order Boom Noise Relationship to Driveline Imbalance

Two vehicle level test methods were developed that illustrate the relationship between 1st order noise in a cabin, and driveline imbalance contributors. At the launch of a new 2005 4WD sport utility vehicle program, a significant boom noise complaint was observed on many vehicles between 55-70 mph. The full time, electronic actively controlled, torque biasing transfercase was intensely reviewed as a potential source of excessive torque induced imbalance. Testing of the transfercase was performed on imbalance measurement stands, dynamometers, and in the vehicle. The result was the identification of two issues. First was that two internal to the transfercase parts were found to have excessive runout. Second was that there was a lack of vehicle correlation to transfercase imbalance. An extensive effort involving over 50 vehicles of the same model was pursued to find the source of the problem.
Technical Paper

2000 HP Tractor-Trailer for the 21st Century

This paper presents the conceptual design of a high-power, high-speed tractor-trailer for severe duty applications. Design of the tractor-trailer introduces several new concepts, including the general vehicle architecture, a new electrical transmission system and a new electric tandem axle. The vehicle architecture consists of a low drag cab concept with a fully integrated turbo-generator power source, an exhaust gas electric decontamination system and auxiliaries. The electric transmission introduces a new combination of electrical machines and power electronics designed to perform under maximum load with minimum dimension, weight and price. The electric tandem axle is a new concept of an all-wheel steering independent suspension with virtual electromagnetic differential.
Technical Paper

21 Cubic Yard 580 PAY® Loader

To effectively utilize larger trucks (85 ton and up), open-pit mines and quarries need a larger front-end loader with high reliability and performance. This paper describes the design approach and tests carried out to design 21 cubic yard 580 PAY® loader to meet these requirements. Long fatigue life of structures was obtained by use of full penetration welds. New concept for power control was designed to effectively distribute power between hydraulics and drive train. Spring applied - pressure released brakes were designed into the axle. Tests were carried out in our laboratory and proving grounds to determine performance and reliability.
Technical Paper

3 Wet Technology - A Novel Approach for Greener, Efficient, Smart Practice in Automotive Paint Application

The upcoming latest 3-wet Technology is the most ideal design for a Green field project as well as for a brown field facility which provides the best of both worlds. The foremost take away for a brown field project emanates from this technology which demands a smaller foot prints & hence could accommodates a capacity higher than what was perceived during the green field project planning thus saving millions of dollar of investment & giving that extra capacity which today the BRIC countries are thriving for. Apart from making the ideal investment choice, 3 Wet Technology provides impetus to business case in terms of reduction of VOC emission, Energy consumption, Material and labor cost and gaining on Green Environment front as well as leading to smart and Efficient-Paint-Process. The paper depicts the journey of roll out of 3-Wet process in Ford India and creating the bench mark in terms of product quality and process standards and manufacturing practices.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Analysis Investigating Distribution of Contact Pressures for a Number of Cylindrical Bearing Axial Profiles When Placed Under Radial Load Conditions

Increased torque values passing from engine to transmission have, increasingly become a problem regarding shaft misalignment. Engineers are restricted with regard to applying ISO standards when investigating bearing life cycles as they tend only to cover normal [radial thrust] load conditions. Depending on the application, the need has arisen for numerical models to determine reduction in normal life cycles due to abnormal running conditions. The Simulia Finite Element package Abaqus v6.7 provides trends in the deformations, contact pressures and their respective distribution. It was found the most efficient profile, with regards to a uniform contact pressure, under both radial and misaligned conditions is the toroidal profile.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Study of Effect of Injection Parameters Upon the Uniformity of Ammonia in Urea-SCR

Nowadays, due to the stringent engine emission norms, an efficient technique is required to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from automobiles especially from the lean burn engines. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is found to be an efficient after treatment method used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust. However, for light duty vehicles, because of the limited size of the catalysts, ammonia slip nullifies its advantages. Lack of uniformity of ammonia at the SCR monolith entrance causes ammonia slip. This study addresses the effect of injection parameters, location of injector and shape of injector upon the flow parameters, exhaust gas temperature and flow rate. The results obtained from this study provide useful guidelines for optimizing the injection parameters to avoid the ammonia slip. The evaporation of Urea Water Solution (UWS) is also investigated.
Technical Paper

4 x 4 Highway Tractor Concepts

Two new 4 X 4 drivetrain systems have been developed for highway tractors that are used to pull multiple trailer combinations. The first one is a 4 X 2 that automatically becomes a 4 X 4 when conditions exist that require 4 X 4 operation. The second one is a full-time 4 X 4 that proportions the drive torque 36% to the front axle and 64% to the rear axle. A unique front driving steering axle has also been developed that permits a 4 X 4 system to be installed in a standard 4 X 2 truck. There is no need to relocate any major components to make space available for a front driving steering axle.
Technical Paper

4-DOF Vehicle Ride Model

Ride quality is one of the most important criteria by which people judge the design of a car. At the most basic level, ride isolation properties are investigated using a quarter vehicle model. But the input from road roughness would excite not only bounce motions, but also pitch motions. Understanding the pitch and bounce motions is essential because it is their combination that determines the vertical and longitudinal vibrations at any point on the vehicle [2]. In this paper, a 4-degree-of-freedom (4-DOF) Vehicle Ride Model, which is shown in Figure 1, is used to investigate the effect on the ride quality of the dynamic index in pitch, mass ratio, weight distribution and flat ride tuning. A Lagrange equation is used to derive the equations of motion. A state-space formulation is obtained by using state variables. From these, the characteristic equation, natural frequency and damping ratio are obtained.
Technical Paper

4-Sensor 2-Channel Anti-Lock System for FWD Cars

The possibility of 2 Channel anti-lock system, which controls each of two independent hydraulic circuits of diagonal split braking system of FWD car seperately, were studied. Theoretical investigation suggested two out of four possible control logics to be promising and they were proved to be practically satisfactory through vehicle test. This system is almost as effective as expensive 3-channel or 4-channel system, when the braking force distribution between front and rear axles is correct as required by EEC Braking regulation. Under extreme condition that rear wheels lock earlier than fronts, the compromise between stopping distance and stability is necessary.
Technical Paper

42LE Electronic Four-Speed Automatic Transaxle

A new electronically controlled transaxle has been put into production for Chrysler's family of LH cars. Among the attributes of this new transaxle are its ability to handle engines of high torque and high power coupled with high-speed shifts. Engine torque management is used in specific operating regimes. A feature of the transaxle is electronic modulation of the converter clutch. A number of logic features have been combined with hardware to provide good performance and shift quality over a wide operating range. An output transfer chain and a hypoid gear set are used to provide torque to the front wheels in a longitudinal power train orientation. Obtaining acceptable endurance life of the hypoid gears within an aluminum housing presented a significant challenge. New approaches were required to provide a chain-sprocket system with acceptable noise characteristics.
Technical Paper

4WS Technology and the Prospects for Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics

FOUR-WHEEL STEERING (4WS) is beginning to find widespread use as a new approach to improving vehicle dynamics, especially in the medium and high speed ranges. Steering the rear wheels in the same phase as the front wheels enhances vehicle stability. Four-wheel steering systems have an even greater potential to improve stability and steering response through suitable control over the transient characteristics of the rear wheel steer angle. This paper traces the course of Nissan research and development work on four-wheel steering and the evolution of Nissan's HICAS (4WS) technology. It also describes research activities under way on vehicle dynamics using a newly developed Simulator Vehicle, equipped with a front and rear angle transient control system which makes it possible to vary the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle instantaneously and at will while driving.
Technical Paper

5500 Ton Press - Forming Rear Axle Spindles

A five-year development program by the American Metal Products Co. to process stamped axle housings has culminated in the application of cold extrusion to spindles. The new process involved the installation of a 5500 ton press capable of driving a punch through a 20 lb billet, as well as modification and rearrangement of existing equipment. The system has not only resulted in considerable production savings but has also contributed to an overall expansion program. The company, although fully preoccupied with the basic spindle for production of axle housings, has already investigated other applications of the new equipment toward product diversification.
Journal Article

6 DOF Bench Test on a New Active Kinematics Rear Suspension for Functional Development

To optimize the tyre contact patch in a sports car, Ferrari has developed an active camber and toe (ACT) system comprising of 4 actuators for the rear axle. This complex and completely new system is difficult to model accurately and for this reason, it was decided to combine a physical prototype with a full vehicle model to carry out the functional tests. The method of combining a virtual model with a physical test is known as hybrid simulation. This functional testing of both the actuators and the vehicle dynamics logic will be performed on an MTS 6DOF bench test prior to physical track testing on a prototype vehicle using Ferrari facility in Maranello, Italy. In support of this functional testing, we will use hybrid simulation techniques with software and methods specifically developed. The planned hybrid test system described in the paper will allow dynamic coupling between the physical bench test and a modified full vehicle simulation model.