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Technical Paper

“itron” Vacuum Fluorescent Display Dot Matrix Graphic Display with Characteristics

1980-02-01
800359
In recent years, with the development of information system products, the types of display devices utilized are becoming more sophisticated and complicated. Displays of earlier stages are now being replaced by 5×7 dot type displays which allow the display of functional symbols as well as alphanumerics. The dot type display is being developed into a dot matrix type as a more sophisticated product, in the latest stage. A great feature of the dot matrix type display is that it allows display not only of numerals, the alphabet, and other functional symbols but also of graphic features.
Technical Paper

“Virtual Engine/Powertrain/Vehicle” Simulation Tool Solves Complex Interacting System Issues

2003-03-03
2003-01-0372
An integrated simulation tool has been developed, which is applicable to a wide range of design issues. A key feature introduced for the first time by this new tool is that it is truly a single code, with identical handling of engine, powertrain, vehicle, hydraulics, electrical, thermal and control elements. Further, it contains multiple levels of engine models, so that the user can select the appropriate level for the time scale of the problem (e.g. real-time operation). One possible example of such a combined simulation is the present study of engine block vibration in the mounts. The simulation involved a fully coupled model of performance, thermodynamics and combustion, with the dynamics of the cranktrain, engine block and the driveline. It demonstrated the effect of combustion irregularity on engine shaking in the mounts.
Technical Paper

“Taguchi Customer Loss Function” Based Functional Requirements

2018-04-03
2018-01-0586
Understanding customer expectations is critical to satisfying customers. Holding customer clinics is one approach to set winning targets for the engineering functional measures to drive customer satisfaction. In these clinics, customers are asked to operate and interact with vehicle systems or subsystems such as doors, lift gates, shifters, and seat adjusters, and then rate their experience. From this customer evaluation data, engineers can create customer loss or preference functions. These functions let engineers set appropriate targets by balancing risks and benefits. Statistical methods such as cumulative customer loss function are regularly applied for such analyses. In this paper, a new approach based on the Taguchi method is proposed and developed. It is referred to as Taguchi Customer Loss Function (TCLF).
Technical Paper

“Smart Panel” Electronic Circuit Breaker Control Technology

2008-11-11
2008-01-2880
This paper will discuss using Astronics “Smart Panel” illuminated control panels to control an electronic power distribution system. A discussion of wiring simplification, automatic control possibilities and real time load monitoring is presented. The challenges of retrofitting the system into older aircraft will be covered as well. The paper also explains Electronic Circuit Breaker technology, arc fault protection, panel lighting technologies, control bus options, displays, and human input technology (buttons and knobs).
Technical Paper

“SHIFT-MATE” A Fuel Efficiency Monitor

1985-12-01
852340
The SHIFT-MATE is a dashboard mounted computer based device that cues a truck driver to shift more efficiently. Through electronic circuitry, key vehicle parameters are monitored, computed, then via graphic display, instructs the driver when to shift for improved fuel economy. The theory of operation is described in the text.
Technical Paper

“Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure, Temperature, and Loads Related to the Crank Slider Mechanism of I.C. Engines: A Computational Model”

2003-03-03
2003-01-0728
This paper describes the initial works related to the study of Internal Combustion Engines, as an object of mechanical design, at the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. It is reported a concise, complete methodology for simple model of internal combustion engine. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the use of the in-cylinder parameters (pressure and temperature) and inertial loads in the crank-slider mechanism to derive the loads that act on all the components of the crank-slider mechanism as well as the theoretical output torque for a given geometrical structure and inertial properties. These loads can then be used to estimate the preliminary dimensions of engine components in the initial stage of engine development. To obtain the pressure and temperature inside the cylinder, under different operation parameters, such as air fuel ratio and spark angle advance, a Zero dimensional model is applied. The heat transfer from the cylinder and friction are not taken into account.
Technical Paper

“Nucleate Boiling Investigations and the Effects of Surface Roughness”

1999-03-01
1999-01-0577
The findings presented in this paper are part of a long term project aimed at raising the science of heat transfer in internal combustion engine cooling galleries. Initial work has been undertaken by the authors and an experimental facility is able to simulate different sizes of coolant passages. External heat is applied and data for the forced convective, nucleate boiling and transition or critical heat flux (CHF) regimes has been obtained. The results highlighted in this paper attempt to quantify the effects of cooling passage surface roughness on the nucleate boiling regime. Tests have been conducted using aluminium test pieces with surface finishes described as smooth, intermediate and as-cast. It has been found that the as-cast surface increases the heat flux density in the nucleate boiling region over that of the smooth and intermediate surfaces.
Technical Paper

“Next Generation” Means for Detecting Squeaks and Rattles in Instrument Panels

1997-05-20
972061
Engineers doing squeak and rattle testing of instrument panels (IP's) have successfully used large electrodynamic vibration systems to identify sources of squeaks and rattles (S&R's). Their successes led to demands to test more IP's, i.e., to increase throughput of IP's to reflect the many design, material, and/or manufacturing process changes that occur, and to do so at any stage of the development, production, or QA process. What is needed is a radically different and portable way to find S&R's in a fraction of the time and at lower capital cost without compromising S&R detection results.
Technical Paper

“Multi Vector” Field of View Design Tool

2004-03-08
2004-01-0380
A multi vector design tool to accurately predict instrument panel obscuration was developed to insure that critical legal displays in vehicles are not obscured. The concept provides for a computer generated light source shaped to replicate the human eyes. The light source is then projected onto a 3D math based arrangement and the resultant shadows are visible on the instrument panel surface and its displays. Design studios require criteria for the placement of the instrument cluster gages and displays, various controls, switches, and steering column stalks before an interior theme can be completed. Therefore, instrument panel obscuration and visibility must be determined early in the design process. The obscured areas are a function of the instrument panel surface, steering wheel rim, hub, spokes, and the location of the driver's eyes. This light source method allows engineers and designers the ability to quickly determine obscured areas.
Technical Paper

“Influence of Engine Variables on Exhaust Oxides of Nitrogen Concentrations from a Multi-Cylinder Engine”

1967-02-01
670482
The influence of engine variables on the concentration of oxides of nitrogen present in the exhaust of a multicylinder engine was studied. The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured with either a mass spectrometer or a non-dispersive infrared analyzer. The NO concentration was low for rich operation (deficient in oxygen) and increased with air-fuel ratio to a peak value at ratios slightly leaner than stoichiometric proportions. A further increase in air-fuel ratio resulted in reduced NO concentrations. Advanced spark timing, decreased manifold vacuum, increased coolant temperature and combustion chamber deposit buildup were also found to increase exhaust NO concentration. These results support either directly or indirectly the hypothesis that exhaust NO concentration is primarily a result of the peak combustion gas temperature and the available oxygen.
Technical Paper

“Derivation of Conduction Heat Transfer in Thin Shell Toroids”

2000-07-10
2000-01-2487
This paper presents the derivation of the equations for circumferential, longitudinal and radial heat transfer conductance for a thin shell toroid or a segment of the toroid. A thin shell toroid is one in which the radius to thickness ratio is greater than 10. The equations for the surface area of a toroid or of a toroidal segment will also be derived along with the equation to determine the location of the centroid. The surface area is needed to determine the radial conductance in the toroid or toroidal segment and the centroid is needed to determine the heat transfer center of the toroid or toroidal segment for circumferential and longitudinal conductance. These equations can be used to obtain more accurate results for conductive heat transfer in toroid which is a curved spacecraft components. A comparison will be made (1) using the equations derived in this paper which takes into account the curvature of the toroid (true geometry) and (2) using flat plates to simulate the toroid.
Technical Paper

“Chip on Glass” Technology for Large Scale Automotive Displays

1984-02-01
840148
Large scale automotive displays e.g., liquid crystal displays, require chip on glass technology at least for the driver-ICs. In this paper different IC-packages, metallization, bonding and encapsulation techniques are compared and conclusions for production methods are drawn.
Technical Paper

“Catalytic Engine” NOx Reduction of Diesel Engines with New Concept Onboard Ammonia Synthesis System

1992-02-01
920469
Ammonia is one of the most useful compounds that react with NOx selectively on a catalyst, such as V2O5-TiO2, under oxygen containing exhaust gas. However ammonia cannot be stored because of its toxicity for the small power generator in populated areas or for the diesel vehicles. A new concept for NOx reduction in diesel engine using ammonia is introduced. This system is constructed from the hydrogen generator by fuel reformer, the ammonia synthesizer, SCR catalyst for NOx reduction and the gas injection system of reformed gas into the cylinder. Experimental results show that, the SCR catalyst provides a very high rate of NOx reduction, reformed gas injection into cylinder is very effective for particulate reduction. WHEN CONSIDERING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES of the 1990's the question of how to harmonize the engine with the natural environments is one of the greatest problems. The internal combustion engine changes a substance into energy via its explosive combustion.
Technical Paper

“Buckling” Failure Assessment for Long Cylinders

1976-02-01
760641
A new method for the structural study of long hydraulic cylinders has been developed. The rational analysis, taking cognizance of most known conditions and disturbances, is capable of an iterative type solution by computer. Some examples of its use are given, illustrating the effects of stroke length and mounting position on stresses, deflections, internal bearing loads, and critical axial load.
Technical Paper

‘Issues and Behaviors of Airborne Particulate Matters under Microgravity Environment’

2004-07-19
2004-01-2328
During several ISS missions, there were false alarms at both US and Russian smoke detectors. High local airborne particulate concentrations and interior deposits are considered the causes for such anomalies. Alternatives are proposed to replace or complement these faulty smoke detectors. The entrained zeolite particles may play a role in causing problems with check valves and air save pumps in CDRA and Vozdukh. Another incidence has been the dispersion of particulates out of Metox regeneration oven. Particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter of 15 microns and above, which normally settle down on earth, stay airborne under micro-gravity and thereby cause the above-mentioned nuisances. The motion of such a particle along a gas stream with an initial velocity can be expressed by theoretical equations. Stokes' Law leads to the descriptions of inertial precipitation of aerosols that are important in solving the issues.
Technical Paper

‘Bigelow Aerospace® Life Support Laboratory - Planning and Status’

2004-07-19
2004-01-2474
This Life Support Laboratory consists of a simulator of the spacecraft called Nautilus, which houses Air Revitalization Subsystem, Atmospheric Control and Supply, and Fire Detection and Suppression in the Equipment Area. There are supporting facilities including a Human Metabolic Simulator, simulated Low and Moderate Temperature Coolant Loop, chemical analysis bench, purified water supply, vacuum and gas supplies. These facilities are scheduled to be completed and start to operate for demonstration purposes by March 2005. There are an ARES Ground Model (AGM) and a Trace Contaminant Control Assembly in the ARS. The latter will be integrated with the AGM and a Condensing Heat Exchanger. The unit of AGM is being engineered, built, and will be delivered in early 2005 by EADS Space Division. These assemblies will be operated for sensitivity analysis, integration and optimization studies. The main goal is the achievement for optimal recovery of oxygen.
Technical Paper

the identification and characterization of RUMBLE AND THUD

1960-01-01
600015
SIMULTANEOUS RECORDINGS of cylinder pressure, audible sound, and crankshaft motion have shown that rumble is a noise associated with bending vibrations of the crankshaft. The vibrations are caused by abnormally high rates of pressure rise near the top dead center piston position. In this study the high rates of pressure rise were obtained by inducting deposits into the the engine. Thud is a torsional vibration of the crankshaft, similar in sound to rumble but resulting from much earlier occurrence of the maximum rates of pressure rise. Rumble vibrations consisted of a fundamental frequency of 600 cps and higher harmonics in the 11/1 compression ratio V-8 laboratory engine used in the investigation. The audible noise of rumble was predominantly composed of the second harmonic or about 1200 cps.
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