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Journal Article

ℒ1 Adaptive Flutter Suppression Control Strategy for Highly Flexible Structure

2013-09-17
2013-01-2263
The aim of this work is to apply an innovative adaptive ℒ1 techniques to control flutter phenomena affecting highly flexible wings and to evaluate the efficiency of this control algorithm and architecture by performing the following tasks: i) adaptation and analysis of an existing simplified nonlinear plunging/pitching 2D aeroelastic model accounting for structural nonlinearities and a quasi-steady aerodynamics capable of describing flutter and post-flutter limit cycle oscillations, ii) implement the ℒ1 adaptive control on the developed aeroelastic system to perform initial control testing and evaluate the sensitivity to system parameters, and iii) perform model validation and calibration by comparing the performance of the proposed control strategy with an adaptive back-stepping algorithm. The effectiveness and robustness of the ℒ1 adaptive control in flutter and post-flutter suppression is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

“Transet” Transmission Controller Development System

1996-08-01
961765
A program was developed that provides a user friendly interface for developing and testing shift tables in a powershift transmission. This program is Windows based and runs on an IBM compatible P.C. When coupled with a suitable controller, transmission designers have a useful tool for the development of transmission shift timing. The system is designed to be used in an engine test cell or for actual vehicle tests. This allows the vehicle operator to call up and edit shifts on a P.C. screen and then drive the vehicle using the new shifts. This allows the operator to evaluate results of real time shifts immediately.
Technical Paper

“Taguchi Customer Loss Function” Based Functional Requirements

2018-04-03
2018-01-0586
Understanding customer expectations is critical to satisfying customers. Holding customer clinics is one approach to set winning targets for the engineering functional measures to drive customer satisfaction. In these clinics, customers are asked to operate and interact with vehicle systems or subsystems such as doors, lift gates, shifters, and seat adjusters, and then rate their experience. From this customer evaluation data, engineers can create customer loss or preference functions. These functions let engineers set appropriate targets by balancing risks and benefits. Statistical methods such as cumulative customer loss function are regularly applied for such analyses. In this paper, a new approach based on the Taguchi method is proposed and developed. It is referred to as Taguchi Customer Loss Function (TCLF).
Technical Paper

“Spacematic” Monitoring System

1998-09-15
982138
Pneumatic, manually operated, drilling machines are used to produce a significant proportion of all holes drilled during wing manufacture. Drilling machine design and the manual drilling process has not changed significantly in decades. By employing miniature, low power, electronics and interfacing techniques, a monitoring system has been developed. This system enables improved process control of the manual drilling operation. Machine calibration management, measurement of drill performance, jig drilling error control and asset management are some of the benefits attainable. This project will hopefully encourage others to discover the potential for improving historically established processes, by employing modern technological developments.
Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

2014-04-01
2014-01-0924
This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper

“Polaroid”

1937-01-01
370124
THE perfect, hypothetical headlight is visualized, and a set of standards formulated that makes night driving as safe as day driving, with the illumination invisible to approaching cars. Theory of glare elimination with polarized light is presented. The nature of “Polaroid” and how it solves the problem is pointed out. The new engineering and lighting problems, which the use of this material involves, are discussed. Examples of the use of the new control of light for industry are related.
Technical Paper

“Phoenix”- A Polyester-Film Inflatable Man-Powered Aircraft

1984-02-01
840028
This paper describes some of the design solutions adopted in solving two major problems besetting man-powered aircraft in use: that of breakage and storage. It describes work leading up to the building and testing of “Phoenix”, a man-powered aircraft with a polyester-film inflatable wing. The paper deals mainly with aspects relating to the wing design and construction.
Technical Paper

“Optimization” of Lower Deck Cargo Systems

1988-05-01
880973
The ability to carry cargo efficiently in passenger aircraft has influenced airline economics to the point that optimisation of the freight capacity is mandatory. This document discusses the alternative loading possibilities in defined Lover Deck Compartments and their doors to cater for current and future trends in ULD dimensions. As a result items for study centred on: 1) Optimisation of the available volumes Freight capacity resulting in the selection of “Pallets”-doors for both the Forward and AFT Compartments. Flexibility to meet Freight and Baggage requirements. Possible load arrangements to optimize aircraft C of G 2) Bulk Cargo Compartment Additional LD3 Container position in AFT/Bulk compartment to cater for an uneven number of Baggage container, allowing the carriage of an additional pallet. What is regarded as an optimum is presented.
Technical Paper

“Multi Vector” Field of View Design Tool

2004-03-08
2004-01-0380
A multi vector design tool to accurately predict instrument panel obscuration was developed to insure that critical legal displays in vehicles are not obscured. The concept provides for a computer generated light source shaped to replicate the human eyes. The light source is then projected onto a 3D math based arrangement and the resultant shadows are visible on the instrument panel surface and its displays. Design studios require criteria for the placement of the instrument cluster gages and displays, various controls, switches, and steering column stalks before an interior theme can be completed. Therefore, instrument panel obscuration and visibility must be determined early in the design process. The obscured areas are a function of the instrument panel surface, steering wheel rim, hub, spokes, and the location of the driver's eyes. This light source method allows engineers and designers the ability to quickly determine obscured areas.
Technical Paper

“Melmoth”-An Experimental Private Aircraft

1975-02-01
750546
“Melmoth,” an amateur-designed and built light airplane, has a number of features unusual in general aviation aircraft, aiming to combine comfort, high cruising speed, aerobatic capability and transoceanic range in a single compact machine. Among these are high wing loading, large internal fuel capacity, variable aileron incidence, double-slotted Fowler flap, automatic fuel tank switching, internal cowl flaps, and an all-flying T-tail.
Technical Paper

“Converticar” - The Roadable Helicopter

1998-09-28
985513
The Boeing Company in Mesa, Arizona, has been conducting a concept design study of a roadable helicopter called the “Converticar” to assess its feasibility. This is a twin-engine vehicle with twin retractable coaxial counter-rotating rotors. The purpose of the study is to describe a vehicle that carries four passengers in the equivalent of a luxury car that also can fly like a helicopter, and can be priced like a luxury car. To come near this cost goal, the production rate must be on the order of 500,000 units a year. At that rate there is no chance of training a comparable number of pilots each year. So the machine must fly and navigate autonomously, with the pilot just dialing in where he/she wants to go. Technologically, the concept appears to be feasible. Modern design processes, new materials, and improved manufacturing process should allow the Converticar to be built at the prescribed rate when the proper infrastructure for manufacturing it is made available.
Technical Paper

“Clear Vision” Automatic Windshield Defogging System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1373
The present paper describes the system design for the Clear Vision auto defog system and the improvements made to the Integrated Dew Point and Glass Temperature (IDGT) sensor. The Clear Vision auto defog system has been implemented on a 2000 Cadillac DeVille. Preliminary validation tests demonstrate satisfactory performance.
Technical Paper

“CDaero” - A Parametric Aerodynamic Drag Prediction Tool

1998-02-23
980398
The objective of the development of the aerodynamic drag predictive tool CDaero was for use as a module for the Automobile Design Support System (AutoDSS). CDaero is an empirically based drag coefficient predictive tool based initially on the MIRA (Motor Industry Research Association) algorithm. The development philosophy was to be able to predict the aerodynamic drag coefficient of an automobile with knowledge of the features of the surface geometry control curves. These are the curves that control the 3-dimensional geometry as seen in the profile, plan and front and rear views. CDaero has been developed in a computing environment using the equation solver TKSolver™. Fifty-one input feature values are first determined from the automobile geometry and then entered into the program. CDaero models the drag coefficient with thirteen different components covering the basic body, as well as additional components such as the wheels, mud flaps, etc.
Technical Paper

“A Dry Aircraft is a Safer Aircraft – Beating Condensation by Using Dry Air”

2003-09-08
2003-01-3017
The airline industry seems to be providing more leisure features on planes like inflight entertainment, Internet access and Digital TV, but it seems the airline industry has ignored the issue of excess condensation on aircraft, which had plagued carriers since the birth of the airline industry. How safe are passengers when a wide body aircraft carries in excess almost a half ton of water and ice between the cabin and skin of the aircraft? Besides the added weight straining the aircraft, excess condensation soaks wires and connectors which can cause electrical shorts. There have been instances of emergency doors frozen shut, locked by ice stemming from excess water dripping inside the plane. Extra water also causes “rain-in-the-plane”, an issue that has gained national attention and causes passenger discomfort. It's time for the industry to address what has become a serious issue.
Technical Paper

μAFS High Resolution ADB/AFS Solution

2016-04-05
2016-01-1410
A cooperation of several research partners supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education proposes a new active matrix LED light source. A multi pixel flip chip LED array is directly mounted to an active driver IC. A total of 1024 pixel can be individually addressed through a serial data bus. Several of these units are integrated in a prototype headlamp to enable advanced light distribution patterns in an evaluation vehicle.
Technical Paper

the development of Refractory Sheet Metal Structures

1960-01-01
600041
THIS PAPER REPORTS on the present state of the art in the utilization of refractory metals for air frame and powerplant sheet metal components. By far the most promising of these metals to date is molybdenum. The mechanical and physical properties of molybdenum are well-suited for high-temperature service. The combination of relatively high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion coefficient, good specific heat, and a reasonably high emissivity of a coated surface make this material suitable for exterior surface application on severely aerodynamically heated components. However, in its usable alloyed forms, molybdenum tends to behave in a brittle manner at room temperature, suffering from a high brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. Other unacceptable properties are the presence of laminations in the material, 45-deg preferred angle cracking, and difficulty of controlling interstitial alloying elements. The authors discuss each of these and the progress made in overcoming them
Technical Paper

some thoughts on optimum combinations of Wings and Vertical Thrust Generators in VTOL Aircraft

1959-01-01
590040
THIS PAPER reviews VTOL problems, indicating probable ways toward optimization of whole lifting and propelling system. Also discussed are the power and thrust requirements for optimum cruise and vertical take-offs and landings for propeller-driven and jet-propelled aircraft. Three speed ranges offer the most promise for VTOL aircraft, if thrust requirements for cruise and take-off are to match. The ranges are centered around Mach numbers of 0.65, 0.8, and 2.0+. There is a possibility of overcoming the high thrust needed for hovering by use of bypass augmentation, special hovering jets, or favorable ground effects, the author reports.
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