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Technical Paper

“Walking on Automotive Waste? - Plastic Recycling Opportunities for Waste Automotive Materials in the Footwear Industry Sector”

1998-02-23
981162
This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using Automotive waste plastic material from “end of life” vehicles (ELVs), in the Footwear Industry to manufacture shoe components. The study establishes the sustainability of the flow of ELVs, from the European Car Parc and identifies and estimates the quantity of plastic materials potentially available for recycling from ELVs. Four potential materials, Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), Polypropylene (PP), Polypropylene/ethylene/propylene/diene (PP/EPDM) and Polyamide (PA), were identified and three materials (PP, PP/EPDM and ABS) were reprocessed from ELV components and evaluated by the Footwear Industry. As a result, ABS was recommended as an economically, suitable replacement for HIPS, the current material used for manufacturing shoe heel components.
Technical Paper

“The Creation, Development and Implementation of a Lean Systems Course at Oakland University, Rochester, MI”

2005-04-11
2005-01-1798
Countless articles and publications3,4,5 have documented and proven the efficacy, benefits and value of operating within a lean system. Furthermore, there exists common agreement amongst leading organizations successfully implementing a lean system that in order to do so it must take into consideration the entire enterprise, that is, from supplier to customer and everything in between6. One of the core issues this paper addresses is when the optimal time is to train and educate the people who currently have, or will have, influence over the ‘enterprise’.
Technical Paper

“SODART” Telescope Silicon Detector Cooling System (Thermal Test Results of the Scale-Down Model)

1992-07-01
921365
The onboard “SODART” telescope silicon detector cooling system of the “Spectrum-X-Gamma” observatory, which is designed for the space objects X-ray radiation study, is described. The scale-down model of the passive cooling system description and thermal vacuum test results of this model are given. In the real cooling system the minimal detector temperature at 300 mW heat release is expected about 107 K.
Technical Paper

“Personal Integrity” and Man-Machine Integration

1982-02-01
821348
A sense of “personal integrity” blocks pilot use of new information about how he thinks. Research on human performance under stress done over the past fifty years indicates increased rigidity and regression to earlier learned behavior in high stress, and in low Stress a shift in attention to any domestic situation or on the job controversy which is of higher stress than that of the job at hand, all without the pilot's knowledge. Informal surveys of commercial pilot training and commercial pilot attitudes towards these studies indicate that the study findings directly confront learned cultural responses. Pilot and trainer reactions prevent the information from being adequately investigated or formally taught. The findings are not written into training manuals and pilots who are informally given the information do not have adequate access to the knowledge when it is needed.
Technical Paper

“Motion in FEA”: An Innovative Approach for More Physical and More Accurate Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0762
Vehicle dynamics is a discipline of mechanical engineering that benefited of significant improvements thanks to the progress of computational engineering. Vehicle dynamics engineers are using CAE for the development of a vehicle with MBS and FEA. The concurrent use of these two technologies is a standard in the automotive industry. However the current simulation process is not fully efficient because local geometrical and material nonlinearities are not accurately modeled in classical MBS software. This paper introduces a methodology for vehicle dynamics simulation integrating MBS capabilities in one single nonlinear FEA environment enabling an accurate modeling of nonlinearity in vehicles.
Technical Paper

“Greater Than the Sum of its Parts” Integrated Flight Training/Aircrew Coordination

1994-10-01
942132
The requirement for crew resource management (CRM), or aircrew coordination training (ACT) in military parlance, has been well documented and attested to. In addition, aircraft systems training has become more intense and more in-depth in the new aircraft designs, especially in multi-crew and complex aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey Tiltrotor. (see Figure 1) Former training systems detailed training procedures that called for classroom training and simulation/simulator training followed by flight training. Improvements in aircraft flight skills training provide increased flying training capability coupled with reduced training time by integrating a mixed simulation/flight training syllabus, e.g. two to three simulation periods followed by one or two flight training periods covering the same material/skills. In addition, the simulation training will introduce new skills; the following flight periods will further refine/hone those skills.
Technical Paper

“Getting the Best Out of 12 Volts” The Development of an Advanced Electrical Architecture Vehicle

1994-03-01
940368
The paper focuses and develops issues raised by the SAE paper ‘THE FUTURE OF VEHICLE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPACT ON SYSTEM DESIGN’ [1] and describes the realisation of a vehicle with a 12 V architecture of flexible configuration and a power management function. The paper describes the methodology, reasoning and mission behind the creation of the vehicle, developed after collaborative exercises in Europe and the USA, and resulting in a joint programme involving a major vehicle manufacturer and a European system supplier. The electrical system is becoming the focus of activity world-wide due to rapid changes in vehicle requirements, in the areas of safety, environmental and functional demands. There are opportunities for:- (a) Improved starting (b) Integrated management of power generation and demand. (c) Higher system integrity (d) Higher efficiency (e) Improvement of the vehicle electrical environment, giving benefits in component cost.
Technical Paper

“Digital Prototype” Simulations to Achieve Vehicle Level NVH Targets in the Presence of Uncertainties

2001-04-30
2001-01-1529
“Digital Prototype” simulations have been used at DaimlerChrysler to achieve vehicle level NVH objectives. The effectiveness of these simulations to guide the design when faced with vehicle parameter uncertainties is discussed. These uncertainties include, but are not limited to, material properties, material gauges, damping, structural geometry, loads, boundary conditions and weld integrity. Manufacturing and assembly processes introduce variations in the nominal values of these parameters resulting in a scatter of vehicle level NVH simulation responses. An example of a high frequency NVH concern will be studied and modified to arrive at robust design guidance when faced with uncertainty. The validity of a “deterministic digital prototype” simulation model and its relevant role as a “trend predictor” rather than “absolute predictor” tool in guiding the design is also discussed.
Technical Paper

“Converticar” - The Roadable Helicopter

1998-09-28
985513
The Boeing Company in Mesa, Arizona, has been conducting a concept design study of a roadable helicopter called the “Converticar” to assess its feasibility. This is a twin-engine vehicle with twin retractable coaxial counter-rotating rotors. The purpose of the study is to describe a vehicle that carries four passengers in the equivalent of a luxury car that also can fly like a helicopter, and can be priced like a luxury car. To come near this cost goal, the production rate must be on the order of 500,000 units a year. At that rate there is no chance of training a comparable number of pilots each year. So the machine must fly and navigate autonomously, with the pilot just dialing in where he/she wants to go. Technologically, the concept appears to be feasible. Modern design processes, new materials, and improved manufacturing process should allow the Converticar to be built at the prescribed rate when the proper infrastructure for manufacturing it is made available.
Technical Paper

‘Wheel Slip-Based’ Evaluation of Road Friction Potential for Distributed Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1667
As a typical parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measure of the road friction potential is expensive for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. It aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
Technical Paper

‘ElderTech’ - Enhancing the Independence of Elderly Through the Use of Technology

2000-03-06
2000-01-1368
Longevity is one of the great achievements of the twentieth century. This paper will explore ways that elderly people can employ technology to enhance their independence, loosely termed “ElderTech.” ElderTech is designed to establish a sustained, long-term investment in research and development (R&D) for technologies that can provide the largest growing population, Americans over the age of 65, with the tools to ensure active aging (maintaining independence, self-reliance, and an enhanced quality of life). It will also promote aging in place (in the home); and will address and ease Medicare's financial burden on the federal government. ElderTech is aimed to establish a technology framework that will ensure that the United States (U.S.) is ready to meet the needs of its older Americans.
Technical Paper

‘Bigelow Aerospace® Life Support Laboratory - Planning and Status’

2004-07-19
2004-01-2474
This Life Support Laboratory consists of a simulator of the spacecraft called Nautilus, which houses Air Revitalization Subsystem, Atmospheric Control and Supply, and Fire Detection and Suppression in the Equipment Area. There are supporting facilities including a Human Metabolic Simulator, simulated Low and Moderate Temperature Coolant Loop, chemical analysis bench, purified water supply, vacuum and gas supplies. These facilities are scheduled to be completed and start to operate for demonstration purposes by March 2005. There are an ARES Ground Model (AGM) and a Trace Contaminant Control Assembly in the ARS. The latter will be integrated with the AGM and a Condensing Heat Exchanger. The unit of AGM is being engineered, built, and will be delivered in early 2005 by EADS Space Division. These assemblies will be operated for sensitivity analysis, integration and optimization studies. The main goal is the achievement for optimal recovery of oxygen.
Technical Paper

‘A Comparative Study of the Integrity of Joints Between Multilayer Fuel Line Constructions and Different Connector ‘Barb’ Designs

2000-03-06
2000-01-1098
With the advent of low evaporative emission requirements there has been the rapid adoption of multilayer extrusion technology into the production of Fuel and Vapour tubing used on Fuel systems on automobiles. Multilayer extrusion technology enables a manufacturer of Fuel and Vapour tubing to simultaneously co-extrude dissimilar thermoplastic materials in tubular form. This allows the manufacturer to combine expensive and brittle high performance evaporative emission ‘barrier’ polymers with lower cost engineering polymers. However, it is a well-known characteristic of these multilayer tube constructions that the joints between them and connector ‘barbs’ have lower joint integrity. Joint integrity is most often quantified by ‘Pull-off’ and leakage tests. Recent developments in LEV-II requirements for 2004 and beyond indicate that joint integrity will become a focus area for study and improvement.
Technical Paper

μAFS High Resolution ADB/AFS Solution

2016-04-05
2016-01-1410
A cooperation of several research partners supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education proposes a new active matrix LED light source. A multi pixel flip chip LED array is directly mounted to an active driver IC. A total of 1024 pixel can be individually addressed through a serial data bus. Several of these units are integrated in a prototype headlamp to enable advanced light distribution patterns in an evaluation vehicle.
Technical Paper

μ - Synthesis of Robust Control on Active Mounts for Vehicle Vibration Reduction

1996-02-01
960186
This paper presents a new design method for solving the vehicle vibration problem induced by engine drive, by using a μ-synthesis. We have tried the active control of engine mounts to insulate the vibration of engine. We experimented on the effects by using computer simulation and vibration simulator. Computer simulation results show that resonance peak can be effectively reduced. We have also confirmed the effect of vibration simulator, which shall be reported in this paper.
Technical Paper

λDSF: Dynamic Skip Fire with Homogeneous Lean Burn for Improved Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Drivability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0891
Dynamic skip fire (DSF) has shown significant fuel economy improvement potential via reduction of pumping losses that generally affect throttled spark-ignition (SI) engines. In DSF operation, individual cylinders are fired on-demand near peak efficiency to satisfy driver torque demand. For vehicles with a downsized-boosted 4-cylinder engine, DSF can reduce fuel consumption by 8% in the WLTC (Class 3) drive cycle. The relatively low cost of cylinder deactivation hardware further improves the production value of DSF. Lean burn strategies in gasoline engines have also demonstrated significant fuel efficiency gains resulting from reduced pumping losses and improved thermodynamic characteristics, such as higher specific heat ratio and lower heat losses. Fuel-air mixture stratification is generally required to achieve stable combustion at low loads.
Technical Paper

µMist® - The next generation fuel injection system: Improved atomisation and combustion for port-fuel-injected engines

2011-08-30
2011-01-1890
The Swedish Biomimetics 3000's μMist® platform technology has been used to develop a radically new injection system. This prototype system, developed and characterized with support from Lotus, as part of Swedish Biomimetics 3000®'s V₂IO innovation accelerating model, delivers improved combustion efficiency through achieving exceptionally small droplets, at fuel rail pressures far less than conventional GDI systems and as low as PFI systems. The system gives the opportunity to prepare and deliver all of the fuel load for the engine while the intake valves are open and after the exhaust valves have closed, thereby offering the potential to use advanced charge scavenging techniques in PFI engines which have hitherto been restricted to direct-injection engines, and at a lower system cost than a GDI injection system.
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