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Technical Paper

“SODART” Telescope Silicon Detector Cooling System (Thermal Test Results of the Scale-Down Model)

1992-07-01
921365
The onboard “SODART” telescope silicon detector cooling system of the “Spectrum-X-Gamma” observatory, which is designed for the space objects X-ray radiation study, is described. The scale-down model of the passive cooling system description and thermal vacuum test results of this model are given. In the real cooling system the minimal detector temperature at 300 mW heat release is expected about 107 K.
Technical Paper

“Model Based Predictive Control of MELISSA Photobioreactors. Steady State Determination”

1994-06-01
941411
Mathematical modeling and control of artificial ecosystems, such as MELISSA, require first the study of physical and biological characteristics in optimal and limiting conditions. Following the previous determination of the stoichiometric equations (Spirulina compartment) and regarding the two phototrophic compartments of MELISSA (Rhodospirillaceae and Spirulina), we have first to focus our control study on the growth kinetics for the light source. In this paper, we recall the theoretical equations of microbial growth kinetics and emphasise the problem of the light transfer in a photobioreactor. We present their adaptations to our pilot plant taking into account technological and biological specifics (lamp spectrum, working illuminated volume, growth rate,…). We then develop the principles and structure of the control system and describe tests of both the hardware and software for several steady state configurations.
Technical Paper

“Jet Air” Compressor Control System

1971-02-01
710203
This paper describes the interrelated controls for automatic start sequencing, fuel scheduling, customer air delivery, and supervisory and protective systems as applied to the Curtiss-Wright CW657E “Jet-Air” Compressor. Model CW657E is capable of delivering 15,000 SCFM air at 85 psig (at 30°F and sea level pressure) and may be used in a diversity of manufacturing, processing, and industrial applications. A description of the control system and its operation in relation to compressor requirements, while furnishing air to feed distribution lines to air assisted water atomizing nozzles for snow making is reviewed as an example. Other models can deliver up to 30,000 SCFM with modified control systems, including pressure controls.
Technical Paper

“All Electric” Controls and Accessories for Ground Vehicle Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems

1986-02-01
860238
This paper discusses the use of electromechanical devices as the kinematic portions of a microprocessor based gas turbine control system. Specific applications are: 1. An electric motor driven, positive displacement pump, which provides metered high pressure fuel to the distribution manifold. Fuel metering to be provided by varying the motor angular velocity. 2. An electric motor driven lube oil pump. 3. Electromechnical actuators for motion and control of compressor and power turbine variable geometry. 4. A starter/generator integral with the gas generator. Topics covered include: Comparison to conventional hydro-mechanical systems. Response characteristics of the fuel pump and actuator systems. Brushless D.C. motor characteristics. Power electronics requirements for brushless D.C. motors. Control electronics interface with brushless D.C. motor systems. Reliability and maintainability issues. Diagnostic/prognostic enhancements.
Technical Paper

‘Wheel Slip-Based’ Evaluation of Road Friction Potential for Distributed Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1667
As a typical parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measure of the road friction potential is expensive for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. It aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
Technical Paper

µMist® - The next generation fuel injection system: Improved atomisation and combustion for port-fuel-injected engines

2011-08-30
2011-01-1890
The Swedish Biomimetics 3000's μMist® platform technology has been used to develop a radically new injection system. This prototype system, developed and characterized with support from Lotus, as part of Swedish Biomimetics 3000®'s V₂IO innovation accelerating model, delivers improved combustion efficiency through achieving exceptionally small droplets, at fuel rail pressures far less than conventional GDI systems and as low as PFI systems. The system gives the opportunity to prepare and deliver all of the fuel load for the engine while the intake valves are open and after the exhaust valves have closed, thereby offering the potential to use advanced charge scavenging techniques in PFI engines which have hitherto been restricted to direct-injection engines, and at a lower system cost than a GDI injection system.
Technical Paper

eROSITA Camera Low Temperature Thermal Control

2008-06-29
2008-01-1957
eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is a powerful X-ray telescope under development by the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) in Garching, Germany. eROSITA is the core instrument on the Russian SRG1 mission which is planned for launch in 2011. It comprises seven nested Wolter-I grazing incidence telescopes, each equipped with its own CCD camera. The mirror modules have to be maintained at 20°C while the cameras are operated at -80°C. Both, mirrors and CCDs have to be kept within tight limits. The CCD cooling system consists of passive thermal control components only: two radiators, variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP) and two special thermal storage units. The orbit scenario imposes severe challenges on the thermal control system and also on the attitude control system.
Technical Paper

byteflight~A new protocol for safety-critical applications

2000-06-12
2000-05-0220
The permanently increasing number of convenience and safety functions leads to higher complexity of in-car electronics and the rapidly growing amount of sensors, actuators and electronic control units places higher demands on high- speed data communication protocols. Safety-critical systems need deterministic protocols with fault-tolerant behavior. The need for on-board diagnosis calls for flexible use of bandwidth and an ever-increasing number of functions necessitates a flexible means of extending the system. None of the communication solutions available on the market until now (like CAN or TTP) have been able to fulfill all these demands. To solve these problems, BMW together with several semiconductor companies has developed a new protocol for safety-critical applications in automotive vehicles.
Technical Paper

Zone of Influence of Porous Suction Tubes in Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems

2008-06-29
2008-01-2075
A “next generation” condensing heat exchanger for space systems has to satisfy demanding operational requirements under variable thermal and moisture loads and reduced gravity conditions. Mathematical models described here are used to investigate transient behavior of wetting and de-wetting dynamics in the binary porous system of porous tubes and porous cold plate. The model is based on the Richard's equation simplified for the zero-gravity conditions. The half-saturation distance or the zone of influence of the porous annular suction tubes on the cold-plate porous material will be in the range of 1 to 10 cm for the time scales ranging from 100 to 10,000 seconds and moisture diffusivity in the range of D = 10-4 to 10-6 m2/s.
Technical Paper

Zinc-Chloride Electric EngineTM Unit for Four-Passenger Electric Vehicle

1981-02-01
810416
Energy Development Associates, a division of Gulf+Western Industries, Inc., has undertaken the design and fabrication of a four-passenger electric car incorporating state-of-the art zinc-chloride battery technology. The purpose of the project is to demonstrate the viability of the zinc-chloride energy storage system as a practical alternative to cars powered by internal combustion engines. Significant among the project goals to be achieved is the attainment of a vehicle range three to four times that of current lead-acid battery-powered vehicles on a single battery charge. Progress to date on the project is discussed. It includes the design, specification, and fabrication of the battery, vehicle and its components, motor control system, and battery control microprocessor.
Technical Paper

Zero-Offset in Transducer Output

2005-05-16
2005-01-2555
Zero-offset in transducer output during airbag noise testing is often observed, but mostly ignored due to the lack of understanding of its causes and implications. In the field of high-g acceleration measurement, this phenomenon is well documented, and is referred to as zeroshift. Zero-offset occurs when a component in the measurement chain is exposed to some unexpected inputs which the component has not been designed to handle. These unexpected inputs can be mechanical, electrical, or optical. How the transducer reacts to such inputs and the amount of zero-offset produced depends on the sensing mechanism, material used, and the design of the component itself. This paper explores the causes of zero-offset from a general perspective, covering the entire measurement chain. Although much of the information and discussions are based on data obtained from acceleration measurement systems, the findings are applicable to other transducer types, such as pressure and acoustic measurements.
Technical Paper

Z-type Schlieren Setup and its Application to High-Speed Imaging of Gasoline Sprays

2011-08-30
2011-01-1981
Schlieren and shadowgraph imaging have been used for many years to identify refractive index gradients in various applications. For evaporating fuel sprays, these techniques can differentiate the boundary between spray regions and background ambient gases. Valuable information such as the penetration rate, spreading angle, spray structure, and spray pattern can be obtained using schlieren diagnostics. In this study, we present details of a z-type schlieren system setup and its application to port-fuel-injection gasoline sprays. The schlieren high-speed movies were used to obtain time histories of the spray penetration and spreading angle. Later, these global parameters were compared to specifications provided by the injector manufacturer. Also, diagnostic parameters such as the proportion of light cut-off at the focal point and the orientation of knife-edge (schlieren-stop) used to achieve the cut-off were examined.
Technical Paper

You-Are-Here Maps for International Space Station: Approach and Guidelines

2004-07-19
2004-01-2584
Guidelines for designing you-are-here (YAH) maps aboard International Space Station (ISS) are proposed, based on results from previous 3D spatial navigation studies conducted by our research group and colleagues. This paper reviews terrestrial YAH maps, the common errors associated with them, and how to appropriately implement what is known from terrestrial to micro-gravity YAH maps. We conclude with a creative example of an ISS YAH map that utilizes given guidelines and information visualization techniques.
Technical Paper

Yield Mapping with Digital Aerial Color Infrared (CIR) Images

1999-09-14
1999-01-2847
Yield potential was predicted and mapped for three corn fields in Central Illinois, using digital aerial color infrared images. Three methods, namely statistical (regression) modeling, genetic algorithm optimization and artificial neural networks, were used for developing yield models. Two image resolutions of 3 and 6 m/pixel were used for modeling. All the models were trained using July 31 image and tested using images from July 2 and August 31, all from 1998. Among the three models, artificial neural networks gave best performance, with a prediction error less than 30%. The statistical model resulted in prediction errors in the range of 23 to 54%. The lower resolution images resulted in better prediction accuracy compared to resolutions higher than or equal to the yield resolution. Images after pollination resulted in better accuracy compared to images before pollination.
Technical Paper

Yield Mapping of Soybeans and Corn Using GPS

1995-09-01
952112
Data obtained when harvesting with a combine equipped with a yield monitor were used to develop yield maps. A prototype yield monitor was developed that uses a combination of light emitters and receivers mounted in a rectangular frame. The monitor was mounted in the combine in the top of the clean grain elevator. As grain flows through the monitor, a voltage change proportional to light reduction was recorded. This voltage was then correlated to grain flow rate. At the same time, site-specific location was recorded using the global positioning satellites (GPS) system. The location data, yield monitor output, cutting width, and combine forward speed were stored in a spreadsheet format. The data were then used to prepare the yield maps.
Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Sensor for Vehicle Dynamics Control System

1995-02-01
950537
From the beginning of 1995 on, RB will start the production of the Vehicle Dynamics Control System. A key part of this system is the Yaw Rate Sensor described in this paper. The basic requirements for this sensor for automotive applications are: mass producibility, low cost, resistance against environmental influences (such as temperature, vibrations, EMI), stability of all characteristics over life time, high reliability and designed-in safety. Bosch developed a sensor on the basis of the “Vibrating Cylinder”. The sensor will be introduced into mass production in beginning of 1995.
Technical Paper

Xtreme Make-Over In 24 Hours

2005-05-16
2005-01-2550
Our conference chairman told me that this special technical section was structured to provide “some words of wisdom from the old guys” or something to that effect. I know I can meet most of his requirements. I am a pensioner and an oak tree. However, “words of wisdom” maybe a challenge. Solving noise problems, setting acoustical performance targets and guidelines, and developing noise control systems for new and carry-over vehicles can be very challenging and time consuming particularly in today's culture. In the 1970's and 80's, and 90's we had the same challenges. Our customers demanded and appreciated a quiet vehicle. They want to talk to each other without shouting or to enjoy a favorite music selection regardless of weather, road conditions, or vehicle speed. The use of ear plugs or cotton is not acceptable! Noise Gremlins (Figure 1) can ruin a good day!
Technical Paper

Xerox's Distributed Real Time Control System

1987-02-01
870517
XEROX has developed and implemented a network architecture for a real time control system which has expansion flexibility, high reliability, noise immunity, and low cost. This two level multiplex system with a single wire system bus at one level for distributed processors connected to local serial buses at the second level for remote functions and loads is described. The XEROX Microelectronics Center has developed a set of custom VLSI chips to implement the multiplexing architecture. Control software was developed using both assemblers and high level language tools. The software and chip set have been designed, built and integrated into XEROX'S latest generation of products.
Technical Paper

Xenon Light for Main and Dipped Beam

1998-02-23
980005
Xenon (HID) technology is one of the mile-stones in developing process of car lighting. The first step was to combine this technology with free-form reflector technology. The result was a high performance dipped beam beam-pattern with three times more light output compared to a halogen system. The next step of improvement is “Bi-Xenon”. It makes sense to use the enormous light output of a Xenon light source for two light functions (Main beam and dipped beam) in a single pocket headlamp system. This leads to new lighting performance and design freedom in headlamp technology. In this paper the technological aspects of system realization will be described. New solutions in lighting strategy including modern actuators which handle optical elements to switch between two light functions had to be found.
Technical Paper

XMM-NEWTON Thermal Design and In-orbit Performance

2000-07-10
2000-01-2372
The XMM-NEWTON satellite is the ESA X-ray spaceborne observatory covering the soft X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. XMM-NEWTON has been put in orbit on December, 10th 1999 by an Ariane 5 single launch. The spacecraft has a conventional thermal design that takes full advantage of the stable environment provided by its high altitude/long period orbit and by the limited variation of solar attitude angles in order to provide a stable platform for the telescope system. The precise geometry and alignment of the telescope system impose strict temperature requirements so that not only temperature gradients have to be kept small but also, and more importantly, time-variations of the gradients have to be minimised. In the paper, the thermal behaviour of the spacecraft as verified by its thermal test programme is compared with the early in-orbit temperature measurements.
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