Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

“Nucleate Boiling Investigations and the Effects of Surface Roughness”

1999-03-01
1999-01-0577
The findings presented in this paper are part of a long term project aimed at raising the science of heat transfer in internal combustion engine cooling galleries. Initial work has been undertaken by the authors and an experimental facility is able to simulate different sizes of coolant passages. External heat is applied and data for the forced convective, nucleate boiling and transition or critical heat flux (CHF) regimes has been obtained. The results highlighted in this paper attempt to quantify the effects of cooling passage surface roughness on the nucleate boiling regime. Tests have been conducted using aluminium test pieces with surface finishes described as smooth, intermediate and as-cast. It has been found that the as-cast surface increases the heat flux density in the nucleate boiling region over that of the smooth and intermediate surfaces.
Technical Paper

“Influence of Engine Variables on Exhaust Oxides of Nitrogen Concentrations from a Multi-Cylinder Engine”

1967-02-01
670482
The influence of engine variables on the concentration of oxides of nitrogen present in the exhaust of a multicylinder engine was studied. The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured with either a mass spectrometer or a non-dispersive infrared analyzer. The NO concentration was low for rich operation (deficient in oxygen) and increased with air-fuel ratio to a peak value at ratios slightly leaner than stoichiometric proportions. A further increase in air-fuel ratio resulted in reduced NO concentrations. Advanced spark timing, decreased manifold vacuum, increased coolant temperature and combustion chamber deposit buildup were also found to increase exhaust NO concentration. These results support either directly or indirectly the hypothesis that exhaust NO concentration is primarily a result of the peak combustion gas temperature and the available oxygen.
Technical Paper

‘Bigelow Aerospace® Life Support Laboratory - Planning and Status’

2004-07-19
2004-01-2474
This Life Support Laboratory consists of a simulator of the spacecraft called Nautilus, which houses Air Revitalization Subsystem, Atmospheric Control and Supply, and Fire Detection and Suppression in the Equipment Area. There are supporting facilities including a Human Metabolic Simulator, simulated Low and Moderate Temperature Coolant Loop, chemical analysis bench, purified water supply, vacuum and gas supplies. These facilities are scheduled to be completed and start to operate for demonstration purposes by March 2005. There are an ARES Ground Model (AGM) and a Trace Contaminant Control Assembly in the ARS. The latter will be integrated with the AGM and a Condensing Heat Exchanger. The unit of AGM is being engineered, built, and will be delivered in early 2005 by EADS Space Division. These assemblies will be operated for sensitivity analysis, integration and optimization studies. The main goal is the achievement for optimal recovery of oxygen.
Technical Paper

eROSITA Camera Low Temperature Thermal Control

2008-06-29
2008-01-1957
eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is a powerful X-ray telescope under development by the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) in Garching, Germany. eROSITA is the core instrument on the Russian SRG1 mission which is planned for launch in 2011. It comprises seven nested Wolter-I grazing incidence telescopes, each equipped with its own CCD camera. The mirror modules have to be maintained at 20°C while the cameras are operated at -80°C. Both, mirrors and CCDs have to be kept within tight limits. The CCD cooling system consists of passive thermal control components only: two radiators, variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP) and two special thermal storage units. The orbit scenario imposes severe challenges on the thermal control system and also on the attitude control system.
Technical Paper

Zinc Soldered Copper and Brass Radiators: Their Processing and Their Test Results

1992-02-01
920177
Copper and brass radiators have served the automobile industry for many years using traditional fabrication processes. Demand for newer and stronger radiators with lighter weight for the modern vehicles prompted investigation of alternate materials. Properties of zinc alloys and their compatibility with brass suggested these could be used for radiator manufacture. Many zinc alloy compositions were investigated in the initial studies, because a solder alloy has to have many positive attributes. The first screening studies evaluated the ability of the solder to spread over copper and brass surfaces, representing tube, fin, and header materials. The second most important feature was the melting range of the developed alloy. In order to retain the anneal resistance of the fin and temper in the tube it was desirable to have a zinc solder with a melting temperature at 800°F or less.
Technical Paper

Zinc Distribution in Vacuum Brazed Alclad Brazing Sheet

1978-02-01
780301
Vacuum brazing technology is currently capable of producing aluminum automotive heat exchangers such as radiators and heater cores. The possible use of 7072 claddings on the surfaces exposed to the coolant to provide additional corrosion protection is of considerable interest. This paper describes the effect of typical vacuum brazing cycles on the distribution of zinc in 7072 clad vacuum brazing sheet. For heavier gauges (.05″), there is sufficient retained zinc in the post-braze composite. For lighter gauges (.02″ or less), nominal composition 7072 does not provide adequate retained zinc; however, if the initial zinc concentration is increased to 3% there is sufficient retained zinc so that the cladding is significantly more anodic than the core.
Technical Paper

Zero-Venting, Regenerable, Lightweight Heat Rejection for EVA Suits

2005-07-11
2005-01-2974
Future space exploration missions will require a lightweight spacesuit that expends no consumables. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype heat rejection system that weighs less than current systems and vents zero water. The system uses regenerable LiCl/water absorption cooling. Absorption cooling boosts the heat absorbed from the crew member to a high temperature for rejection to space from a compact, non-venting radiator. The system is regenerated by heating to 100°C for two hours. The system provides refrigeration at 17°C and rejects heat at temperatures greater than 50°C. The overall cooling capacity is over 100 W-hr/kg.
Technical Paper

ZF Retarder in Commercial Vehicles

1992-11-01
922452
This paper describes the ZF - Intarder, a wear-free vehicle brake for commercial vehicles. Qualities such as optimum weight saving, compactness, compatibility with all PTOs and no change in driveshaft length, are the results of a new development. Performance measurements demonstrate connection with engine cooling system. Field test measurements provide new information about frequency of use of various brake levels and electronic speed control. An evaluation of financial issues indicates advantages for operation.
Technical Paper

X-Wing: A Low Disc-Loading V/STOL for the Navy

1985-10-01
851772
The X-Wing concept employs a single lifting system for all modes of flight. The lifting system is comprised of four very rigid, circulation control wings with blowing for lift modulation and control. For hover and low speed flight, the wings rotate such as the rotor of a helicopter. For high speed flight, the wings are stopped in an “X” configuration across the fuselage - from which the name of the concept is derived - with two forward-swept wings and two aft-swept wings. Such a vehicle is also envisioned to have an integrated gas turbine propulsive system for all flight modes. At low speeds, the gas generators) would drive a shaft to turn the wings and the circulation control compressor as well as a set of propulsive fans. For high-speed flight, the shaft would drive only the compressor and accessories as the fans propel the vehicle. The X-Wing concept has been underdevelopment for over 15 years.
Standard

Wrench, Spanner

2013-05-28
CURRENT
AS6018
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers adjustable and non-adjustable spanner wrenches generally used for aerospace machinery maintenance and for tightening and loosening hose couplings and hydrant caps. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply all of the products described therein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Technical Paper

Working Out of Heat Pipes for Low Temperature Radiative Cooling Systems for Space Optic Sensors

1996-07-01
961603
The substantiation of heat pipe usage in passive radiative cooling systems on temperature level (190…240) K for space optical sensors is presented. Heat pipes can be sound practice like heat conducting lines between sensor and radiator particularly at distances more 0.2 m and irreplaceable at distances (0.5…2) m. Embedding heat pipe with radiator allows to create the uniform temperature basis in case of several sensors connection to single radiator and to improve radiator efficiency. It is analyzed approach to design of thermocontrol and cooling radiative systems with heat pipes to reduce sensitiveness to external light disturbances and to enlarge area of radiative system application. The results of design, thermovacuum test and flight operation of thermocontrol radiative system samples are under discussion as well.
Technical Paper

Working Fluid De-freezing in Radiator on Base of LHP

2007-07-09
2007-01-3199
Selection of working fluid is one of the main criterions for designing of heat pipes thermal control systems (TCS) for space application. In this paper we will describe how we solved the task of development of the TCS with working fluid of high thermal physical properties. In 2004-2006 we developed the Engineering model of Deployable Radiator based on Loop Heat Pipe by CAST purchase order. It was developed for qualification tests. Ammonia application as LHP working fluid is stipulated by its high thermal physical properties. However Ammonia freezing temperature is of minus 77ºC. Such fact impedes Ammonia application when operation temperatures of LHP Radiator are lower than this value, for example, It takes several tens of hours to orbit a spacecraft and prepare it for work (at that moment the spacecraft is out of power supply) and the working fluid can be frozen in a condenser-radiator when the spacecraft being in the shadow over a long period of time.
Technical Paper

Wire Braid Angle Response Characteristics in Hydraulic Hose

1997-09-08
972706
This report is concerned with the effects of braid angle on the behavior of hydraulic hose. For equilibrium conditions to exist, and if the braid layers are assumed to bear tension forces only, the angle of the reinforcement layers must be along that of the total force exerted by the internal pressure. This is the neutral angle θN, which has a theoretical value of 54.74° (54°44′). It is possible to hypothesize a fretting wear model in which wires move on top of one another inside a braid layer if the braid angle is different from this theoretical neutral angle. Even though theoretical claims are made by some technical professionals, the hydraulic hose industry has been successfully making hoses with non-neutral braid angles for years. Testing and application have shown that fretting wear is not a principal cause of hose failure and fatigue.
Technical Paper

Winterization of Vehicles To -50F

1969-02-01
690580
Discussion in this paper is centered on general problems of subarctic operation, results of the 1968-1969 winter testing at Ft. Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, and the testing planned for the 1969-1970 season at Ft. Churchill. Significant findings from the 1968-969 testing indicate the vital importance of care in preparation of vehicles for the arctic, the need for greater simplicity and reliability in design of winterization systems, and the inadequacy of currently used elastomeric components (hoses, o-rings, etc.).
Standard

Windshield Defrosting Systems Test Procedure and Performance Requirements—Trucks, Buses, and Multipurpose Vehicles

2009-01-27
CURRENT
J381_200901
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures and performance requirements for the defrosting system of enclosed cab trucks, buses, and multipurpose vehicles. It is limited to a test that can be conducted on uniform test equipment in commercially available laboratory facilities. Current engineering practice prescribes that for laboratory evaluation of defroster systems, an ice coating of known thickness be applied to the windshield and left- and right-hand side windows to provide more uniform and repeatable test results, even though under actual conditions such a coating would necessarily be scraped off before driving. The test condition, therefore, represents a more severe condition than the actual condition, where the defroster system must merely be capable of maintaining a cleared viewing area.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Effects of Installation Parameters on Truck Cooling System Performance

1976-02-01
760832
The effect of eight installation and component parameters on cooling system heat rejection and air flow were examined in detail in a wind tunnel facility. A quarter-replicate, two level factorial test plan was followed. Within the ranges of each parameter tested, the fan characteristics and the projection of fan into the shroud are highly significant parameters. The fan to radiator distance, the radiator characteristics, and the fan tip to shroud clearance are significant parameters. The fan to engine block distance and the type of shroud are not significant parameters.
SAE MOBILUS Subscription

Wiley SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package

2018-03-23
Committed to being the primary source for aerospace and ground vehicle engineering resources, SAE International has added the full compilation of our Wiley eBook collections to the SAE MOBILUS® technical resource platform. Purchasable as an annual subscription and containing the titles from the Wiley Aerospace Collection, the Wiley Automotive Collection, the Wiley Computer Systems Collection, and the Wiley Cyber Security Collection.
SAE MOBILUS Subscription

Wiley Automotive Collection

2018-03-23
Purchasable as an annual subscription, the Wiley Automotive Collection contains 20 eBook titles and focuses on a wide range of categories, including engines, transmission, chassis, body, electrical, safety, and manufacturing. Titles covering new and emerging topics such as battery technology and electric and hybrid vehicles are included as well, making the series an essential addition to any institution’s automotive resources.
Technical Paper

Weight and Cost Reduction — Engine and Engine Components — Converting Castings to Stampings

1981-11-01
811417
This paper describes a conceptual development program to demonstrate the weight and cost reduction potential using steel stampings for internal combustion engines and engine components. Various components have been redesigned as steel stampings to replace cast iron or cast aluminum items on a weight and/or cost reduction basis. Designs of a stamped steel engine block, intake and exhaust manifolds, water pump, power steering pump, pulleys, alternator and turbocharger housing are described. Stamped steel versions which have been prototyped and tested are described. A review of current applications and suggested applications of stampings to replace castings concludes the paper.
Technical Paper

Weathering of Thermal Control Coatings

2007-07-09
2007-01-3020
Spacecraft radiators reject heat to their surroundings. Radiators can be deployable or mounted on the body of the spacecraft. NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle is to use body mounted radiators. Coatings play an important role in heat rejection. The coatings provide the radiator surface with the desired optical properties of low solar absorptance and high infrared emittance. These specialized surfaces are applied to the radiator panel in a number of ways, including conventional spraying, plasma spraying, or as an appliqué. Not specifically designed for a weathering environment, little is known about the durability of conventional paints, coatings, and appliqués upon exposure to weathering and subsequent exposure to solar wind and ultraviolet radiation exposure. In addition to maintaining their desired optical properties, the coatings must also continue to adhere to the underlying radiator panel.
X