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Technical Paper

“Wireless Communications for Vehicle Safety:Radio Link Performance & Wireless Connectivity Methods”

2006-10-16
2006-21-0030
Many accidents occur today when distant objects or roadway impediments are not quickly detected. To help avoid these accidents, longer-range safety systems are needed with real-time detection capability and without requiring a line-of-sight (LOS) view by the driver or sensor. Early detection at intersections is required for obstacle location around blind corners and dynamic awareness of approaching vehicles on intersecting roadways. Many of today's vehicular safety systems require short LOS distances to be effective. Such systems include forward collision warning, adaptive cruise control, and lane keeping assistance. To operate over longer LOS distances and in Non-LOS (NLOS) conditions, cooperative wireless communications systems are being considered. This paper describes field results for LOS and NLOS radio links for one candidate wireless system: 5.9GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC).
Technical Paper

“Virtual Engine/Powertrain/Vehicle” Simulation Tool Solves Complex Interacting System Issues

2003-03-03
2003-01-0372
An integrated simulation tool has been developed, which is applicable to a wide range of design issues. A key feature introduced for the first time by this new tool is that it is truly a single code, with identical handling of engine, powertrain, vehicle, hydraulics, electrical, thermal and control elements. Further, it contains multiple levels of engine models, so that the user can select the appropriate level for the time scale of the problem (e.g. real-time operation). One possible example of such a combined simulation is the present study of engine block vibration in the mounts. The simulation involved a fully coupled model of performance, thermodynamics and combustion, with the dynamics of the cranktrain, engine block and the driveline. It demonstrated the effect of combustion irregularity on engine shaking in the mounts.
Technical Paper

“Understanding Diesel Engine Lubrication at Low Temperature”

1990-10-01
902177
Oil pumpability in passenger car gasoline engines was well-characterized by an ASTM program and by individual researchers in the 1970's and early 1980's. Oil pumpability in diesel engines however, was not investigated to any significant extent until the mid-1980's. This study was initiated to define the performance of several commercial viscosity modifiers in different formulations containing 3 detergent-inhibitor (DI) additive packages and 4 basestock types. The test oils were run at -18°C (0°F) in a Cummins NTC-400 diesel engine. The results, when statistically analyzed, indicated that a new, second generation olefin copolymer (OCP) viscosity modifier had better performance than a first generation OCP and, furthermore, had performance equal to a polymethacrylate (PMA) viscosity modifier. The analysis also showed that one DI/base stock combination had a significant effect on performance.
Technical Paper

“Trapless” Trap – A Catalytic Combustion System of Diesel Particulates Using Ceramic Foam

1983-02-01
830082
“Trapless” Trap, which makes possible the effective collecting of particulates in diesel exhaust gas and their simultaneous combustion has been developed by use of a ceramic foam in combination with catalysts containing copper salt. From a TEM photograph, it was observed that the particulate was rapidly oxidized by mobile copper ion, showing worm-eaten like spots. Screening of various base metal salts by TGA presented CUCl2-KCl-NH4VO3 and CuCl2-KCl-(NH4)6Mo7O24 as very active catalysts for diesel particulate oxidation. They had thermal stability up to 900°C when they were supported on titania. The results obtained by measuring the back pressure using 1.8L diesel engine suggest the above trap to be a self-cleaning trapless trap.
Technical Paper

“The Turbo-Chief” - San Francisco Fire Department's Gas Turbine Powered Fire Apparatus

1965-02-01
650462
For the past four years the San Francisco Fire Department has owned and operated an American La France Triple Combination Engine Company powered with a Boeing Model 502 gas turbine engine. This engine company, in first line fire service, has illustrated the practicability of the gas turbine in vehicular applications. The purpose of this paper is to outline the experience gained by the use of a gas turbine engine in such an installation.
Technical Paper

“The Producers” New Row-Crop Tractors From John Deere

1982-02-01
821062
A line of five new row-crop tractors is being introduced by John Deere with innovative features including a 15-speed full power shift transmission, a high capacity, highly-maneuverable full-time mechanical front-wheel drive and micro-processor controlled instrumentation. In addition, the tractors have increased power, improved fuel economy, greater hydraulic power, improved hitch sensing, improved operator controls, lower sound levels, and revised styling. This paper documents the design and development of these new John Deere row-crop tractors.
Technical Paper

“The Influence of Idle, Drive Cycle and Accessories on the Fuel Economy of Urban Hybrid Electric Buses - Chassis Dynamometer Tests”

2003-11-10
2003-01-3438
Fuel economy can be part of a business case for a fleet making the decision to buy new HD hybrid drivetrain technologies. Chassis dynamometer tests using SAE Recommended Practice J2711 on a bus equipped with an Allison EP SYSTEM ™ hybrid system and operated on standard bus driving cycles have produced impressive gains of over 60%. Preliminary urban bus field tests, on the other hand, have shown lower fuel economy gains. The difference can be attributed, in part, to the use of accessories - most importantly air conditioning - which are parasitic loads on the vehicle. In this paper the characteristics of driving cycles are studied to determine those factors which have the strongest influence on fuel economy for hybrids. The data show that the number of stopping events in a route or cycle is a strong influence as is the average vehicle speed. Energy analysis will show the relationship of fuel economy benefit and battery energy within a driving cycle.
Technical Paper

“The Accuracy of Speed Captured by Commercial Vehicle Event Data Recorders”

2004-03-08
2004-01-1199
Many newer commercial vehicles have an event data recorder (EDR) that can record pre-event and post-event speeds. The EDR is incorporated into the engines electronic control module (ECM). In this study, the accuracy of the ECM-reported speed was tested during acceleration, gear shifting and braking at speeds between 16 and 88 km/h (10 to 55mph). The ECM-reported speed was compared to the speed measured by a calibrated optical 5th wheel. The results showed that the accuracy of the ECM-reported speed matched closely during acceleration, cycled to periods of under-reporting the speed during hard braking due to the ABS brake function, briefly under-reporting the speed after letting off the throttle for braking or gear shift and briefly over-reporting the speed near the end of a gear shift phase. This study also looked at calibration factors of the ECM and their effect on the ECM-reported speed.
Technical Paper

“TFC/IW in 1982”

1982-02-01
820301
TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia weight is reported with other engineering variables for recent EPA data for industry passenger cars and truck. TFC/IW is used in comparisons between gasoline and diesel engines, 49 States and California, passenger cars and trucks. The California fuel economy penalty due to more stringent emissions standards is discussed. The relationship between TFC/IW and ton miles per gallon is shown. Special attention is focused on 4 cylinder gasoline powered vehicles in 49 States passenger car fleet. The use of TFC/IW to answer the question, ‘What Changed?’ when comparing the fuel economies of two fleets is described.
Technical Paper

“Smart sensing” of Oil Degradation and Oil Level Measurements in Gasoline Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1366
Proper lubrication of moving parts is a critical factor in internal combustion engine performance and longevity. Determination of ideal lubricant change intervals is a prerequisite to ensuring maximum engine efficiency and useful life. When oil change intervals are pushed too far, increased engine wear and even engine damage can result. On the other hand, premature oil changes are inconvenient, add to vehicle maintenance cost, and result in wasted natural resources. In order to determine the appropriate oil change interval, we have developed an oil condition sensor that measures the electrical properties of engine oil, and correlates these electrical properties to the physical and chemical properties of oil. This paper provides a brief background discussion of the oil degradation process, followed by a description of the sensor operational principles and the correlation of the sensor output with physical and chemical engine oil properties.
Technical Paper

“Second-Generation” SAE 5W-30 Passenger Car Engine Oils

1986-10-01
861515
High performance lubricant additive systems have been developed to formulate SAE 5W-30 passenger car engine oils which meet current and anticipated requirements of the North American original equipment manufacturers. The trend in North America is to recommend SAE 5W-30 oils that not only meet the API SF requirements for gasoline engines (“first-generation” oils), but also meet the stringent API CC requirement for light duty diesel engines (“second-generation” oils). Furthermore, the engine builders have issued “world specifications” for motor oils which incorporate additional “second-generation” SAE 5W-30 characteristics, such as enhanced API SF limits, improved fuel efficiency, an increased margin of bearing protection, and lower finished-oil phosphorus levels. The additive systems described herein exceed API SF and CC requirements as well as “second-generation” performance hurdles.
Technical Paper

“Seat Belt Sweepstakes” - An Incentive Program

1983-02-01
830474
As part of an overall effort to support the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) national program to increase seat belt usage, General Motors instituted an employe seat belt use incentive program at the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. This program was responsible for raising seat belt use at the Tech Center from 36% to 70% during its 5 1/2 month duration. The program was patterned, in part, after research work done by professor E. Scott Geller of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University under a grant from the General Motors Research Laboratories and a program conducted by Berg Electronics (a DuPont subsidiary). The intent of the program was to provide sufficient positive incentive to employes to buckle up for an extended period of time, thereby establishing a seat belt use habit that will continue after the incentives are no longer offered.
Technical Paper

“SODART” Telescope Silicon Detector Cooling System (Thermal Test Results of the Scale-Down Model)

1992-07-01
921365
The onboard “SODART” telescope silicon detector cooling system of the “Spectrum-X-Gamma” observatory, which is designed for the space objects X-ray radiation study, is described. The scale-down model of the passive cooling system description and thermal vacuum test results of this model are given. In the real cooling system the minimal detector temperature at 300 mW heat release is expected about 107 K.
Technical Paper

“SHIFT-MATE” A Fuel Efficiency Monitor

1985-12-01
852340
The SHIFT-MATE is a dashboard mounted computer based device that cues a truck driver to shift more efficiently. Through electronic circuitry, key vehicle parameters are monitored, computed, then via graphic display, instructs the driver when to shift for improved fuel economy. The theory of operation is described in the text.
Technical Paper

“Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure, Temperature, and Loads Related to the Crank Slider Mechanism of I.C. Engines: A Computational Model”

2003-03-03
2003-01-0728
This paper describes the initial works related to the study of Internal Combustion Engines, as an object of mechanical design, at the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. It is reported a concise, complete methodology for simple model of internal combustion engine. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the use of the in-cylinder parameters (pressure and temperature) and inertial loads in the crank-slider mechanism to derive the loads that act on all the components of the crank-slider mechanism as well as the theoretical output torque for a given geometrical structure and inertial properties. These loads can then be used to estimate the preliminary dimensions of engine components in the initial stage of engine development. To obtain the pressure and temperature inside the cylinder, under different operation parameters, such as air fuel ratio and spark angle advance, a Zero dimensional model is applied. The heat transfer from the cylinder and friction are not taken into account.
Technical Paper

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An Approach Using Augmented Reality

2018-04-03
2018-01-1053
A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behaviour caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure.
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