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Technical Paper

“Wireless Communications for Vehicle Safety:Radio Link Performance & Wireless Connectivity Methods”

2006-10-16
2006-21-0030
Many accidents occur today when distant objects or roadway impediments are not quickly detected. To help avoid these accidents, longer-range safety systems are needed with real-time detection capability and without requiring a line-of-sight (LOS) view by the driver or sensor. Early detection at intersections is required for obstacle location around blind corners and dynamic awareness of approaching vehicles on intersecting roadways. Many of today's vehicular safety systems require short LOS distances to be effective. Such systems include forward collision warning, adaptive cruise control, and lane keeping assistance. To operate over longer LOS distances and in Non-LOS (NLOS) conditions, cooperative wireless communications systems are being considered. This paper describes field results for LOS and NLOS radio links for one candidate wireless system: 5.9GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC).
Technical Paper

“Walking on Automotive Waste? - Plastic Recycling Opportunities for Waste Automotive Materials in the Footwear Industry Sector”

1998-02-23
981162
This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using Automotive waste plastic material from “end of life” vehicles (ELVs), in the Footwear Industry to manufacture shoe components. The study establishes the sustainability of the flow of ELVs, from the European Car Parc and identifies and estimates the quantity of plastic materials potentially available for recycling from ELVs. Four potential materials, Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), Polypropylene (PP), Polypropylene/ethylene/propylene/diene (PP/EPDM) and Polyamide (PA), were identified and three materials (PP, PP/EPDM and ABS) were reprocessed from ELV components and evaluated by the Footwear Industry. As a result, ABS was recommended as an economically, suitable replacement for HIPS, the current material used for manufacturing shoe heel components.
Technical Paper

“U” Bolt Torque Influence over Leaf Springs

2014-05-07
2014-36-0024
”U” bolts are fixing elements and they are used to clamp an elastic joint. From the past, they still looking as an old design and unfortunately, suspension engineers are not specialists in fasteners and elastic joints. That is why we will show important assumptions and concepts to design and specifications this clamp element “U” bolt and its influence over leaf-springs. Currently, “U” bolt is used to clamp an elastic or elastic-plastic joint of heavy duty suspension, formed by leaf-spring, axle, spring pad, “U” bolt plate. This kind of suspension is typically used to trucks, buses and trailers. We are wondering, which one important assumption that an engineer must be careful when designs a new suspension changing from old designs to an updated technology. We provide a theoretical analysis and a FEA analysis to compare torque efficacy x leaf-spring reactions and what are effects this relationship can cause in a suspension.
Technical Paper

“Understanding Diesel Engine Lubrication at Low Temperature”

1990-10-01
902177
Oil pumpability in passenger car gasoline engines was well-characterized by an ASTM program and by individual researchers in the 1970's and early 1980's. Oil pumpability in diesel engines however, was not investigated to any significant extent until the mid-1980's. This study was initiated to define the performance of several commercial viscosity modifiers in different formulations containing 3 detergent-inhibitor (DI) additive packages and 4 basestock types. The test oils were run at -18°C (0°F) in a Cummins NTC-400 diesel engine. The results, when statistically analyzed, indicated that a new, second generation olefin copolymer (OCP) viscosity modifier had better performance than a first generation OCP and, furthermore, had performance equal to a polymethacrylate (PMA) viscosity modifier. The analysis also showed that one DI/base stock combination had a significant effect on performance.
Technical Paper

“Triple-Safe” Air Brake System: Service, Emergency, Parking

1971-02-01
710211
The term triple safe is used to identify an air brake system with three separate circuits, two of which are service brake systems of virtually equal effectiveness; the third is a spring parking brake system. The paper reviews the spring parking brake chamber capability and describes a triple-safe air brake system and chambers that have similar service and emergency capacities, and parking capabilities, to meet future requirements of trucks and buses.
Technical Paper

“Trapless” Trap – A Catalytic Combustion System of Diesel Particulates Using Ceramic Foam

1983-02-01
830082
“Trapless” Trap, which makes possible the effective collecting of particulates in diesel exhaust gas and their simultaneous combustion has been developed by use of a ceramic foam in combination with catalysts containing copper salt. From a TEM photograph, it was observed that the particulate was rapidly oxidized by mobile copper ion, showing worm-eaten like spots. Screening of various base metal salts by TGA presented CUCl2-KCl-NH4VO3 and CuCl2-KCl-(NH4)6Mo7O24 as very active catalysts for diesel particulate oxidation. They had thermal stability up to 900°C when they were supported on titania. The results obtained by measuring the back pressure using 1.8L diesel engine suggest the above trap to be a self-cleaning trapless trap.
Technical Paper

“The Turbo-Chief” - San Francisco Fire Department's Gas Turbine Powered Fire Apparatus

1965-02-01
650462
For the past four years the San Francisco Fire Department has owned and operated an American La France Triple Combination Engine Company powered with a Boeing Model 502 gas turbine engine. This engine company, in first line fire service, has illustrated the practicability of the gas turbine in vehicular applications. The purpose of this paper is to outline the experience gained by the use of a gas turbine engine in such an installation.
Technical Paper

“The Producers” New Row-Crop Tractors From John Deere

1982-02-01
821062
A line of five new row-crop tractors is being introduced by John Deere with innovative features including a 15-speed full power shift transmission, a high capacity, highly-maneuverable full-time mechanical front-wheel drive and micro-processor controlled instrumentation. In addition, the tractors have increased power, improved fuel economy, greater hydraulic power, improved hitch sensing, improved operator controls, lower sound levels, and revised styling. This paper documents the design and development of these new John Deere row-crop tractors.
Technical Paper

“The Creation, Development and Implementation of a Lean Systems Course at Oakland University, Rochester, MI”

2005-04-11
2005-01-1798
Countless articles and publications3,4,5 have documented and proven the efficacy, benefits and value of operating within a lean system. Furthermore, there exists common agreement amongst leading organizations successfully implementing a lean system that in order to do so it must take into consideration the entire enterprise, that is, from supplier to customer and everything in between6. One of the core issues this paper addresses is when the optimal time is to train and educate the people who currently have, or will have, influence over the ‘enterprise’.
Technical Paper

“The Accuracy of Speed Captured by Commercial Vehicle Event Data Recorders”

2004-03-08
2004-01-1199
Many newer commercial vehicles have an event data recorder (EDR) that can record pre-event and post-event speeds. The EDR is incorporated into the engines electronic control module (ECM). In this study, the accuracy of the ECM-reported speed was tested during acceleration, gear shifting and braking at speeds between 16 and 88 km/h (10 to 55mph). The ECM-reported speed was compared to the speed measured by a calibrated optical 5th wheel. The results showed that the accuracy of the ECM-reported speed matched closely during acceleration, cycled to periods of under-reporting the speed during hard braking due to the ABS brake function, briefly under-reporting the speed after letting off the throttle for braking or gear shift and briefly over-reporting the speed near the end of a gear shift phase. This study also looked at calibration factors of the ECM and their effect on the ECM-reported speed.
Technical Paper

“Targeting Consumer Needs in the Perfect Storm: Changing the Automotive Lifestyle”

2008-10-20
2008-21-0038
The intersection of changing lifestyles and evolving transportation needs finds smart USA well positioned for launch in 2008 during one of the most competitive periods in U.S. automotive history. In a zero sum market with new global entrants competing for single points of share, where quality levels have been redefined and fractions of points separate the best from the challengers, lifestyle awareness, innovation and product positioning become the differentiators. Simply adding features has left some with hefty investments and confused consumers. Bigger is not always better. More is not always desirable. The real opportunity for new entrants to the US market may be defined within niche markets where changing lifestyles allow for the emergence of new segments. Today, smart USA has surfaced as a clear example of right product, right place, right time.
Technical Paper

“TFC/IW in 1982”

1982-02-01
820301
TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia weight is reported with other engineering variables for recent EPA data for industry passenger cars and truck. TFC/IW is used in comparisons between gasoline and diesel engines, 49 States and California, passenger cars and trucks. The California fuel economy penalty due to more stringent emissions standards is discussed. The relationship between TFC/IW and ton miles per gallon is shown. Special attention is focused on 4 cylinder gasoline powered vehicles in 49 States passenger car fleet. The use of TFC/IW to answer the question, ‘What Changed?’ when comparing the fuel economies of two fleets is described.
Journal Article

“Sticky” Lining – the Phenomena, Mechanism and Prevention

2008-04-14
2008-01-0819
An unique bonding mechanism was studied after several instances, where the linings stuck to the brake drums on transit buses, were reported. Evidences suggested that the linings were “glued” to the brake drums surface after wear debris (dust) was turned into “adhesive paste” through complicated thermal and chemical changes. Factors such as the friction materials, environment and service conditions, which could activate and deactivate the lining bonding, were observed and discussed. The prevention measures are proposed.
Technical Paper

“Standardizing the Datasheet” Towards Auto-Code Generation Efficiency

2009-04-20
2009-01-0270
Software programs in non-application areas such as Board Support Packages, Hardware Abstraction Layers, signal processing and data acquisition are more or less very standard and common across many applications. These form a major part of the “platform” software, which changes very little. However, it is seen that many a time, efforts are spent resolving issues in the hardware dependent layers rather than concentrating on the application at hand, despite the fact that the software controlling the hardware has been developed many times. There are many reasons why this section of the software is rewritten many times over: different coding standards, different software architecture and layering concepts, the dreadful cut-and-paste methods, and so on. Introduction of a tool-based code configurator and generator eliminates access to the code and focuses on configuring a pre-written set of SW procedures. Advantages: Standardization, reuse and high levels of productivity.
Technical Paper

“Smart Panel” Electronic Circuit Breaker Control Technology

2008-11-11
2008-01-2880
This paper will discuss using Astronics “Smart Panel” illuminated control panels to control an electronic power distribution system. A discussion of wiring simplification, automatic control possibilities and real time load monitoring is presented. The challenges of retrofitting the system into older aircraft will be covered as well. The paper also explains Electronic Circuit Breaker technology, arc fault protection, panel lighting technologies, control bus options, displays, and human input technology (buttons and knobs).
Technical Paper

“Sky Hooks” for Automobiles

1935-01-01
350109
IN this paper the authors present some experimental results obtained by using the analysis outlined by Prof. James J. Guest before the Institution of Automobile Engineers, in 1926. To make the experimental work more understandable, they present the essential points of Professor Guest's analysis. Professor Guest begins his analysis of the movements of a car body with the simplest set of conditions and presents a graphical as well as an algebraic solution. He then includes one additional factor after another in his analysis until the principal factors in car suspension are included. After all factors are considered, the essential structure of the simple analysis is retained. The authors' efforts at the experimental determination of the moment of inertia of passenger cars were started in January, 1932, on Sir Charles Dennistoun Burney's “tear-drop” design with which he visited leading American manufacturers.
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