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Technical Paper

“Zero Defects”, Statistically Considered

2000-09-11
2000-01-2605
The requirement of “zero defects” is rapidly finding its way as a “standard” of quality in numerous quarters. This phrase has great psychological appeal, and is often taken literally at all levels in an organization even though quality motivation may be the intention. It is common to believe that when zero defects are found in the sample, this must be the case for “all the rest” as well. In this paper the technical side of “zero defects” is examined. We look at the statistics of zero defects and show what is implied about lot or process quality when zero defects is the actual sample outcome. The focus is on attribute measurements and includes some special cases where a significant measurement error exists and cases where a Bayesian statistical analysis may be appropriate.
Technical Paper

“Wetting” the Appetite of Spark Ignition Engines for Lean Combustion

1978-02-01
780234
Single-cylinder spark ignition engine experiments conducted at constant speed, fixed airflow, and using isooctane as the fuel, demonstrated the effects of fuel-air mixture preparation on lean operation. Mixture preparation was changed by varying the time of fuel injection in the induction manifold, near the intake valve port. For comparison, a prevaporized fuel-air mixture was also investigated. Emphasis was placed on determining the effects of mixture preparation on combustion characteristics. Based on the results from this study, the often favored prevaporized mixture of fuel and air may not be the best diet for lean engine operation.
Technical Paper

“Web-ACSYNT”: Conceptual-Level Aircraft Systems Analysis on the Internet

1997-10-01
975509
A Web-based version of the aircraft design program ACSYNT has been created. “Web-ACSYNT” provides the user with a familiar user interface and is accessible from multiple platforms. Analyses are based upon a set of baseline aircraft models which can be modified through a carefully selected set of parameters related to weight, aerodynamics, propulsion, economics, and mission. The software is intended to become one of the models that comprise the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) currently being developed by NASA under the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program.
Technical Paper

“Virtual Engine/Powertrain/Vehicle” Simulation Tool Solves Complex Interacting System Issues

2003-03-03
2003-01-0372
An integrated simulation tool has been developed, which is applicable to a wide range of design issues. A key feature introduced for the first time by this new tool is that it is truly a single code, with identical handling of engine, powertrain, vehicle, hydraulics, electrical, thermal and control elements. Further, it contains multiple levels of engine models, so that the user can select the appropriate level for the time scale of the problem (e.g. real-time operation). One possible example of such a combined simulation is the present study of engine block vibration in the mounts. The simulation involved a fully coupled model of performance, thermodynamics and combustion, with the dynamics of the cranktrain, engine block and the driveline. It demonstrated the effect of combustion irregularity on engine shaking in the mounts.
Journal Article

“Verify-on-Demand” - A Practical and Scalable Approach for Broadcast Authentication in Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

2011-04-12
2011-01-0584
In general for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, message authentication is performed on every received wireless message by conducting verification for a valid signature, and only messages that have been successfully verified are processed further. In V2V safety communication, there are a large number of vehicles and each vehicle transmits safety messages frequently; therefore the number of received messages per second would be large. Thus authentication of each and every received message, for example based on the IEEE 1609.2 standard, is computationally very expensive and can only be carried out with expensive dedicated cryptographic hardware. An interesting observation is that most of these routine safety messages do not result in driver warnings or control actions since we expect that the safety system would be designed to provide warnings or control actions only when the threat of collision is high.
Technical Paper

“U” Bolt Torque Influence over Leaf Springs

2014-05-07
2014-36-0024
”U” bolts are fixing elements and they are used to clamp an elastic joint. From the past, they still looking as an old design and unfortunately, suspension engineers are not specialists in fasteners and elastic joints. That is why we will show important assumptions and concepts to design and specifications this clamp element “U” bolt and its influence over leaf-springs. Currently, “U” bolt is used to clamp an elastic or elastic-plastic joint of heavy duty suspension, formed by leaf-spring, axle, spring pad, “U” bolt plate. This kind of suspension is typically used to trucks, buses and trailers. We are wondering, which one important assumption that an engineer must be careful when designs a new suspension changing from old designs to an updated technology. We provide a theoretical analysis and a FEA analysis to compare torque efficacy x leaf-spring reactions and what are effects this relationship can cause in a suspension.
Technical Paper

“Use Of 75ST In Structural Applications”

1947-01-01
470140
The material known as 75ST is a new high strength aluminum alloy that can be used in certain aircraft structural applications to effect a saving in weight or an increase in strength or both over designs using other alloys. However, the structural engineer should be well acquainted with the advantages and limitations of this material before utilizing it in design.
Technical Paper

“Understanding Diesel Engine Lubrication at Low Temperature”

1990-10-01
902177
Oil pumpability in passenger car gasoline engines was well-characterized by an ASTM program and by individual researchers in the 1970's and early 1980's. Oil pumpability in diesel engines however, was not investigated to any significant extent until the mid-1980's. This study was initiated to define the performance of several commercial viscosity modifiers in different formulations containing 3 detergent-inhibitor (DI) additive packages and 4 basestock types. The test oils were run at -18°C (0°F) in a Cummins NTC-400 diesel engine. The results, when statistically analyzed, indicated that a new, second generation olefin copolymer (OCP) viscosity modifier had better performance than a first generation OCP and, furthermore, had performance equal to a polymethacrylate (PMA) viscosity modifier. The analysis also showed that one DI/base stock combination had a significant effect on performance.
Technical Paper

“Triple-Safe” Air Brake System: Service, Emergency, Parking

1971-02-01
710211
The term triple safe is used to identify an air brake system with three separate circuits, two of which are service brake systems of virtually equal effectiveness; the third is a spring parking brake system. The paper reviews the spring parking brake chamber capability and describes a triple-safe air brake system and chambers that have similar service and emergency capacities, and parking capabilities, to meet future requirements of trucks and buses.
Technical Paper

“Trapless” Trap – A Catalytic Combustion System of Diesel Particulates Using Ceramic Foam

1983-02-01
830082
“Trapless” Trap, which makes possible the effective collecting of particulates in diesel exhaust gas and their simultaneous combustion has been developed by use of a ceramic foam in combination with catalysts containing copper salt. From a TEM photograph, it was observed that the particulate was rapidly oxidized by mobile copper ion, showing worm-eaten like spots. Screening of various base metal salts by TGA presented CUCl2-KCl-NH4VO3 and CuCl2-KCl-(NH4)6Mo7O24 as very active catalysts for diesel particulate oxidation. They had thermal stability up to 900°C when they were supported on titania. The results obtained by measuring the back pressure using 1.8L diesel engine suggest the above trap to be a self-cleaning trapless trap.
Technical Paper

“The Turbo-Chief” - San Francisco Fire Department's Gas Turbine Powered Fire Apparatus

1965-02-01
650462
For the past four years the San Francisco Fire Department has owned and operated an American La France Triple Combination Engine Company powered with a Boeing Model 502 gas turbine engine. This engine company, in first line fire service, has illustrated the practicability of the gas turbine in vehicular applications. The purpose of this paper is to outline the experience gained by the use of a gas turbine engine in such an installation.
Technical Paper

“The Network Vehicle - A Glimpse into the Future of Mobile Multi-Media”

1998-11-09
982901
The Network Vehicle is the Delphi Automotive Systems' vision for the future convergence of the communications infrastructure, computers, and the automobile. It features many advanced functions such as: satellite video, Internet access, virtual navigation, remote vehicle diagnostics and control, games, mobile office, automotive web site, and customized real-time stock quotes and sports scores. These features are enabled by an integrated planar antenna that is capable of multiple satellite reception, a client-server network architecture, and unique human-vehicle-interfaces. The software application is written in Java, using API's (Application Programming Interfaces) to reduce the complexity and cost of the source code.
Technical Paper

“The Middle Man”

1979-02-01
790539
The “middle man” in the construction machinery business is the dealer who sells and services the products designed and built by the engineers and scientists of the industry. Quality is a foremost concern of the dealer and second, only to quality, is the need for cost control.
Technical Paper

“The Influence of Idle, Drive Cycle and Accessories on the Fuel Economy of Urban Hybrid Electric Buses - Chassis Dynamometer Tests”

2003-11-10
2003-01-3438
Fuel economy can be part of a business case for a fleet making the decision to buy new HD hybrid drivetrain technologies. Chassis dynamometer tests using SAE Recommended Practice J2711 on a bus equipped with an Allison EP SYSTEM ™ hybrid system and operated on standard bus driving cycles have produced impressive gains of over 60%. Preliminary urban bus field tests, on the other hand, have shown lower fuel economy gains. The difference can be attributed, in part, to the use of accessories - most importantly air conditioning - which are parasitic loads on the vehicle. In this paper the characteristics of driving cycles are studied to determine those factors which have the strongest influence on fuel economy for hybrids. The data show that the number of stopping events in a route or cycle is a strong influence as is the average vehicle speed. Energy analysis will show the relationship of fuel economy benefit and battery energy within a driving cycle.
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