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Technical Paper

“TFC/IW in 1982”

TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia weight is reported with other engineering variables for recent EPA data for industry passenger cars and truck. TFC/IW is used in comparisons between gasoline and diesel engines, 49 States and California, passenger cars and trucks. The California fuel economy penalty due to more stringent emissions standards is discussed. The relationship between TFC/IW and ton miles per gallon is shown. Special attention is focused on 4 cylinder gasoline powered vehicles in 49 States passenger car fleet. The use of TFC/IW to answer the question, ‘What Changed?’ when comparing the fuel economies of two fleets is described.
Technical Paper

“Passenger Vehicle Petrol Consumption - Measurement in the Real World”

A survey of the in-service fuel consumption of passenger vehicles and derivatives in the Australian fleet was carried out in 1984-85. Seven hundred and four owners across Australia took part in the survey. Vehicle owners reported by questionnaire the amount of fuel used during four tank fills of normal operation, the distance travelled, and other details of the operating circumstances. The survey shows a clear downward trend in the fuel consumption of the Australian passenger fleet. The data also provides comparisons of actual fuel consumption obtained on the road, with laboratory derived values for fuel consumption. Vehicles in a sub-set of 40 were fitted with fuel flow meters during the survey and tested to Australian Standard 2077 for fuel consumption. The questionnaire method is shown to be a valid and accurate technique for determining in-service fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

“Fuel Flow Method2” for Estimating Aircraft Emissions

In recent years there has been increasing interest in quantifying the emissions from aircraft in order to generate inventories of emissions for climate models, technology and scenario studies, and inventories of emissions for airline fleets typically presented in environmental reports. The preferred method for calculating aircraft engine emissions of NOx, HC, and CO is the proprietary “P3T3” method. This method relies on proprietary airplane and engine performance models along with proprietary engine emissions characterizations. In response and in order to provide a transparent method for calculating aircraft engine emissions non proprietary fuel flow based methods 1,2,3 have been developed. This paper presents derivation, updates, and clarifications of the fuel flow method methodology known as “Fuel Flow Method 2”.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Potential Aerodynamic Drag Reductions from Trailer Aerodynamic Component Combinations

The use of devices to reduce aerodynamic drag on large trailers and save fuel in long-haul, over-the-road freight operations has spurred innovation and prompted some trucking fleets to use them in combinations to achieve even greater gains in fuel-efficiency. This paper examines aerodynamic performance and potential drag reduction benefits of using trailer aerodynamic components in combinations based upon wind tunnel test data. Representations of SmartWay-verified trailer aerodynamic components were tested on a one-eighth scale model of a class 8 sleeper tractor and a fifty three foot, van trailer model. The open-jet wind tunnel employed a rolling floor to reduce floor boundary layer interference. The drag impacts of aerodynamic packages are evaluated for both van and refrigerated trailers. Additionally, the interactions between individual aerodynamic devices is investigated.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Development of the Dragfoiler - A System for Reducing Tractor-Trailer Aerodynamic Drag

Dragfoiler II, an effective and practical add-on aerodynamic drag reducing system for tractor-trailers, has been developed. Wind tunnel tests with 1/16- and 1/7-scale tractor-trailer models were used to determine empirical design guidelines for the Dragfoiler II's side elevation and planform shapes. Optimum designs for various combinations of tractor roof height and length, trailer height, and tractor-to-trailer gap length gave zero-yaw drag reductions between 30 and 35%. At a yaw angle of 10°, the percentage drag reductions were about half those at 0°. Off-design performance and the effects of trailer side-edge geometry were investigated. Several full-scale Dragfoiler II's are currently undergoing proving ground and commercial fleet evaluation tests.
Technical Paper

Why Dual Tires Do Not Stay Matched

TIRE matching is not a simple matter, says Mr. Place, for a good program of matching on one operation may not give as good results, relatively, on another. For this reason, he asserts that it is impossible to make one blanket recommendation that will give the best overall results on all fleet operations. Thus, he confines himself to describing what takes place during the use of dual tires, and discusses certain service expedients that operators may try under close observation.
Technical Paper

What the Fleet Operator Should Know About Fuels and Lubricants

AID for the fleet operator is contained in this paper, which presents basic information to help him get the best from his fuel, whether he uses gasoline or diesel fuel, from his lubricating oil, whether he uses the regular or heavy duty, and from his gear lubricants.
Technical Paper

What Should the United States do after the Space Shuttle?

In the past decade, the space shuttle has been the key factor for the United States manned space exploration. In fact the space shuttle is the only means in which the United States government can send humans into space. However, the space shuttle's life-expectancy is due to expire around the year 2005. In preparation for the end of the space shuttle era, we, as a country, must decide what type of future space vehicle is appropriate to accomplish our future national goals in space. There are many public policy alternatives to the question: ‘What will replace the space shuttle?’ First, the United States could try a conservative approach to space exploration by developing and using an unmanned vehicle. Second, the government could opt for utility by developing a mixed fleet of launch vehicles. Third, the United States could try to modify and update the current space shuttles with new technology.
Technical Paper

What Is the Destination for Motor Transportation?

UNJUST legislation in the middle of the 19th Century retarded the introduction of road locomotion. The Motor Carrier Act, 1935, calls for extreme regulation, patterned after railroad control. The many differences between the two services prevent like treatment without strangling the virtues and economies of motor transportation. The difficulty of attempting to regulate it is due to the fact that most “fleets” consist of one truck which is owner-operated and only 9 per cent of all trucks are of the For-Hire type. The present predicament of the railroads is due chiefly to general conditions brought about by the depression, the result of over-regulation, and in not keeping in step with the advancement of other industries. The passenger automobile accounts for some loss of revenue, but its use is taken for granted. It therefore seems strange that the other forms of rubber-tired vehicle are not accepted in the march of progress.
Technical Paper

What Fleet Operators Should Know About Tires

THIS paper is a non-technical review of an up-to-date survey of the lines of tires needed in all types and classes of fleet operation. To understand better how to get the best results from their operations, operators must know the proper type of tire to use. The author first describes and catalogs the principle forms of tire failures, then reviews the characteristics of the fundamental lines of tires available at the present time. Next, an attempt is made to classify the different types of fleet operation so that definite recommendations can be made as to the most appropriate tire equipment for these vehicles. The types of tire trouble most commonly encountered in each group are brought out with suggestions on how to avoid them. This part is followed by a section giving advice on the care of tires. The paper concludes with a brief survey of worthwhile facts about repairs and retreading. An appendix contains the load-inflation tables which are most widely used.
Technical Paper

What Data Processing has done for Our Maintenance, Inventory Control, and Vehicle Replacement

Electronic data processing has been used as a management tool in vehicle replacement, inventory control, and vehicle maintenance in a large fleet. It also shows promise in vehicle maintenance scheduling. Data processing can point out problem vehicles, and predict maintenance cost in the future so vehicles can be replaced at the most economical cost.
Journal Article

What DAIV (Demand as an Independent Variable) says About Your Market

This paper shows how the quantity demanded, viewed as an independent variable, interacts with customer values, producer costs and constraints. Failure to analyze Demand as Independent Variable (pronounced “Dave”) increases the chances that new programs will not launch, or once started, will fail. All producers in all markets face demand curves that describe their customers' reaction to price changes. Aggregate market demand curves show how buyers react to price changes within broad product sets, while product demand curves show buyer responses to a specific item. Demand curves relate quantities sold relative to their prices. In several military, transit and fleet cases, minimum quantity requirements form upper price boundaries along demand curves. Allowing prices to go so high that buying authorities cannot acquire the required numbers of units likely means that there may not be sufficient resources to form systems that can accomplish the buyers' goals.
Technical Paper

What Alternative Drive-train Technologies and Policies are Needed to Meet a 50% CO2 Reduction Target? The Case of the EU-Fleet

Facing global climate change and the oncoming shortage of fossil resources, it is necessary to reduce fossil energy consumption. There is a strong need for action concerning road traffic as a main originator of greenhouse gas emissions by use of fossil energy. For a strong mitigation effect, the technological improvement of today’s petrol and diesel engines has to be accompanied by the promotion of alternative vehicles, still being sparsely represented in most car fleets. The spread of one or more new drive-train technologies throughout the transportation sector represents an innovation diffusion process, which is needed in order to achieve long-term climate and energy policy goals. By applying our recently developed model for the market penetration of competing alternative drive-train technologies, this work contributes to the understanding of main processes influencing the diffusion rate.
Technical Paper

Well-To-Wheel Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Hypothetical Fleet of Electrified Vehicles in Canada and the U.S.

The objective of this study is to determine the energy use and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions involved in adopting various electrified vehicle technologies over the next decade in Canada and the United States. The vehicle architectures selected for this work stem from those in the EcoCAR competitions. Each architecture was simulated using Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software to determine the energy consumption and petroleum use. Natural Resources Canada's GHGenius model and ANL's GREET model were employed to determine the upstream emissions resulting from each region's power generation mix. Results from each powertrain and fuel combination were analyzed in order to understand the repercussions of introducing these vehicle technologies over the next decade. The three Canadian Provinces selected for this study were Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec. The U.S. regions studied were the Northeastern U.S., California, and the complete U.S. mix.
Technical Paper

Weighing Vehicles Static and in Motion By Electronic Scales

VEHICLE weighing is playing an increasingly important part in highway department planning surveys, in addition to its traditional role in helping fleet owners maintain safe loads and in the enforcement of state road load limits. Described here is a relatively recent electronic method for weighing trucks of all types. Statically, it can be used for accurate loading of commodities such as cement, at the same time recording empty weight, gross weight, and axle weights. On the road, without the annoyance of weighing stations, it can record truck speed and weight, axle spacing, and individual axle loads. Constant improvements in equipment, the author reports, eventually will eliminate even the small error now encountered in comparison with static weighing.
Technical Paper

Wear Rate Determination for IC Engine Condition Monitoring Results Obtained in an Urban Transport Fleet

This paper is structured into two different parts: Firstly, it describes a methodology to evaluate wear conditions in internal combustion engines in order to go beyond the classical evaluation based on specified wear concentration limits provided by engine manufacturers or commercial oil laboratories. The proposed methodology uses spectrometric wear debris measurement data and typical maintenance data to obtain a more representative parameter of wear condition, defined as “compensated wear rate”, that takes into account particular engine operating conditions affecting wear concentration measurements. Later, an evaluation of this compensated wear rate is carried out using statistical criteria and considering individual engine characteristics such as engine age, type of service, engine metallurgy, environmental conditions of work etc.
Technical Paper

Wear Protection Properties of Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Lubricants

A laboratory wear test is used to evaluate the wear protection properties of new and used engine oils formulated for FFV service. Laboratory-blended mixtures of these oils with methanol and water have also been tested. The test consists of a steel ball rotating against three polished cast iron discs. Oil samples are obtained at periodic intervals from a fleet of 3.0L Taurus vehicles operating under controlled go-stop conditions. To account for the effects of fuel dilution, some oils are tested before and after a stripping procedure to eliminate gasoline, methanol and other volatile components. In addition to TAN and TBN measurements, a capillary electrophoresis technique is used to evaluate the formate content in the oils. The results suggest that wear properties of used FFV lubricants change significantly with their degree of usage.