The Network Vehicle is the Delphi Automotive Systems' vision for the future convergence of the communications infrastructure, computers, and the automobile. It features many advanced functions such as: satellite video, Internet access, virtual navigation, remote vehicle diagnostics and control, games, mobile office, automotive web site, and customized real-time stock quotes and sports scores. These features are enabled by an integrated planar antenna that is capable of multiple satellite reception, a client-server network architecture, and unique human-vehicle-interfaces. The software application is written in Java, using API's (Application Programming Interfaces) to reduce the complexity and cost of the source code.
High performance lubricant additive systems have been developed to formulate SAE 5W-30 passenger car engine oils which meet current and anticipated requirements of the North American original equipment manufacturers. The trend in North America is to recommend SAE 5W-30 oils that not only meet the API SF requirements for gasoline engines (“first-generation” oils), but also meet the stringent API CC requirement for light duty diesel engines (“second-generation” oils). Furthermore, the engine builders have issued “world specifications” for motor oils which incorporate additional “second-generation” SAE 5W-30 characteristics, such as enhanced API SF limits, improved fuel efficiency, an increased margin of bearing protection, and lower finished-oil phosphorus levels. The additive systems described herein exceed API SF and CC requirements as well as “second-generation” performance hurdles.
This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Research information on solid lubricants has been compiled for consideration in the possible use of such materials in aircraft electrical equipment. Solid lubricants are capable of lubricating at the maximum temperatures (600° F) for aircraft electrical equipment. Many solids that adhere well to metals may be useful lubricants; those with layer-lattice structure usually give low friction. Solid lubricants are most commonly used as bonded films but the use of fluid carriers and surface reaction products have considerable merit.
A wide body aircraft carries almost a half–ton of water and ice between the cabin and skin of the aircraft. The water can get on wires and connectors, which can cause electrical problems, cause corrosion and rust, and, eventually, “rain in the plane”. The speaker is the CEO of CTT Systems that has developed a system that solves the condensation by using dry air. The speaker will discuss how condensation can be prevented and how airlines can also save maintenance costs in the process. This topic is relevant for the attendees at the Aerospace Expo, as they are decision makers who need to be aware of this issue. It is also important for the MRO shows as the attendees are on the front lines of dealing with this problem.
The objective of the development of the aerodynamic drag predictive tool CDaero was for use as a module for the Automobile Design Support System (AutoDSS). CDaero is an empirically based drag coefficient predictive tool based initially on the MIRA (Motor Industry Research Association) algorithm. The development philosophy was to be able to predict the aerodynamic drag coefficient of an automobile with knowledge of the features of the surface geometry control curves. These are the curves that control the 3-dimensional geometry as seen in the profile, plan and front and rear views. CDaero has been developed in a computing environment using the equation solver TKSolver™. Fifty-one input feature values are first determined from the automobile geometry and then entered into the program. CDaero models the drag coefficient with thirteen different components covering the basic body, as well as additional components such as the wheels, mud flaps, etc.
Worldwide, 1.2 million people die in road crashes yearly; 43,000 in Europe alone. This implies a cost to European society of approximately 160 billion euros, and takes up 10% of all healthcare resources. To reduce these rates, safety technologies have been developed which help to minimize the severity of injuries to vehicle occupants. However, studies have shown that most deaths due to road accidents occur in the time between the accident and the arrival of medical care. Therefore, a fast and efficient rescue operation would significantly increase the injured person's probability of survival. The aim of this project was to define the On-Board Unit (OBU) hardware and software installed in all modern vehicles which could request medical and technical support after a road accident. This device, based on the information from the vehicle sensors, automatically decides whether the car has suffered a road accident or not, the severity of the accident and the kind of accident (impact area).
This paper describes a vehicle-level simulation model for climate control and powertrain cooling developed and currently utilized at GM. The tool was developed in response to GM's need to speed vehicle development for HVAC and powertrain cooling to meet world-class program execution timing (18 to 24 month vehicle development cycles). At the same time the simulation tool had to complement GM's strategy to move additional engineering responsibility to its HVAC suppliers. This simulation tool called “e-Thermal” was quickly developed and currently is in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper describes GM's objectives and requirements for developing e-Thermal. The structure of the tool and the capabilities of the simulation tool modules (refrigeration, front end airflow, passenger compartment, engine, transmission, Interior air handling …) is introduced. Model data requirements and GM's strategy for acquiring component data are also described.
PAPER DESCRIBES a procedure for the dynamical design of linear vibration isolators to protect a rigid equipment from the sinusoidal motions of a nonrigid supporting structure. A single degree of translational freedom of the equipment is assumed. Three types of data are required: (1) The equipment mass and its so-called fragility curve, (2) the mechanical admittance of the supporting structure and its amplitude of vibration when it supports no load, and (3) information to establish a minimum stiffness of the isolators. The procedure yields a region of permissible natural frequency and fraction of critical damping combinations for the isolator-mass system. The specification for the isolator dynamical requirements, including allowable tolerances, is derived from this region.*
THIS PAPER is concerned with design problems which are encountered on manned aircraft operating at very high speeds. Very high speeds are considered to be from Mach 2 or 1300 mph to speeds of the order of Mach 38 or 25,000 mph, which is the velocity for escape from the earth. Mach 2 is considered a logical starting point since it represents the approximate upper limit of present day military aircraft. Manned aircraft will continue to be developed for flight at very high speed and high altitudes and the experiences gained will serve as stepping stones to eventual manned satellites and space vehicles. The major problems to be solved relate to aerodynamic heating, stability and control, and human effects. This paper received the 1958 Wright Brothers Medal.
For human beings who have been reared on the earth with its 1 G gravitational field, the condition of weightlessness is a world with which we are unfamiliar. Even if the layout and equipment configuration of a spacecraft designed to compensate for operation under Zero-G conditions, there are some things which are not effective under actual weightless conditions. In the design of a manned spacecraft, it is necessary to accumulate design data on human performance in a weightless condition, then to undertake design evaluations and verification under weightless conditions. In this paper, testing for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of Zero-G simulation using neutral buoyancy, conducted first of all in Japan, and recommendations on the equipment and Facilities required to conduct such simulations, are described.
In the developement process, the engineer is required to design, validate and deliver the components for manufacturing, in an as short as possible lead time. For that, the engineer may use some available tools to save not only time, but also cost. This work presents a zero prototype approach applyied to a plastic component, whose main accomplishment was the decreasing of lead time development due to the intensive use of virtual tools (CAD/CAE). As a result, the product was delivered in a short time, with no need of building physical prototypes, thus reducing development cost.
As the demand for more complex system development and the ever-increasing requirement for improvement in software productivity, the need for graphical programming or Zero-Hand Coding for automatic generation of controller software becomes highly desirable. The graphical programming must not be limited to the algorithm development which consists of the application modules but must be extended to the microcontroller platform, which include the middleware (i.e. operating system, I/O device drivers) and hardware. Automatic code generation is very important for programming the complex microcontroller internal parameters and registers. The combined software tool chain is to generate the final target specific executable code. This approach is very beneficial for system development, reduction of the development cycle and bridges the gap between control and software engineers reducing time, effort and cost of the production software.
This paper describes the ZENITH Nano-Satellite cum planetary atmospheric entry vehicle, called CanSat, the first Nano-Satellite project that has been developed by Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), India. The satellite will function for monitoring the concentrations of various gases in the atmosphere. For this, the satellite consists of arduino microcontroller interfaced with the various Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gas sensors for measuring the concentrations of various gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, etc. The data obtained from the CanSat will be transmitted to the ground station where all the data will be stored and also the locations will be stored using GPS sensor. The academic goal of this project is to recruit students to the field of space science and technology.
Development of car production industry in Yugoslavia has three ecological phases. The first one is to satisfy ECE Rules by optimization of engine and vehicle equipment. The second phase is to enter the American market with help of professional foreign development institutions. The third phase is now in focus; to adjust to new European regulations. For the development tasks it is typical to lean on foreign licenses. The real development jobs were occasionally given to faculties, while the research units in factories were overburdened by operative tasks from production. Research jobs were always at mother companies, only some small segment of them was, for the short period, at some faculty or larger institute.
The hazardous bulk chemical liquid cargo transportation is usually made through highways, using special automotive devices, named semitrailer tank, a kind of mobile tank specially developed to perform this task, manufactured with many types of steel, selected according to the chemical characteristics of the product to be transported. Equipment sizing is made based on specific standards which include specified formulas, loading, and safety factors representing the design criteria of this type of device. Despite of the detailed design criteria for semitrailer tank, it has been observed failure of some pieces of equipment during operation, in a shorter effective life than that one considered in the design phase itself. Considering a detailed study of the stress distribution in this type of equipment, this paper shows a verification of the possibility of yielding failure in the semitrailer tank structure.
Data obtained when harvesting with a combine equipped with a yield monitor were used to develop yield maps. A prototype yield monitor was developed that uses a combination of light emitters and receivers mounted in a rectangular frame. The monitor was mounted in the combine in the top of the clean grain elevator. As grain flows through the monitor, a voltage change proportional to light reduction was recorded. This voltage was then correlated to grain flow rate. At the same time, site-specific location was recorded using the global positioning satellites (GPS) system. The location data, yield monitor output, cutting width, and combine forward speed were stored in a spreadsheet format. The data were then used to prepare the yield maps.