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Technical Paper

“OptiVent” - A New Approach for Controlling Mass Air Flow and Combustion in Direct Injection SI-Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0592
Combustion concepts for future SI engines try to meet CO2-emission commitments and legislation all over the world. Where the Diesel engine has an advantage by principle, the efficiency of the SI engine has to be improved significantly, while of course the exhaust emissions must not become worse. An approach is to reduce the gas exchange losses using fully variable valve trains on the intake side of the combustion engine. OptiVent is a patented new way of controlling the mass air flow in the cylinder of a combustion engine using opening valves during the compression phase of a four stroke engine. This technology regards a wider range of variability on the valvetrain components of the engine especially for opening the valves more than one time during a cycle. On the other hand it is necessary to combine this technology with direct injection to avoid fuel losses in the exhaust system and raising the exhaust hydrocarbon emission of the engine.
Technical Paper

“KATPROG” for the Determination of an Optimal Cost Effective Catalyst System

2001-01-10
2001-26-0016
An two-dimensional axial symmetrical finite volume model will be introduced for the calculation of catalytic converters. It is able to predict transient temperatures and conversion rates in different converter systems according to the driving conditions. Input data are the mass-flow rate, the converter inlet temperature and the raw emissions. The performance of this model is demonstrated on an Indian motorcycle application. Cold start behavior and peak temperatures are investigated. This model has proven to be an effective tool for the preselection of an optimal cost effective catalyst system.
Technical Paper

“Investigation of High Achievable Pollutant Reduction on a “State of the Art” Indian 2 Wheelers - Technology Road Map to a Cleaner Air”

2015-11-17
2015-32-0802
Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two and three wheeler industry in developing countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions and to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. As a contribution Continental Emitec started a comprehensive testing program with a state of the art 180 cc Bharat Stage (BS) III Indian motorcycle. The program consists of testing the state of the art of Metallic substrates with structured foils with various catalyst sizes and positions (original or close coupled). The publication presents a short literature survey and the results of the investigation with a big catalyst volume mounted in underfloor position as well as in close coupled position, gained over the World-wide harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle, considering the two possible vehicle classifications of this motorcycle, Sub-Class 2.1 and Sub-Class 2.2.
Technical Paper

“Fuel Flow Method2” for Estimating Aircraft Emissions

2006-08-30
2006-01-1987
In recent years there has been increasing interest in quantifying the emissions from aircraft in order to generate inventories of emissions for climate models, technology and scenario studies, and inventories of emissions for airline fleets typically presented in environmental reports. The preferred method for calculating aircraft engine emissions of NOx, HC, and CO is the proprietary “P3T3” method. This method relies on proprietary airplane and engine performance models along with proprietary engine emissions characterizations. In response and in order to provide a transparent method for calculating aircraft engine emissions non proprietary fuel flow based methods 1,2,3 have been developed. This paper presents derivation, updates, and clarifications of the fuel flow method methodology known as “Fuel Flow Method 2”.
Technical Paper

“Active Mass Absorber” at a 4×4 Transmition System

2003-11-18
2003-01-3682
The extensive use of rotative machines in the diverse branches of the modern world has made the rising undesirable mechanical and acoustic vibration levels to be a problem of special importance for the machines normal operation as for the communities that are each time more affected by the problem. It makes the study of vibration and acoustic phenomena also to be even more important and the applications of its concepts more sophisticated. Several are the concepts used for decreasing vibration levels, like common dampers, hydraulic dampers, active dampers, natural frequencies changes and others. The choice of use of one or another depends greatly on the engineering possibilities (weight, energy, physical space, other components functional interference, vibration levels, etc.) as well as the cost of implementation of each one.
Technical Paper

“A Flame Ionization Technique for Measuring Total Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust”

1968-02-01
680419
The method of flame ionization was used for measuring total hydrocarbons in both single-cylinder and multicylinder 4-cycle, direct injection diesel engine exhaust. Use of the emission parameters of hydrocarbon concentration, per cent unburned fuel, specific hydrocarbon rate, mass of hydrocarbons per million cycles, mass of hydrocarbons per mile, and mass of hydrocarbons per ton-mile are discussed. The basic approach used in the flame ionization detector is shown. The hydrocarbon sample was transferred from the exhaust system through a heated sample line and oven operating at 375 F. The sample line was aspirated to reduce the sample residence time to 2 sec. The effect various sampling locations have on hydrocarbon measurements from a single-cylinder engine is shown and discussed. The effects of load, speed, and injection timing on hydrocarbon emission data are shown for a single-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

‘Regulated’ and ‘Non-regulated’ Emissions from Modern European Passenger Cars

2006-04-03
2006-01-1516
Regulated emissions from four current production European vehicles were measured over the Common Artemis Driving Cycles (CADC). Particulate Mass and Particle Number measurements were made in accordance with the newly-developed draft Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) developed for the UN-ECE's expert group on pollution and energy (GRPE). During the test programme measurements were also made of currently non-regulated emissions including PAHs and speciation of the particulate material and key hydrocarbons. CADC results are presented for each of the four vehicles tested (one conventional gasoline vehicle, two different types of diesel without Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and one diesel with DPF) with results measured on the regulated New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) test for comparison. The emissions results on the Artemis cycles showed some significant differences from those on the regulated (NEDC) test cycle.
Technical Paper

µMist® - The next generation fuel injection system: Improved atomisation and combustion for port-fuel-injected engines

2011-08-30
2011-01-1890
The Swedish Biomimetics 3000's μMist® platform technology has been used to develop a radically new injection system. This prototype system, developed and characterized with support from Lotus, as part of Swedish Biomimetics 3000®'s V₂IO innovation accelerating model, delivers improved combustion efficiency through achieving exceptionally small droplets, at fuel rail pressures far less than conventional GDI systems and as low as PFI systems. The system gives the opportunity to prepare and deliver all of the fuel load for the engine while the intake valves are open and after the exhaust valves have closed, thereby offering the potential to use advanced charge scavenging techniques in PFI engines which have hitherto been restricted to direct-injection engines, and at a lower system cost than a GDI injection system.
Journal Article

xD+1D Catalyst Simulation-A Numerical Study on the Impact of Pore Diffusion

2012-04-16
2012-01-1296
This paper presents a numerical study on the impact of washcoat diffusion on the overall conversion performance of catalytic converters. A comprehensive transient 1D pore diffusion reaction model is embedded in state-of-the-art 1D and 3D catalytic converter models. The pore diffusion model is discussed with its model equations and the applied diffusive transport approaches are summarized. The diffusion reaction model is validated with the help of two available analytical solutions. The impact of basic washcoat characteristics such as pore diameters or thickness on overall conversion performance is investigated by selected 1D+1D calculations. This model is also used to highlight the impact of boundary layer transfer, pore diffusion and reaction on the overall converter conversion performance. The interaction of pore diffusion and flow non-uniformities is demonstrated by 3D+1D CFD simulations.
Technical Paper

mDSF: Improved Fuel Efficiency, Drivability and Vibrations via Dynamic Skip Fire and Miller Cycle Synergies

2019-04-02
2019-01-0227
mDSF is a novel cylinder deactivation technology developed at Tula Technology, which combines the torque control of Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) with Miller cycle engines to optimize fuel efficiency at minimal cost. mDSF employs a valvetrain with variable valve lift plus deactivation and novel control algorithms founded on Tula’s proven DSF technology. This allows cylinders to dynamically alternate among 3 potential states: high-charge fire, low-charge fire, and skip (deactivation). The low-charge fire state is achieved through an aggressive Miller cycle with Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC). The three operating states in mDSF can be used to simultaneously optimize engine efficiency and driveline vibrations. Acceleration performance is retained using the all-cylinder, high-charge firing mode.
Technical Paper

Zone Length Optimization to Improve PGM Utility

2014-04-01
2014-01-1508
“Zoning” a catalytic converter involves placing higher concentrations of platinum group metals (PGM) in the inlet portion of the substrate. This is done to optimize the cost-to-performance tradeoff by increasing the reaction rate at lower temperatures while minimizing PGM usage. A potentially useful application of catalyst zoning is to improve performance using a constant PGM mass. A study was performed to assess what the optimum ratio of front to rear palladium zone length is to achieve the highest performance in vehicle emission testing. Varying the zone ratio from 1:1 to 1:9 shows a clear hydrocarbon performance optimum at a 1:5.66 (15%/85%) split. This performance optimum shows as both a minimum in FTP75 non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions as well as a minimum in hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide light-off temperature. Overall, an improvement of 18%, or 11 mg/mi of combined NMOG+NOx emissions was obtained without using additional PGM.
Technical Paper

Zero-Delay Light-Off - A New Cold-Start Concept with a Latent Heat Storage Integrated into a Catalyst Substrate

2007-04-16
2007-01-1074
This study aims at a new concept for a fast catalyst light-off in combining a latent heat storage with a catalyst. The arrangement of a latent heat storage device into the exhaust system offers significant benefits for the catalyst light-off. Different arrangements have been examined. The first arrangement, called the sequential arrangement, comprises a latent heat storage device and a subsequent catalyst. This offers a significantly faster heat up of the catalyst compared to the standard arrangement. By that emissions during the cold start phase can be significantly reduced. The setup of the latent heat storage device is designed for a high heat transfer between storage material and the exhaust gas. A second integrated arrangement of a latent heat storage and a catalyst into one common substrate has also been set up and investigated. The main advantage of this arrangement is that the catalyst itself is kept on its operation temperature during the engine off time.
Technical Paper

Year-Long Evaluation of Trucks and Buses Equipped with Passive Diesel Particulate Filters

2002-03-04
2002-01-0433
A program has been completed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in truck and bus fleets operating in southern California. The fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO (a BP Company) and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. Vehicles were retrofitted with two types of catalyzed DPFs, and operated on ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel for over one year. Exhaust emissions, fuel economy and operating cost data were collected for the test vehicles, and compared with baseline control vehicles. Regulated emissions are presented from two rounds of tests. The first round emissions tests were conducted shortly after the vehicles were retrofitted with the DPFs. The second round emissions tests were conducted following approximately one year of operation. Several of the vehicles retrofitted with DPFs accumulated well over 100,000 miles of operation between test rounds.
Technical Paper

XA-100 Hybrid Electric Vehicle

1992-02-01
920440
The experimental XA-100 is a 5-passenger 4-door Chevrolet Corsica that has been retrofitted with an electric-motor propulsion system, batteries, and an on-board engine/alternator system. The XA-100 is designed 1) to travel on around-town and short freeway commute trips on battery power alone with zero exhaust emissions (zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV)) and 2) to travel as an ultra-low-emissions vehicle (ULEV) on long distance trips using an on-board engine/alternator (i.e., an auxiliary power unit (APU)) for electric power. In all other respects (e.g., performance, handling, user interface), the XA-100 is designed to retain the characteristics of the conventional Corsica to the greatest degree possible. The XA-100 was developed as a result of research sponsored in part by the California Energy Commission (CEC), with labor donated by members of the Electric Auto Association (EAA) and faculty, staff and students of Stanford University.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Trends in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Exhaust Emission Legislation and Compliance Technologies

1997-02-24
970753
This paper reviews the trend in worldwide exhaust emission regulations for heavy-duty diesel engines and common key technologies that must be developed and applied in order to meet these regulations. The common key technologies are intake and exhaust system with turbocharger and intercooler, electronically controlled high-pressure fuel injection system, exhaust gas recirculation, and exhaust gas after-treatment devices. This paper also introduces test results of common key technologies, concepts for low-emission heavy-duty diesel engines, and the possibilities for meeting future exhaust emission legislation is described.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Harmonization of Exhaust Emission Test Procedures for Nonroad Engines Based on the International Standard ISO 8178

1998-09-14
982043
An international standard for nonroad engines has been developed that comprises gaseous and particulate emissions measurement procedures, smoke testing, test cycles, and an engine family and group concept. Through a joint effort of industry and government agencies, ISO 8178 has become the basis for emissions legislation in the USA, the European Union and Japan and of the International Maritime Organization. The ultimate goal of worldwide harmonization for the worldwide engine industry has been reached, but much effort is still needed to maintain the level of harmonization achieved today. The validity of ISO 8178 has been demonstrated on a round robin test with three engines of 19 to 170 kW circulated around 28 test laboratories. Test-to-test repeatability was generally lower than 10 %. Lab-to-lab variability was less than 10 % for NOx and particulates, and over 25 % for HC and CO. The equivalence of partial flow and full flow dilution systems for particulates has been proven.
Technical Paper

Wire Mesh Mixer Optimization for DEF Deposit Prevention

2015-04-14
2015-01-0989
Diesel engine NOx emissions requirements have become increasingly stringent over the past two decades. Engine manufacturers have shown through the use of EGR and SCR technology that these requirements can be met. However, the desires for improved fuel efficiency, lower overall cost, and potential legislation to reduce NOx levels further increase the demand for higher DEF dosing rates. To meet this demand, a new DEF mixing technology has been developed. This paper describes the development methods used to create a compact, in-pipe mixer which utilizes an optimized wire mesh along with swirling flow to permit high DEF dosing rates without deposit formation. Its excellent mixing characteristics allowed for high NOx reduction to be achieved. Utilization of this technology makes it possible to reduce regeneration frequency, reduce the overall size of the SCR system, possibly eliminate the EGR system, and improve fuel efficiency through combustion enhancements.
SAE MOBILUS Subscription

Wiley SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package

2018-03-23
Committed to being the primary source for aerospace and ground vehicle engineering resources, SAE International has added the full compilation of our Wiley eBook collections to the SAE MOBILUS® technical resource platform. Purchasable as an annual subscription and containing the titles from the Wiley Aerospace Collection, the Wiley Automotive Collection, the Wiley Computer Systems Collection, and the Wiley Cyber Security Collection.
SAE MOBILUS Subscription

Wiley Automotive Collection

2018-03-23
Purchasable as an annual subscription, the Wiley Automotive Collection contains 20 eBook titles and focuses on a wide range of categories, including engines, transmission, chassis, body, electrical, safety, and manufacturing. Titles covering new and emerging topics such as battery technology and electric and hybrid vehicles are included as well, making the series an essential addition to any institution’s automotive resources.
Technical Paper

Why Some Passenger Car Motor Oils Are No Longer Suitable for Motorcycles: Gear Pitting Issues

2005-10-12
2005-32-0088
The new American Petroleum Institute (API) categories for passenger car motor oils have focused on improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. This has resulted in more fuel efficient oils being developed by lowering the viscometrics and by adding friction modifiers. The emissions reductions have resulted from lowering the percent phosphorus (%P) in the engine oils because phosphorus has been found to poison the catalyst in the catalytic converter. When friction modifiers were introduced, researchers from four Japanese motorcycle manufacturers published the results of their studies (SAE 961217) which indicated that low friction oil can cause too much slippage in starter motor clutches, one-way limited slip clutches, and wet multi-plate clutches. In that same study they reported that engine manufacturers use 10W-30 grade oil to develop new engine technology, and gear pitting was observed with oils of viscosity grades lower than 10W-30 in all four manufacturers' motorcycle engines.
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