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Technical Paper

“The Influence of Idle, Drive Cycle and Accessories on the Fuel Economy of Urban Hybrid Electric Buses - Chassis Dynamometer Tests”

Fuel economy can be part of a business case for a fleet making the decision to buy new HD hybrid drivetrain technologies. Chassis dynamometer tests using SAE Recommended Practice J2711 on a bus equipped with an Allison EP SYSTEM ™ hybrid system and operated on standard bus driving cycles have produced impressive gains of over 60%. Preliminary urban bus field tests, on the other hand, have shown lower fuel economy gains. The difference can be attributed, in part, to the use of accessories - most importantly air conditioning - which are parasitic loads on the vehicle. In this paper the characteristics of driving cycles are studied to determine those factors which have the strongest influence on fuel economy for hybrids. The data show that the number of stopping events in a route or cycle is a strong influence as is the average vehicle speed. Energy analysis will show the relationship of fuel economy benefit and battery energy within a driving cycle.
Technical Paper

“Seizure-Delay” Method for Determining the Seizure Protection of EP Lubricants

IT does not yet seem to be recognized fully that it is the local temperature at the surface of contact and not the local specific pressure that chiefly determines the occurrence of seizure under extreme-pressure-lubrication conditions. This local temperature is the result of the temperature level of the parts lubricated, considered as a whole (“bulk” temperature) and of a superimposed instantaneous temperature rise (temperature “flash”) which is localized in the surface of contact. It appears typical for extreme-pressure-lubrication conditions, as met in gear practice, that the temperature flash is much higher than the bulk temperature. With existing conventional test methods for the determination of the protection against seizure afforded by EP lubricants, a considerable rise of the bulk temperature mostly occurs; as it cannot be controlled sufficiently; thus, leaving an unknown margin for the temperature flash, it renders impossible a reliable determination.
Technical Paper

“RoHS” Compliant Chrome - Free Conversion Coating for Aerospace Manufacturing

This paper presents, chemistry, test data and processing procedures on a non toxic and environmentally friendly chrome-free conversion coating alternative with the same level of adhesion and secondary corrosion resistance as that found in chrome containing conversion coating systems. Test data from military and independent sources will be presented on secondary coating adhesion, electrical conductivity, filiform and neutral salt-spray corrosion resistance as compared to chromate based systems .on magnesium, aluminum and zinc and their respective alloys. The European “RoSH” initiative will not allow for the presence of any hexavalent chromium on imported electrical components as of July first of 2006. Trivalent chromium based systems generate hexavalent chromium due to the oxidation of the trivalent chromium and as such will not be allowed.
Technical Paper

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An Approach Using Augmented Reality

A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behaviour caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure.
Technical Paper

“One-Side Aluminized Steel Sheet” Development and Properties of a New Anti-Corrosion Material

Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. has developed a new process for the production of a “one-side aluminized steel sheet”. The process utilizes a double layer one-side “stop-off” coating to prevent the molten Al from adhering to the steel surface. The “Stop-off” coating is removed by simple mechanical brushing after hot dipping. The characteristics of this product by above mentioned process are: 1) The steel side was as clean as a conventional cold rolled surface and showed no trace of the “stop-off” layer. Thereby, phosphating and ED painting were performed. 2) In the salt spray test data was obtained from zinc and Al coated steel surfaces; the coatings on both surfaces being of equal thickness.
Technical Paper

“Nucleate Boiling Investigations and the Effects of Surface Roughness”

The findings presented in this paper are part of a long term project aimed at raising the science of heat transfer in internal combustion engine cooling galleries. Initial work has been undertaken by the authors and an experimental facility is able to simulate different sizes of coolant passages. External heat is applied and data for the forced convective, nucleate boiling and transition or critical heat flux (CHF) regimes has been obtained. The results highlighted in this paper attempt to quantify the effects of cooling passage surface roughness on the nucleate boiling regime. Tests have been conducted using aluminium test pieces with surface finishes described as smooth, intermediate and as-cast. It has been found that the as-cast surface increases the heat flux density in the nucleate boiling region over that of the smooth and intermediate surfaces.
Technical Paper

“MONOGAL”: A New Anti-Corrosion Material for the Automotive Industry

MONOGAL is a coated steel developped to improve the corrosion resistance of exposed automotive body applications. Its process os based on the brittleness of the η zinc coating in a range of temperatures below the melting point of the zinc. MONOGAL is produced on a hot dip galvanizing line; at the exit of the pot the free zinc is brushed off the light side of the differentially coated sheet. Side 1 of MONOGAL presents a very thin and continuous layer of iron-zinc diffusion alloy with no free zinc. Side 2 is a standard G90 or G60 zinc coating. The iron-zinc alloy layer has excellent anti-galling properties which improve the formability of MONOGAL over two side hot dip galvanized steel with the same r value. MONOGAL also shows good weldability, paintability and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

“Hot Tube Test”-Analysis of Lubricant Effect on Diesel Engine Scuffing

To prevent engine scuffing in the field a new laboratory test called the Hot Tube Test has been established in order to evaluate the high temperature stability of diesel engine oils. In a strip mining application field test using 47 bulldozers powered by the same engine type, half of the engines suffered from piston scuffing failures when operated on a variety of commercially available API CD quality SAE 30 Grade engine oils. All the field test oils have been investigated using the Hot Tube Test, and an analysis of the results indicates that it would be possible to accurately predict scuffing failures by this test method. Furthermore, the reliability of this analysis has been verified by bench engine testing on reference oils. The reasons why the Hot Tube Test predicts the anti-scuffing performance of engine oils are discussed.
Technical Paper

“Derivation of Conduction Heat Transfer in Thin Shell Toroids”

This paper presents the derivation of the equations for circumferential, longitudinal and radial heat transfer conductance for a thin shell toroid or a segment of the toroid. A thin shell toroid is one in which the radius to thickness ratio is greater than 10. The equations for the surface area of a toroid or of a toroidal segment will also be derived along with the equation to determine the location of the centroid. The surface area is needed to determine the radial conductance in the toroid or toroidal segment and the centroid is needed to determine the heat transfer center of the toroid or toroidal segment for circumferential and longitudinal conductance. These equations can be used to obtain more accurate results for conductive heat transfer in toroid which is a curved spacecraft components. A comparison will be made (1) using the equations derived in this paper which takes into account the curvature of the toroid (true geometry) and (2) using flat plates to simulate the toroid.
Technical Paper

“A Study on Simulated Down-hill Brake Test Method for Motorcycles”

As a part of testing the braking performance of motorcycles, the method designed for evaluating the very changes caused in brake characteristics due to heat fade has been recently receiving the close attention of ISO and ECE. With the cooperation of the members of the Motorcycle Brake Subcommittee of Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association we measured temperature changes in the brakes and braking force distribution in motorcycles being driven downhill, based on which we find simple and highly reliable simulation test methods on a flat test course. As for test method, we found the STOP method of repeated starting and stopping more suitable to motorcycles than the SNUB, method of making non-stop running. For both methods we also found test conditions offering the highest correlation to actual down-hill driving.
Technical Paper

‘Motoring Which?’ — Eighteen Years of Human Factors in Comparative Car Testing — An Historical Review

In 1961 the Consumers’ Association in Britain set up a car test unit, and in 1962 the first car test reports were published. These later became the ‘Motoring Which?’ quarterly supplement to ‘Which?’ magazine. The methods and general sequence of the CA car testing procedure are first outlined. The Human Factors contribution to this testing programme is then described. The contribution broadly takes two forms. First, human factors reference data and guidance are provided to assist with the planning and interpretation of the objective measurement programme run by the test unit. Second, an extensive Human Factors Questionnaire (HFQ) programme is organised, and the results are reported, quarterly for every group of test cars. The initial planning of the Human Factors contribution is described; then the essential features of the HFQ programme, and its successive stages of development over the years to the current form with computerised analysis and output are reviewed.
Technical Paper

the development of Refractory Sheet Metal Structures

THIS PAPER REPORTS on the present state of the art in the utilization of refractory metals for air frame and powerplant sheet metal components. By far the most promising of these metals to date is molybdenum. The mechanical and physical properties of molybdenum are well-suited for high-temperature service. The combination of relatively high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion coefficient, good specific heat, and a reasonably high emissivity of a coated surface make this material suitable for exterior surface application on severely aerodynamically heated components. However, in its usable alloyed forms, molybdenum tends to behave in a brittle manner at room temperature, suffering from a high brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. Other unacceptable properties are the presence of laminations in the material, 45-deg preferred angle cracking, and difficulty of controlling interstitial alloying elements. The authors discuss each of these and the progress made in overcoming them
Technical Paper

the behavior of Radiation-Resistant ANP TURBINE LUBRICANTS

RADIATION can produce almost instantaneous failure of modern aircraft lubricants, tests at Southwest Research Institute show. Two types of failures demonstrated are rapid viscosity rise and loss of heat conductivity. Furthermore, it was found that lubricants can become excessively corrosive under high-level radiation. Generally speaking, the better lubricants appeared to improve in performance while marginal ones deteriorated to a greater extent under radiation. When the better lubricants were subjected to static irradiation prior to the deposition test, there was a minor increase in deposition number as the total dose was increased.

Zwick Roell provides flexible materials testing over a wide temperature range

To enable the tests required for development work to be performed with maximum efficiency, the Zwick Roell Group (ZwickRoell) – a global supplier of materials testing machines based out of Ulm, Germany – developed a materials testing machine that can be equipped with both a temperature chamber and a high-temperature furnace.
Technical Paper

Zirconia Based Ceramic, In-Cylinder Coatings and Aftertreatment Oxidation Catalysts for Reduction of Emissions from Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Diesel engines are coming under stricter requirements to reduce emissions. particularly those of particulates and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Recently, the U. S. EPA put into place staged requirements for heavy duty diesel engines in urban bus applications which are aimed at ultimately bringing pre-1994 engines into particulate emissions compliance with 1994 heavy duty on-road truck standards (0. 1 g/bhp-hr TPM). This reflects the need to control emissions in crowded urban environments. Zirconia based ceramic combustion management coatings, although originally developed for adiabatic or low heat rejection engines to boost thermal efficiency, have also been shown to contribute to the reduction in diesel emissions. Heavy duty transient testing of rebuilt 2-stroke MUI diesel bus engines equipped with stabilized zirconia based coatings applied by thermal spray process have shown significant reduction in exhaust opacity relative to a baseline, uncoated engine.
Technical Paper

Zinc-Nickel Alloy Coatings-A Technical Review of Published Literature

The process considerations, manufacturability, corrosion properties, paintability, weldability, and formability of nominal 9 to 15 percent electrodeposited zinc-nickel (Zn-Ni) alloy-coated sheet steels for automotive applications were reviewed. Zn-Ni coatings were selected for use in automobile body panels by several automakers because of their ease of manufacturing, forming, and welding. Although Zn-Ni coatings may be easily manufactured into autobody panels without a change in production procedures, these coatings exhibit poor paintability and poor corrosion resistance, and would be risky to expose in the U.S. automotive environment at the specified 20 to 40 g/m2 coating weights. Zn-Ni coatings will not provide the cosmetic corrosion protection of zinc or zinc-iron (Zn-Fe) coatings, particularly on exterior autobody panels in a fully painted condition.
Technical Paper

Zinc-Manganese Alloy Electroplated Steel for Automotive Body

Zinc-manganese alloy electroplated has been developed for automotive body panel applications. The product is manufactured on a conventional electrogalvanizing line using an electrolyte containing zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate and sodium citrate. Electroplated steel with an alloy content of 30-50% manganese exhibits excellent corrosion resistance both as-produced and after painting. Zinc-manganese coatings also show good workability and voidability. Accordingly, this product is suitable for both unexposed parts and the interior surfaces of exposed parts. Finally, zinc-manganese electroplated steel displays good wet adhesion and anti-cratering characteristics so that the product can also be used for exposed applications as automotive body panels.
Technical Paper

Zinc-Magnesium-Aluminium (ZM)-HDG-Coated Steel Sheet for Structural Parts to Outer Panels

Zinc-coatings with a substantial Magnesium content have been in use for over 30 years by now. Unlike the well-established Zn-Al-Mg coatings originating from Japan which have significant higher alloying contents applied mainly for building applications, this Zinc Magnesium Aluminum coating (ZM) is also specifically designed to meet the requirements of car manufacturers. The ZM coating introduced by voestalpine, corrender, is in the upper range of ZM-alloying compositions, which was set by VDA (German Association of the Automotive Industry) and SAE to be within 1.0 to 2.0 wt. % Mg and 1.0 to 3.0 wt. % Al. The properties of these “European” Zinc-Magnesium coatings are well comparable within this range. Compared to GI and GA ZM coatings exhibit significant advantages in the press shops with its excellent formability and reduced galling and powdering respectively which is a significant advantage for the forming of outer panels.