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Viewing 1 to 20 of 57864
Technical Paper

“Walking on Automotive Waste? - Plastic Recycling Opportunities for Waste Automotive Materials in the Footwear Industry Sector”

1998-02-23
981162
This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using Automotive waste plastic material from “end of life” vehicles (ELVs), in the Footwear Industry to manufacture shoe components. The study establishes the sustainability of the flow of ELVs, from the European Car Parc and identifies and estimates the quantity of plastic materials potentially available for recycling from ELVs. Four potential materials, Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), Polypropylene (PP), Polypropylene/ethylene/propylene/diene (PP/EPDM) and Polyamide (PA), were identified and three materials (PP, PP/EPDM and ABS) were reprocessed from ELV components and evaluated by the Footwear Industry. As a result, ABS was recommended as an economically, suitable replacement for HIPS, the current material used for manufacturing shoe heel components.
Technical Paper

“Virtual Engine/Powertrain/Vehicle” Simulation Tool Solves Complex Interacting System Issues

2003-03-03
2003-01-0372
An integrated simulation tool has been developed, which is applicable to a wide range of design issues. A key feature introduced for the first time by this new tool is that it is truly a single code, with identical handling of engine, powertrain, vehicle, hydraulics, electrical, thermal and control elements. Further, it contains multiple levels of engine models, so that the user can select the appropriate level for the time scale of the problem (e.g. real-time operation). One possible example of such a combined simulation is the present study of engine block vibration in the mounts. The simulation involved a fully coupled model of performance, thermodynamics and combustion, with the dynamics of the cranktrain, engine block and the driveline. It demonstrated the effect of combustion irregularity on engine shaking in the mounts.
Technical Paper

“The Influence of Idle, Drive Cycle and Accessories on the Fuel Economy of Urban Hybrid Electric Buses - Chassis Dynamometer Tests”

2003-11-10
2003-01-3438
Fuel economy can be part of a business case for a fleet making the decision to buy new HD hybrid drivetrain technologies. Chassis dynamometer tests using SAE Recommended Practice J2711 on a bus equipped with an Allison EP SYSTEM ™ hybrid system and operated on standard bus driving cycles have produced impressive gains of over 60%. Preliminary urban bus field tests, on the other hand, have shown lower fuel economy gains. The difference can be attributed, in part, to the use of accessories - most importantly air conditioning - which are parasitic loads on the vehicle. In this paper the characteristics of driving cycles are studied to determine those factors which have the strongest influence on fuel economy for hybrids. The data show that the number of stopping events in a route or cycle is a strong influence as is the average vehicle speed. Energy analysis will show the relationship of fuel economy benefit and battery energy within a driving cycle.
Technical Paper

“The Impact Of The Microprocessor On Aircraft Electric System Control Philosophy”

1981-10-01
811085
The use of microprocessors for the implementation of control functions in aircraft electric systems has become a reality. This paper presents a brief survey of these systems along with a typical system block diagram. A description of the diagram highlights the advantages of microprocessor systems over existing noncomputerized control schemes. The second half of the paper discusses the adaptability of more advanced microprocessor systems in the next generation of aircraft electric systems. These powerful new computers will allow digital control and protection of single unit and paralleled generating and starting systems, as well as providing even more effective built-in-test.
Technical Paper

“Spacematic” Monitoring System

1998-09-15
982138
Pneumatic, manually operated, drilling machines are used to produce a significant proportion of all holes drilled during wing manufacture. Drilling machine design and the manual drilling process has not changed significantly in decades. By employing miniature, low power, electronics and interfacing techniques, a monitoring system has been developed. This system enables improved process control of the manual drilling operation. Machine calibration management, measurement of drill performance, jig drilling error control and asset management are some of the benefits attainable. This project will hopefully encourage others to discover the potential for improving historically established processes, by employing modern technological developments.
Technical Paper

“Smart Panel” Electronic Circuit Breaker Control Technology

2008-11-11
2008-01-2880
This paper will discuss using Astronics “Smart Panel” illuminated control panels to control an electronic power distribution system. A discussion of wiring simplification, automatic control possibilities and real time load monitoring is presented. The challenges of retrofitting the system into older aircraft will be covered as well. The paper also explains Electronic Circuit Breaker technology, arc fault protection, panel lighting technologies, control bus options, displays, and human input technology (buttons and knobs).
Technical Paper

“Sky Hooks” for Automobiles

1935-01-01
350109
IN this paper the authors present some experimental results obtained by using the analysis outlined by Prof. James J. Guest before the Institution of Automobile Engineers, in 1926. To make the experimental work more understandable, they present the essential points of Professor Guest's analysis. Professor Guest begins his analysis of the movements of a car body with the simplest set of conditions and presents a graphical as well as an algebraic solution. He then includes one additional factor after another in his analysis until the principal factors in car suspension are included. After all factors are considered, the essential structure of the simple analysis is retained. The authors' efforts at the experimental determination of the moment of inertia of passenger cars were started in January, 1932, on Sir Charles Dennistoun Burney's “tear-drop” design with which he visited leading American manufacturers.
Technical Paper

“Seizure-Delay” Method for Determining the Seizure Protection of EP Lubricants

1939-01-01
390146
IT does not yet seem to be recognized fully that it is the local temperature at the surface of contact and not the local specific pressure that chiefly determines the occurrence of seizure under extreme-pressure-lubrication conditions. This local temperature is the result of the temperature level of the parts lubricated, considered as a whole (“bulk” temperature) and of a superimposed instantaneous temperature rise (temperature “flash”) which is localized in the surface of contact. It appears typical for extreme-pressure-lubrication conditions, as met in gear practice, that the temperature flash is much higher than the bulk temperature. With existing conventional test methods for the determination of the protection against seizure afforded by EP lubricants, a considerable rise of the bulk temperature mostly occurs; as it cannot be controlled sufficiently; thus, leaving an unknown margin for the temperature flash, it renders impossible a reliable determination.
Technical Paper

“STATE OF THE ART” REPORT ON WINTERIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

1964-01-01
640064
As increasing populations set demands for the abundant natural resources of the colder regions, the complex industrial machines of American Industry are expected to build the new railroads, roads, cities, mines, power sources, airports and factories, and operate these activities year round. This paper reviews the basic problems of “winterization” and the design practices, materials and components used with varying effectiveness in “winterizing” construction and associated equipment for use in moderate and extreme cold geographical areas. Several new charts are included which offer design temperature data for the northern United States, Canada, Alaska, Greenland, as well as average January isotherms around the earth. The authors are members of CIMTC Subcommittee XV, “Environment”.
Technical Paper

“Remanufacturing”: The Sustainable Service Solution for Past Model Automotive Electronics Support

2008-10-20
2008-21-0029
In this paper, remanufacturing will be explored as a feasible option to maintaining the serviceability of electronic modules fitted to vehicles entering their service life from year four (after warranty) and beyond. Understanding the makeup of each module (content, design, and complexity) determines the feasibility of remanufacturing along with its cost effectiveness. Problems exist storing components for many years and engaging in periodic manufacturing is not cost competitive for high content modules. Thus, if reverse capability is not an option, then remanufacturing is a viable solution that, for certain modules, is a cost effective and an environmentally responsible (sustainable) solution to the service parts dilemma.
Technical Paper

“Rds_on” Based OBD for Pre-Supply Fuel Pump Driver Modules

2017-01-10
2017-26-0348
In automotive electronics on-board diagnostics does the fault diagnosis and reporting. It provides the level of robustness required for the control electronics against various faults. The amount of diagnostic information available via on board diagnostics are depends on the type of vehicle. Pre-supply fuel pump is the component in the common rail hydraulic system. It pumps the fuel from the fuel tank to the inlet valve of the high pressure fuel pump. Electronic control unit synchronizes its operation with high pressure fuel pump. A dedicated driver module in the ECU controls the operation of pre-supply fuel pump. The driver module consist of an ASIC with internal voltage, current monitoring modules for the fault diagnosis and the pre-drivers to control external HS and LS power stages. The software part of the OBD programmed in the internal memory of the ASIC. The “Rds_on” of the power MOSFETs are used for the fault detection purpose.
Technical Paper

“Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure, Temperature, and Loads Related to the Crank Slider Mechanism of I.C. Engines: A Computational Model”

2003-03-03
2003-01-0728
This paper describes the initial works related to the study of Internal Combustion Engines, as an object of mechanical design, at the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. It is reported a concise, complete methodology for simple model of internal combustion engine. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the use of the in-cylinder parameters (pressure and temperature) and inertial loads in the crank-slider mechanism to derive the loads that act on all the components of the crank-slider mechanism as well as the theoretical output torque for a given geometrical structure and inertial properties. These loads can then be used to estimate the preliminary dimensions of engine components in the initial stage of engine development. To obtain the pressure and temperature inside the cylinder, under different operation parameters, such as air fuel ratio and spark angle advance, a Zero dimensional model is applied. The heat transfer from the cylinder and friction are not taken into account.
Technical Paper

“Phoenix”- A Polyester-Film Inflatable Man-Powered Aircraft

1984-02-01
840028
This paper describes some of the design solutions adopted in solving two major problems besetting man-powered aircraft in use: that of breakage and storage. It describes work leading up to the building and testing of “Phoenix”, a man-powered aircraft with a polyester-film inflatable wing. The paper deals mainly with aspects relating to the wing design and construction.
Technical Paper

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An Approach Using Augmented Reality

2018-04-03
2018-01-1053
A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behaviour caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure.
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