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Technical Paper

“Ease of Driving” Road Classification for Night-time Driving Conditions

This paper is an extension of our previous work on the CHASE (Classification by Holistic Analysis of Scene Environment) algorithm, that automatically classifies the driving complexity of a road scene image during day-time conditions and assigns it an ‘Ease of Driving’ (EoD) score. At night, apart from traffic variations and road type conditions, illumination changes are a major predominant factor that affect the road visibility and the driving easiness. In order to resolve the problem of analyzing the driving complexity of roads at night, a brightness detection module is incorporated in our end-to-end nighttime EoD system, which computes the ‘brightness factor’ (bright or dark) for that given night-time road scene. The brightness factor along with a multi-level machine learning classifier is then used to classify the EoD score for a night-time road scene. Our end-to-end ‘Night-time EoD system’ is a real-time onboard system implemented and tested on road scene data collected in Japan.
Technical Paper

ΔV, BEV and Coefficient of Restitution Relationships as Applied to the Interpretation of Vehicle Crash Test Data

Prior theoretical work relating barrier equivalent velocity (BEV) and change in vehicle velocity, ΔV, has either neglected restitution or mischaracterized its role. Based on fundamental structural dynamics principles, improved relationships between BEV, ΔV, coefficient of restitution, and vehicle mass and stiffness are formulated. These corrected relationships are then utilized in the assessment of four classes of vehicular impact testing: vehicle to vehicle (VTV), vehicle to infinitely massive rigid barrier (VRB), vehicle to infinitely massive compliant barrier (VCB) and vehicle to finite mass movable rigid barrier (VFMB).
Technical Paper

Yet Another Look At Crash Pulse Analysis

The effect of vehicle acceleration history on dummy loading in the frontal impact NCAP event is explored with help of a one-dimensional mathematical model. Both numerical and analytical approaches are used to identify the ideal vehicle pulse. The numerical solution reveals limitations of square wave pulse. The analytical approach results in explicit formulation of the ideal pulse. Response of the mathematical model used in this paper is statistically correlated to a number of randomly selected NCAP frontal tests. Both the baseline model and the resulting optimized pulse are also confirmed using a validated three-dimensional Madymo model. Based on the analytical results, a simple measure of quality of the vehicle acceleration history is formulated.
Technical Paper

Xenon with Integrated Starter – The Powerful Way for Improved HID Headlighting

HID as lightsource in the automotive world has been proven as the most efficient way to satisfy the main user's requirements on a headlighting bulb: Realize a broad beam pattern with superior performance on visibility, safety and comfort on the one hand, and the fulfillment of long lifetime requirements on the other hand. In the second step, the logical integration of functions and the improvement of automotive system requests such as size and EMC has to be covered. An integrated bulb with starter is the appropriate way to combine these features: Optimized fine tuning between the entire lightsource and the starter to reach optimal electrical and EMI performance on the one side on the other side combined with very compact sizes leads to an automotive source perfectly suiting to the modern trends in headlighting applications.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Study of the Human Neck Motion Due to Head Inertia Loading

This study presents results from x-ray analysis of live human head/neck motion in sled test simulations of low-speed frontal, lateral, and rear-end vehicle impacts. The test subjects were 26 male and female adults, aged 22 to 61 years. Head/neck motion and the kinematic responses of each test subject were measured and analyzed by cineradiograph, high-speed film, accelerometers, and electromyography of the neck muscles. The methodology used may provide insight into the mechanism of neck injuries caused by the head inertia loading. The actual kinematic responses of the head/neck were found to be more complex than previously thought. The experimental results suggest that the most significant factor of the head/neck response is the initial curvature of the cervical and thoracic spine. Looking specifically at the early motion of the head and neck in rear-end impacts, the cervical forward curvature (lordosis) and the thoracic rearward curvature (kyphosis) were found to straighten.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Curing of Carbon Fiber Composites for Structural Automotive Components

Having demonstrated the feasibility of using X-rays derived from high current industrial electron beam accelerators (EB) to cure the matrices of carbon fiber composites and then scaled this up to cure large sized, non-structural automobile components, performance car hoods, the New York State Vehicle Composites Program had a chassis designed, a cured epoxy mold made and then the chassis matrix cured using X-rays with a formulated radiation responsive matrix material. A feasibility study had shown how X-rays could cure through materials embedded within the composite layers, such as metal inserts that could be used for mechanical fastening without fracturing the composite. In producing X-ray cured hoods, the power consumption for X-ray curing was found to be more than 20% lower than that needed for autoclave curing the same sized hoods using conventional thermosetting pre-pregs. More significant was the time-to-cure.
Technical Paper

WorldSID Prototype Dummy Biomechanical Responses

The results of biomechanical testing of the WorldSID prototype dummy are presented in this paper. The WorldSID dummy is a new, advanced Worldwide Side Impact Dummy that has the anthropometry of a mid-sized adult male. The first prototype of this dummy has been evaluated by the WorldSID Task Group against previously established corridors for its critical body regions. The response corridors are defined in the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) Technical Report 9790. The prototype is the first version of the WorldSID dummy to be built and tested. This dummy has been subjected to a rigorous program of testing to evaluate, first and foremost its biofidelity, but also its repeatability. Following this initial evaluation, any required modifications will be incorporated into a pre-production version of the WorldSID dummy so that it rates “good” to “excellent” on the ISO dummy biofidelity scale – a rating exceeding that of all current side impact dummies.
Technical Paper

WorldSID Dummy Head-Neck Biofidelity Response

Accident studies indicate that serious neck injuries are generally infrequent in side crashes. However, given the rapid changes in side impact protection technology, such as side airbags and curtain systems, the nature of head-neck interactions is likely to change. Consequently, the newest generation of anthropomorphic test devices for side impact should provide realistic prediction of the head-neck kinematics and include meaningful measurements related to risk of head and neck injury. The WorldSID dummy has been assessed against a set of five test conditions that have been used to define biofidelity impact response targets. Three of the five test conditions are recommended by ISO TR9790 (ISO 1997), the NBDL 7.2 G, 6.9 m/s lateral sled impact reported by Ewing et al. (1977) and Wismans et al. (1986), the Patrick and Chou lateral, 6.7 G 5.8 m/s (1976) and Tarriere lateral 12.2 g, 6,1 m/s sled impact (ISO 1997).
Technical Paper

WorldSID 5th Percentile Prototype Dummy Development

The WorldSID 5th percentile dummy, representing an average female, was developed in less than three years after the WorldSID 50th percentile dummy production release. This 5th percentile dummy was developed in the Integrated Project Aprosys (Advanced Protection Systems) under the European Commission Framework Program 6. This paper discusses the rationale for the WorldSID 5th percentile dummy design and development, and biofidelity evaluation results of head drop test, neck pendulum test and pendulum impact tests of the shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis according to ISO TR9790 (ISO 1997) and Irwin (2002). The dummy was designed to host four units of 32 channel in-dummy Data Acquisition System with total 128 channel capacity. The head is constructed with PVC skin and plastic skull to simulate human head structure. The neck consists of a rubber design with metal discs, which can be tuned with rubber buffers.
Technical Paper

Wireless and Flexible Ice Detection on Aircraft

We present a wireless sensor system for temperature measurement and icing detection for the use on aircraft. The sensors are flexible (i.e. bendable), truly wireless, do not require scheduled maintenance, and can be attached easily to almost any point on the aircraft surface (e.g. wings, fuselage, rudder, elevator, etc.). With a sensor thickness of less than two millimeters at the current state of development, they hardly affect the aero dynamical behavior of the structure. In this paper, we report laboratory and field results for temperature measurement and icing detection.
Technical Paper

Winter Tire Testing

The performance of winter tires is characterized by snow traction and ice skid tests. Winter tire testing is reviewed in regards to the hardware used, design of a test program, site selection, and data analysis. The description of the hardware includes a review of a new traction measurement system. The system incorporates a traction truck with an instrumented axle at a driven wheel position interfaced with a mini-computer which controls the test, stores the measurements, and performs the data analysis.
Technical Paper

Wing/Ground Ice Detection System for Aircraft

The ability to accurately and reliably annunciate the presence of aircraft wing contaminants greatly reduces the hazards of aircraft operation in winter precipitation environments. A new wing contamination detection system was designed to detect contaminants on the surface of an aircraft wing. Testing on a Fokker F100 aircraft was completed during the 1992-1993 winter icing season. The testing revealed that the system was able to detect ice, frost, hoar frost, and deicing fluid mixtures on the wing. The system performance was evaluated against Fokker's current requirements for an operational system.

Wing Inspection Lights – Design Criteria

This SAE Aerospace Recommend Practice (ARP) is intended to cover the external lights on fixed wing aircraft for illuminating the wing leading edge and engine nacelles and the upper surfaces of the wing. The addition of an ice detection system should be implemented when the areas to inspect are not visible from the aircraft cockpit. It is not intended that this Recommended Practice require the use of any particular light source such as Halogen, LED or other specific design of lamp.

Wing Inspection Lights - Design Criteria

This SAE Aerospace Recommend Practice (ARP) is intended to cover the external lights on fixed wing aircraft for illuminating the wing leading edge and nacelles and the upper surfaces of the wing. The addition of ice detection system should be implemented when the areas to inspect are not visible from the aircraft cockpit.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Measurements of Simulated Glaciated Cloud Conditions to Evaluate Newly Developed 2D Imaging Probes

Instrumentation that has been used for characterization of mixed-phase and glaciated conditions in the past, like the OAP probes, are subject to errors caused by variations in diffraction on the images away from the object plane and by the discrete nature of their particle detection and sizing. Correction methods are necessary to consider their measurements adequate for high ice water content (IWC) environments judged to represent a significant safety hazard to propellers and turbofan engine operability and performance. For this reason, within the frame of EU FP7 HAIC project, instrumentation characterization and validation is considered a major element need for successful execution of flight tests campaigns. Clearly, instrumentation must be sufficiently reliable to assess the reproducibility of artificial clouds with high ice water content generated in icing tunnels.
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Wiley SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package

Committed to being the primary source for aerospace and ground vehicle engineering resources, SAE International has added the full compilation of our Wiley eBook collections to the SAE MOBILUS® technical resource platform. Purchasable as an annual subscription and containing the titles from the Wiley Aerospace Collection, the Wiley Automotive Collection, the Wiley Computer Systems Collection, and the Wiley Cyber Security Collection.
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Wiley Cyber Security Collection Add-On

As an annual subscription, the Wiley Cyber Security Collection Add-On is available for purchase along with one or both of the following: Wiley Aerospace Collection Wiley Automotive Collection The titles from the Wiley Cyber Security Collection are included in the SAE MOBILUS® eBook Package. Titles: Network Forensics Penetration Testing Essentials Security in Fixed and Wireless Networks, 2nd Edition The Network Security Test Lab: A Step-by-Step Guide Risk Centric Threat Modeling: Process for Attack Simulation and Threat Analysis Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms and Source Code in C, 20th Anniversary Edition Computer Security Handbook, Set, 6th Edition Threat Modeling: Designing for Security Other available Wiley collections: Wiley SAE MOBILUS eBook Package Wiley Aerospace Collection Wiley Automotive Collection Wiley Computer Systems Collection Add-On (purchasable with the Wiley Aerospace Collection and/or the Wiley Automotive Collection)
Technical Paper

Whole-body Response for Pedestrian Impact with a Generic Sedan Buck

To serve as tools for assessing injury risk, the biofidelity of whole-body pedestrian impact dummies should be validated against reference data from full-scale pedestrian impact tests. To facilitate such evaluations, a simplified generic vehicle-buck has been recently developed that is designed to have characteristics representative of a generic small sedan. Three 40 km/h pedestrian-impact tests have been performed, wherein Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) were struck laterally in a mid-gait stance by the buck. Corridors for select trajectory measures derived from these tests have been published previously. The goal of this study is to act as a companion dataset to that study, describing the head velocities, body region accelerations (head, spine, pelvis, lower extremities), angular velocities, and buck interaction forces, and injuries observed during those tests.
Technical Paper

Whole-body Kinematic and Dynamic Response of Restrained PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests

The literature contains a wide range of response data describing the biomechanics of isolated body regions. Current data for the validation of frontal anthropomorphic test devices and human body computational models lack, however, a detailed description of the whole-body response to loading with contemporary restraints in automobile crashes.