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Technical Paper

“The Producers” New Row-Crop Tractors From John Deere

1982-02-01
821062
A line of five new row-crop tractors is being introduced by John Deere with innovative features including a 15-speed full power shift transmission, a high capacity, highly-maneuverable full-time mechanical front-wheel drive and micro-processor controlled instrumentation. In addition, the tractors have increased power, improved fuel economy, greater hydraulic power, improved hitch sensing, improved operator controls, lower sound levels, and revised styling. This paper documents the design and development of these new John Deere row-crop tractors.
Technical Paper

“The Creation, Development and Implementation of a Lean Systems Course at Oakland University, Rochester, MI”

2005-04-11
2005-01-1798
Countless articles and publications3,4,5 have documented and proven the efficacy, benefits and value of operating within a lean system. Furthermore, there exists common agreement amongst leading organizations successfully implementing a lean system that in order to do so it must take into consideration the entire enterprise, that is, from supplier to customer and everything in between6. One of the core issues this paper addresses is when the optimal time is to train and educate the people who currently have, or will have, influence over the ‘enterprise’.
Technical Paper

“Optimization” of Lower Deck Cargo Systems

1988-05-01
880973
The ability to carry cargo efficiently in passenger aircraft has influenced airline economics to the point that optimisation of the freight capacity is mandatory. This document discusses the alternative loading possibilities in defined Lover Deck Compartments and their doors to cater for current and future trends in ULD dimensions. As a result items for study centred on: 1) Optimisation of the available volumes Freight capacity resulting in the selection of “Pallets”-doors for both the Forward and AFT Compartments. Flexibility to meet Freight and Baggage requirements. Possible load arrangements to optimize aircraft C of G 2) Bulk Cargo Compartment Additional LD3 Container position in AFT/Bulk compartment to cater for an uneven number of Baggage container, allowing the carriage of an additional pallet. What is regarded as an optimum is presented.
Technical Paper

“Motion in FEA”: An Innovative Approach for More Physical and More Accurate Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0762
Vehicle dynamics is a discipline of mechanical engineering that benefited of significant improvements thanks to the progress of computational engineering. Vehicle dynamics engineers are using CAE for the development of a vehicle with MBS and FEA. The concurrent use of these two technologies is a standard in the automotive industry. However the current simulation process is not fully efficient because local geometrical and material nonlinearities are not accurately modeled in classical MBS software. This paper introduces a methodology for vehicle dynamics simulation integrating MBS capabilities in one single nonlinear FEA environment enabling an accurate modeling of nonlinearity in vehicles.
Technical Paper

“Insert and Fly” Using PCMCIA PC Cards in the Avionics Market

1994-11-01
942553
When looking into using PCMCIA PC Cards in the avionics market, three areas must be researched. The first is what are the applications and benefits of using the PC Cards while in flight, followed by the applications and benefits on the ground, and thirdly on how to make a PC Card that would stand up to the rugged avionics environment. PCMCIA PC Cards can be used in all aspects of flight. Three possible applications on the ground are; paperless documentation, modifications, flightline changes. Once airborne, PC Cards can be removed and a different functionality card can be inserted. One PC card socket can be used for many different functions during one flight. Some of the possible applications for PC Cards inflight are; flight plan changes, backup Line Replaceable Units (LRUs), and solid state data collection.
Technical Paper

“Greater Than the Sum of its Parts” Integrated Flight Training/Aircrew Coordination

1994-10-01
942132
The requirement for crew resource management (CRM), or aircrew coordination training (ACT) in military parlance, has been well documented and attested to. In addition, aircraft systems training has become more intense and more in-depth in the new aircraft designs, especially in multi-crew and complex aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey Tiltrotor. (see Figure 1) Former training systems detailed training procedures that called for classroom training and simulation/simulator training followed by flight training. Improvements in aircraft flight skills training provide increased flying training capability coupled with reduced training time by integrating a mixed simulation/flight training syllabus, e.g. two to three simulation periods followed by one or two flight training periods covering the same material/skills. In addition, the simulation training will introduce new skills; the following flight periods will further refine/hone those skills.
Technical Paper

“Fuel Flow Method2” for Estimating Aircraft Emissions

2006-08-30
2006-01-1987
In recent years there has been increasing interest in quantifying the emissions from aircraft in order to generate inventories of emissions for climate models, technology and scenario studies, and inventories of emissions for airline fleets typically presented in environmental reports. The preferred method for calculating aircraft engine emissions of NOx, HC, and CO is the proprietary “P3T3” method. This method relies on proprietary airplane and engine performance models along with proprietary engine emissions characterizations. In response and in order to provide a transparent method for calculating aircraft engine emissions non proprietary fuel flow based methods 1,2,3 have been developed. This paper presents derivation, updates, and clarifications of the fuel flow method methodology known as “Fuel Flow Method 2”.
Technical Paper

“ACCU-DRIVE” STABILITY WITH COMFORT THE 1969 BUICK CHASSIS

1969-02-01
690490
Buick engineers are well pleased with their '69 Chassis. Benefits of a unique front suspension camber curve are documented. The effects of various suspension parameters on ride and handling are explained. These were varied independently of one another in the course of evaluating over 30 suspension configurations.
Technical Paper

the design of Planetary Gear Trains

1959-01-01
590059
THE usefulness of planetary gear trains and the engineering techniques necessary for optimum design are discussed in this paper. A simple method for calculating planetary gear ratios is described which can be used to determine quickly the potential usefulness of any planetary configurations. The author lists criteria which help to evaluate the potential of a planetary gear train schematic from the standpoints of gear noise and structural viewpoint. Detailed design of individual members include spacing of the pinions, mounting considerations, thrust direction, lubrication, and stress evaluation.
Technical Paper

some thoughts on optimum combinations of Wings and Vertical Thrust Generators in VTOL Aircraft

1959-01-01
590040
THIS PAPER reviews VTOL problems, indicating probable ways toward optimization of whole lifting and propelling system. Also discussed are the power and thrust requirements for optimum cruise and vertical take-offs and landings for propeller-driven and jet-propelled aircraft. Three speed ranges offer the most promise for VTOL aircraft, if thrust requirements for cruise and take-off are to match. The ranges are centered around Mach numbers of 0.65, 0.8, and 2.0+. There is a possibility of overcoming the high thrust needed for hovering by use of bypass augmentation, special hovering jets, or favorable ground effects, the author reports.
Technical Paper

selection of Optimum Modes of Control for aircraft engines

1959-01-01
590047
THE optimum mode of control for an aircraft engine is dependent on both the configuration of the engine and its application. Each engine application requires several detail modes of control, one for each definable regime of operation of the engine. Discussions of control requirements can be simplified by classifying these regimes by objectives: physical limiting, thrust, and transient control. The turbojet engine is the basis for the discussion in this paper. Acceptable modes of control can often be selected by inspection of the engine and its application. Selection of an “optimum” control mode requires investigation of the operation of the engine and weapons system at every stage of its use. The selection of a “mode” of control requires a compromise between performance and other design factors. The need for simplicity and accuracy must be balanced against the stability requirements. The availability and flexibility of control components may limit the modes of control considered.
Technical Paper

development of the SUPPRESSOR AND THRUST BRAKE FOR THE DC-8 AIRPLANE

1959-01-01
590061
THIS PAPER presents the development of the DC-8 suppressor and thrust brake unit from initial test work through the final design. The selection of the production unit was based on a wide background of test work using both model and full-scale facilities. On the basis of this work, the configuration selected for production consisted of a fixed, corrugated, suppressing nozzle with a retractable ejector. A target-type thrust brake, mounted in the ejector, was chosen for the thrust brake production unit. Approximately 12-db suppression and 44% reverse thrust are provided by the unit. The ejector is hydraulically operated and the thrust brake air actuated. Both actuation systems obtain power from the aircraft systems which provides for operation during engine-out conditions. Alternate methods of actuation are provided in case of a primary system failure.
Technical Paper

Zoning Without Permitted Uses - Case Study of Wisconsin Supreme Court Ruling: Town of Rhine versus Bizzell/Manitowoc Area Off-Highway Vehicle Association

2009-05-19
2009-01-2245
The property owners, an off-highway motor vehicle club, purchased an abandoned quarry to ride off highway motorcycles (OHM's), snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles (ATV's). The neighbors complained about the noise and tried to stop further riding of recreational vehicles in the quarry. As a result, the town filed a lawsuit against the property owners, citing several zoning code violations, including the fact that the property owners did not obtain a conditional-use permit, which the zoning ordinance requires for any use of the property. This paper reviews the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruling finding the zoning ordinance unconstitutional because there were no permitted uses of the property, just several conditional uses. As written at that time, owners of property within this zoning classification could not use their property for any purpose (recreation, hunting, etc.) unless they applied for and obtained a conditional-use permit.
Technical Paper

Zero-Offset in Transducer Output

2005-05-16
2005-01-2555
Zero-offset in transducer output during airbag noise testing is often observed, but mostly ignored due to the lack of understanding of its causes and implications. In the field of high-g acceleration measurement, this phenomenon is well documented, and is referred to as zeroshift. Zero-offset occurs when a component in the measurement chain is exposed to some unexpected inputs which the component has not been designed to handle. These unexpected inputs can be mechanical, electrical, or optical. How the transducer reacts to such inputs and the amount of zero-offset produced depends on the sensing mechanism, material used, and the design of the component itself. This paper explores the causes of zero-offset from a general perspective, covering the entire measurement chain. Although much of the information and discussions are based on data obtained from acceleration measurement systems, the findings are applicable to other transducer types, such as pressure and acoustic measurements.
Technical Paper

Your Patent System

1980-09-01
800940
Today our primary concerns regarding patents are whether there is infringement or not infringement or whether a patent is valid or invalid. The writers of the Constitution, however, had this in mind “… to promote the progress of science and useful arts”. The material presented deals with the question as to whether, in fact, the patent powers provided by Congress under the Constitution do “promote the progress of science and useful arts”.
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