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Technical Paper

“Walking on Automotive Waste? - Plastic Recycling Opportunities for Waste Automotive Materials in the Footwear Industry Sector”

1998-02-23
981162
This paper demonstrates the possibilities of using Automotive waste plastic material from “end of life” vehicles (ELVs), in the Footwear Industry to manufacture shoe components. The study establishes the sustainability of the flow of ELVs, from the European Car Parc and identifies and estimates the quantity of plastic materials potentially available for recycling from ELVs. Four potential materials, Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS), Polypropylene (PP), Polypropylene/ethylene/propylene/diene (PP/EPDM) and Polyamide (PA), were identified and three materials (PP, PP/EPDM and ABS) were reprocessed from ELV components and evaluated by the Footwear Industry. As a result, ABS was recommended as an economically, suitable replacement for HIPS, the current material used for manufacturing shoe heel components.
Technical Paper

“Spacematic” Monitoring System

1998-09-15
982138
Pneumatic, manually operated, drilling machines are used to produce a significant proportion of all holes drilled during wing manufacture. Drilling machine design and the manual drilling process has not changed significantly in decades. By employing miniature, low power, electronics and interfacing techniques, a monitoring system has been developed. This system enables improved process control of the manual drilling operation. Machine calibration management, measurement of drill performance, jig drilling error control and asset management are some of the benefits attainable. This project will hopefully encourage others to discover the potential for improving historically established processes, by employing modern technological developments.
Technical Paper

“STATE OF THE ART” REPORT ON WINTERIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

1964-01-01
640064
As increasing populations set demands for the abundant natural resources of the colder regions, the complex industrial machines of American Industry are expected to build the new railroads, roads, cities, mines, power sources, airports and factories, and operate these activities year round. This paper reviews the basic problems of “winterization” and the design practices, materials and components used with varying effectiveness in “winterizing” construction and associated equipment for use in moderate and extreme cold geographical areas. Several new charts are included which offer design temperature data for the northern United States, Canada, Alaska, Greenland, as well as average January isotherms around the earth. The authors are members of CIMTC Subcommittee XV, “Environment”.
Technical Paper

“Remanufacturing”: The Sustainable Service Solution for Past Model Automotive Electronics Support

2008-10-20
2008-21-0029
In this paper, remanufacturing will be explored as a feasible option to maintaining the serviceability of electronic modules fitted to vehicles entering their service life from year four (after warranty) and beyond. Understanding the makeup of each module (content, design, and complexity) determines the feasibility of remanufacturing along with its cost effectiveness. Problems exist storing components for many years and engaging in periodic manufacturing is not cost competitive for high content modules. Thus, if reverse capability is not an option, then remanufacturing is a viable solution that, for certain modules, is a cost effective and an environmentally responsible (sustainable) solution to the service parts dilemma.
Technical Paper

“Phoenix”- A Polyester-Film Inflatable Man-Powered Aircraft

1984-02-01
840028
This paper describes some of the design solutions adopted in solving two major problems besetting man-powered aircraft in use: that of breakage and storage. It describes work leading up to the building and testing of “Phoenix”, a man-powered aircraft with a polyester-film inflatable wing. The paper deals mainly with aspects relating to the wing design and construction.
Technical Paper

“POSSIBILITIES IN THE FIELD OF DRY LUBRICANTS”

1958-01-01
580278
Research information on solid lubricants has been compiled for consideration in the possible use of such materials in aircraft electrical equipment. Solid lubricants are capable of lubricating at the maximum temperatures (600° F) for aircraft electrical equipment. Many solids that adhere well to metals may be useful lubricants; those with layer-lattice structure usually give low friction. Solid lubricants are most commonly used as bonded films but the use of fluid carriers and surface reaction products have considerable merit.
Technical Paper

“Optimization” of Lower Deck Cargo Systems

1988-05-01
880973
The ability to carry cargo efficiently in passenger aircraft has influenced airline economics to the point that optimisation of the freight capacity is mandatory. This document discusses the alternative loading possibilities in defined Lover Deck Compartments and their doors to cater for current and future trends in ULD dimensions. As a result items for study centred on: 1) Optimisation of the available volumes Freight capacity resulting in the selection of “Pallets”-doors for both the Forward and AFT Compartments. Flexibility to meet Freight and Baggage requirements. Possible load arrangements to optimize aircraft C of G 2) Bulk Cargo Compartment Additional LD3 Container position in AFT/Bulk compartment to cater for an uneven number of Baggage container, allowing the carriage of an additional pallet. What is regarded as an optimum is presented.
Technical Paper

“One-Side Aluminized Steel Sheet” Development and Properties of a New Anti-Corrosion Material

1983-02-01
830519
Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. has developed a new process for the production of a “one-side aluminized steel sheet”. The process utilizes a double layer one-side “stop-off” coating to prevent the molten Al from adhering to the steel surface. The “Stop-off” coating is removed by simple mechanical brushing after hot dipping. The characteristics of this product by above mentioned process are: 1) The steel side was as clean as a conventional cold rolled surface and showed no trace of the “stop-off” layer. Thereby, phosphating and ED painting were performed. 2) In the salt spray test data was obtained from zinc and Al coated steel surfaces; the coatings on both surfaces being of equal thickness.
Technical Paper

“Next Generation” Means for Detecting Squeaks and Rattles in Instrument Panels

1997-05-20
972061
Engineers doing squeak and rattle testing of instrument panels (IP's) have successfully used large electrodynamic vibration systems to identify sources of squeaks and rattles (S&R's). Their successes led to demands to test more IP's, i.e., to increase throughput of IP's to reflect the many design, material, and/or manufacturing process changes that occur, and to do so at any stage of the development, production, or QA process. What is needed is a radically different and portable way to find S&R's in a fraction of the time and at lower capital cost without compromising S&R detection results.
Technical Paper

“Motion in FEA”: An Innovative Approach for More Physical and More Accurate Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0762
Vehicle dynamics is a discipline of mechanical engineering that benefited of significant improvements thanks to the progress of computational engineering. Vehicle dynamics engineers are using CAE for the development of a vehicle with MBS and FEA. The concurrent use of these two technologies is a standard in the automotive industry. However the current simulation process is not fully efficient because local geometrical and material nonlinearities are not accurately modeled in classical MBS software. This paper introduces a methodology for vehicle dynamics simulation integrating MBS capabilities in one single nonlinear FEA environment enabling an accurate modeling of nonlinearity in vehicles.
Technical Paper

“Metallic Core Technology”…and the Production of One Piece, Hollow Composite Components Which Have Complex Internal Geometry

1992-02-01
920507
Engineers have long been restricted in designing and manufacturing one piece, hollow composite components with complex internal geometry. Complex core pulls in the plastic tool, major concessions made in the actual component design or components joined from several pieces were the early means of producing such components. Progressive thinking led to the use of matrix materials such as sand, salt and wax, which provided a measure of flexibility in allowing designed-in undercut areas. These materials, however, lacked the capability to meet the required demands of dimensional accuracy and internal surface, as well as proving themselves unsuitable for high volume production. The concerns for repetitive dimensional accuracy, quality internal surface and high volume production capability has now been satisfied with the use of low melting temperature metal alloys.
Technical Paper

“Mechanical Brake Assist - A Potential New Standard Safety Feature”

1999-03-01
1999-01-0480
This paper presents an innovative brake booster which permits the brake assist function of the electric brake assist system to be implemented with mechanical means. The resultant significant reduction of manufacturing costs enhances the chances for a wide-spread use of this feature in all vehicle classes, thereby making an important contribution to the general improvement of traffic safety. Based on an analysis of the mechanically detectable physical variables for recognizing a panic situation and an evaluation of possible methods of mechanical valve activation, the paper presents a mass production solution and describes its functional properties. In particular, it should be noted that the possibility of controlling the braking pressure within the brake assist function even represents a functional advantage
Technical Paper

“Herschel-Quincke Spiral” A New Interference Silencer

2003-05-05
2003-01-1722
Over the last ten years there has been a steady growth in the market share of light-duty diesel engines, especially in Europe. At the same time, a general trend in petrol engine development has been seen, in which normal aspirated engines are being replaced by downsized turbocharged engines. Therefore, NVH engineers have to deal with new challenges. Turbochargers produce an aerodynamic noise in the frequency range above 1000Hz, which might influence the exterior and interior noise level. As a result, the additional requirement for acoustical components to reduce this flow noise is going to pose an increasing challenge for air intake system suppliers. This paper describes a new design of well-known wide band silencer first mentioned by A. Selamet, N.S.Dickey and J.M.Novak [1,2]. The silencer works according to the interference principle. The sound is guided into two or more parallel pipes of different lengths.
Technical Paper

“Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing”

1968-02-01
680488
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is both a “language” and a “technique.” Its objective is to facilitate design, production, and inspection and, simultaneously, provide the most economic results. This paper describes the implementation and practice to accomplish these through illustrating methods to state design requirements specifically and clearly and to provide for maximum producibility, uniformity of interpretation, etc. The need to reflect a common objective for design, production, and inspection via the stated drawing requirement is emphasized. Application and interpretation of geometric characteristics (emphasizing symbology), fundamentals, rules, etc. are presented. Basis for the content of this paper is USASI Y14.5-1966 “Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Engineering Drawings.”
Technical Paper

“Fuel Flow Method2” for Estimating Aircraft Emissions

2006-08-30
2006-01-1987
In recent years there has been increasing interest in quantifying the emissions from aircraft in order to generate inventories of emissions for climate models, technology and scenario studies, and inventories of emissions for airline fleets typically presented in environmental reports. The preferred method for calculating aircraft engine emissions of NOx, HC, and CO is the proprietary “P3T3” method. This method relies on proprietary airplane and engine performance models along with proprietary engine emissions characterizations. In response and in order to provide a transparent method for calculating aircraft engine emissions non proprietary fuel flow based methods 1,2,3 have been developed. This paper presents derivation, updates, and clarifications of the fuel flow method methodology known as “Fuel Flow Method 2”.
Technical Paper

“Fatigue Behavior of Sheet Steels for Automotive Industry”

1992-11-01
921439
Carbon and rephosphorized pre-strained sheet steels for cold drawing forming operations were studied and the tensile, high cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation properties were determined. The fatigue limit was found to be higher for 20% than for 1% pre-strained condition. Threshold stress intensity factors (▵Ků) of 5.29 MPa. m1/2 for rephosphorized steel and 7.07 MPa. m1/2 for carbon steel. Critical crack lenghts were calculated by ▵Ků and fatigue limit data using the Lukas-Klesnil short-crack criterion. Through fractographic analysis it was possible to determine the general behavior of tested materials near threshold.
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