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Technical Paper

“The Producers” New Row-Crop Tractors From John Deere

1982-02-01
821062
A line of five new row-crop tractors is being introduced by John Deere with innovative features including a 15-speed full power shift transmission, a high capacity, highly-maneuverable full-time mechanical front-wheel drive and micro-processor controlled instrumentation. In addition, the tractors have increased power, improved fuel economy, greater hydraulic power, improved hitch sensing, improved operator controls, lower sound levels, and revised styling. This paper documents the design and development of these new John Deere row-crop tractors.
Technical Paper

“The Creation, Development and Implementation of a Lean Systems Course at Oakland University, Rochester, MI”

2005-04-11
2005-01-1798
Countless articles and publications3,4,5 have documented and proven the efficacy, benefits and value of operating within a lean system. Furthermore, there exists common agreement amongst leading organizations successfully implementing a lean system that in order to do so it must take into consideration the entire enterprise, that is, from supplier to customer and everything in between6. One of the core issues this paper addresses is when the optimal time is to train and educate the people who currently have, or will have, influence over the ‘enterprise’.
Technical Paper

“Targeting Consumer Needs in the Perfect Storm: Changing the Automotive Lifestyle”

2008-10-20
2008-21-0038
The intersection of changing lifestyles and evolving transportation needs finds smart USA well positioned for launch in 2008 during one of the most competitive periods in U.S. automotive history. In a zero sum market with new global entrants competing for single points of share, where quality levels have been redefined and fractions of points separate the best from the challengers, lifestyle awareness, innovation and product positioning become the differentiators. Simply adding features has left some with hefty investments and confused consumers. Bigger is not always better. More is not always desirable. The real opportunity for new entrants to the US market may be defined within niche markets where changing lifestyles allow for the emergence of new segments. Today, smart USA has surfaced as a clear example of right product, right place, right time.
Technical Paper

“Rubber Coupling” at a 4×4 Transmition System

2003-11-18
2003-01-3684
There are many different vibration sources in a car. Engine, gears, road roughness, impacts against the wheels cause vibration and sound that can decrease the parts and the car durability as well as affect drivability, safety and passengers and community comfort. In 4×4 cars, some extra vibration sources are the parts responsible for transmitting the torque and power to the rear wheels. Each of them has their own vibration modes, excited mostly by its imbalance or by the second order engine vibration. The engine vibration is a very well known phenomena and the rear driveshaft is designed not to have any vibration mode in the range of frequencies that the engine works or its second order. The imbalance of a driveshaft is also a design requirement. That means, the acceptable imbalance of the driveshaft is limited to a maximum value.
Technical Paper

“Rigidization-on-Command”™ (ROC) Resin Development for Lightweight Isogrid Booms with MLI

2003-07-07
2003-01-2342
The “Rigidization-on-Command”™ (ROC™) resin development has focused on the development of resin systems that use UV light cure for rigidization. Polymeric sensitizers have been incorporated into the resin formulations to promote cure using Pen-Ray lamps and UV light-emitting diodes (LED's). Formulations containing the polymeric sensitizers were examined by FTIR and DSC. Complete cure was observed after 15 min. exposure with the Pen-Ray lamps. Performance of the Pen-Ray lamps and UV LEDs was thoroughly characterized. Thermal models were developed to optimize the performance of the of the MLI insulation thermal oven used for orbital cure of the boom. Results show that -12°C is the lowest temperature required for cure of the ROC™ resin systems.
Technical Paper

“Return to Nascar” Dodge NCTS History

2002-12-02
2002-01-3353
Dodge wanted to promote the new Dodge Ram 1500 pick-up truck and regain a presence in NASCAR and was looking for a venue that would accommodate this presence. NASCAR launched the NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series (NCTS) in 1995 and Dodge joined the series. This paper will cover the history of Dodge Motorsports Engineering presence in this series. The engineering objective was to develop an organization that would meet the corporate goals. The initial problem was that Dodge hadn't participated in a NASCAR series since 1978 and had no recent experience. The conclusion was that Dodge Motorsports Engineering could be competitive in NASCAR series racing.
Technical Paper

“Quiet” Aspects of the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft JT15D Turbofan

1973-02-01
730289
This paper describes the engine design details of the Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1 engine as related to noise generation. Design principles and factors contributing to the very low-noise levels on the Cessna Citation aircraft are illustrated. Noise testing experiences and data from static tests on the United Aircraft of Canada Ltd. (UACL) flight test aircraft and from both static and flight tests on the Citation aircraft are discussed. Lessons learned from these tests and some future probabilities are outlined.
Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

2014-04-01
2014-01-0924
This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper

“Personal Integrity” and Man-Machine Integration

1982-02-01
821348
A sense of “personal integrity” blocks pilot use of new information about how he thinks. Research on human performance under stress done over the past fifty years indicates increased rigidity and regression to earlier learned behavior in high stress, and in low Stress a shift in attention to any domestic situation or on the job controversy which is of higher stress than that of the job at hand, all without the pilot's knowledge. Informal surveys of commercial pilot training and commercial pilot attitudes towards these studies indicate that the study findings directly confront learned cultural responses. Pilot and trainer reactions prevent the information from being adequately investigated or formally taught. The findings are not written into training manuals and pilots who are informally given the information do not have adequate access to the knowledge when it is needed.
Technical Paper

“Optimization” of Lower Deck Cargo Systems

1988-05-01
880973
The ability to carry cargo efficiently in passenger aircraft has influenced airline economics to the point that optimisation of the freight capacity is mandatory. This document discusses the alternative loading possibilities in defined Lover Deck Compartments and their doors to cater for current and future trends in ULD dimensions. As a result items for study centred on: 1) Optimisation of the available volumes Freight capacity resulting in the selection of “Pallets”-doors for both the Forward and AFT Compartments. Flexibility to meet Freight and Baggage requirements. Possible load arrangements to optimize aircraft C of G 2) Bulk Cargo Compartment Additional LD3 Container position in AFT/Bulk compartment to cater for an uneven number of Baggage container, allowing the carriage of an additional pallet. What is regarded as an optimum is presented.
Technical Paper

“Next Generation” Means for Detecting Squeaks and Rattles in Instrument Panels

1997-05-20
972061
Engineers doing squeak and rattle testing of instrument panels (IP's) have successfully used large electrodynamic vibration systems to identify sources of squeaks and rattles (S&R's). Their successes led to demands to test more IP's, i.e., to increase throughput of IP's to reflect the many design, material, and/or manufacturing process changes that occur, and to do so at any stage of the development, production, or QA process. What is needed is a radically different and portable way to find S&R's in a fraction of the time and at lower capital cost without compromising S&R detection results.
Technical Paper

“Insert and Fly” Using PCMCIA PC Cards in the Avionics Market

1994-11-01
942553
When looking into using PCMCIA PC Cards in the avionics market, three areas must be researched. The first is what are the applications and benefits of using the PC Cards while in flight, followed by the applications and benefits on the ground, and thirdly on how to make a PC Card that would stand up to the rugged avionics environment. PCMCIA PC Cards can be used in all aspects of flight. Three possible applications on the ground are; paperless documentation, modifications, flightline changes. Once airborne, PC Cards can be removed and a different functionality card can be inserted. One PC card socket can be used for many different functions during one flight. Some of the possible applications for PC Cards inflight are; flight plan changes, backup Line Replaceable Units (LRUs), and solid state data collection.
Technical Paper

“How to Talk to Your Patent Lawyer”

1994-09-01
941768
A patent lawyer suggests ways for an inventor, either an individual inventor or one employed by a corporation, to make the most effective use of his or her patent lawyer. Patentable invention is defined, with the suggestion that inventing creates rights that can be lost by failure to act to preserve them. Secrecy, the duty of disclosure to the Patent and Trademark Office, and cost control are considered in their application to inventions and inventors.
Technical Paper

“Herschel-Quincke Spiral” A New Interference Silencer

2003-05-05
2003-01-1722
Over the last ten years there has been a steady growth in the market share of light-duty diesel engines, especially in Europe. At the same time, a general trend in petrol engine development has been seen, in which normal aspirated engines are being replaced by downsized turbocharged engines. Therefore, NVH engineers have to deal with new challenges. Turbochargers produce an aerodynamic noise in the frequency range above 1000Hz, which might influence the exterior and interior noise level. As a result, the additional requirement for acoustical components to reduce this flow noise is going to pose an increasing challenge for air intake system suppliers. This paper describes a new design of well-known wide band silencer first mentioned by A. Selamet, N.S.Dickey and J.M.Novak [1,2]. The silencer works according to the interference principle. The sound is guided into two or more parallel pipes of different lengths.
Technical Paper

“Greater Than the Sum of its Parts” Integrated Flight Training/Aircrew Coordination

1994-10-01
942132
The requirement for crew resource management (CRM), or aircrew coordination training (ACT) in military parlance, has been well documented and attested to. In addition, aircraft systems training has become more intense and more in-depth in the new aircraft designs, especially in multi-crew and complex aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey Tiltrotor. (see Figure 1) Former training systems detailed training procedures that called for classroom training and simulation/simulator training followed by flight training. Improvements in aircraft flight skills training provide increased flying training capability coupled with reduced training time by integrating a mixed simulation/flight training syllabus, e.g. two to three simulation periods followed by one or two flight training periods covering the same material/skills. In addition, the simulation training will introduce new skills; the following flight periods will further refine/hone those skills.
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