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Technical Paper

“The Network Vehicle - A Glimpse into the Future of Mobile Multi-Media”

1998-11-09
982901
The Network Vehicle is the Delphi Automotive Systems' vision for the future convergence of the communications infrastructure, computers, and the automobile. It features many advanced functions such as: satellite video, Internet access, virtual navigation, remote vehicle diagnostics and control, games, mobile office, automotive web site, and customized real-time stock quotes and sports scores. These features are enabled by an integrated planar antenna that is capable of multiple satellite reception, a client-server network architecture, and unique human-vehicle-interfaces. The software application is written in Java, using API's (Application Programming Interfaces) to reduce the complexity and cost of the source code.
Technical Paper

“Second-Generation” SAE 5W-30 Passenger Car Engine Oils

1986-10-01
861515
High performance lubricant additive systems have been developed to formulate SAE 5W-30 passenger car engine oils which meet current and anticipated requirements of the North American original equipment manufacturers. The trend in North America is to recommend SAE 5W-30 oils that not only meet the API SF requirements for gasoline engines (“first-generation” oils), but also meet the stringent API CC requirement for light duty diesel engines (“second-generation” oils). Furthermore, the engine builders have issued “world specifications” for motor oils which incorporate additional “second-generation” SAE 5W-30 characteristics, such as enhanced API SF limits, improved fuel efficiency, an increased margin of bearing protection, and lower finished-oil phosphorus levels. The additive systems described herein exceed API SF and CC requirements as well as “second-generation” performance hurdles.
Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

2014-04-01
2014-01-0924
This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper

“POSSIBILITIES IN THE FIELD OF DRY LUBRICANTS”

1958-01-01
580278
Research information on solid lubricants has been compiled for consideration in the possible use of such materials in aircraft electrical equipment. Solid lubricants are capable of lubricating at the maximum temperatures (600° F) for aircraft electrical equipment. Many solids that adhere well to metals may be useful lubricants; those with layer-lattice structure usually give low friction. Solid lubricants are most commonly used as bonded films but the use of fluid carriers and surface reaction products have considerable merit.
Technical Paper

“Cromard” Thin Wall Steel Liners and Hard Chrome Plated Liners for High Production Gasoline and Diesel Engines

1964-01-01
640361
This paper, confined to the application of hard chrome plated liners to high-speed four-stroke diesel and gasoline engines, illustrates the increase in their popularity in the United Kingdom, and the advanced production methods which make this economically possible. The need for balanced engine life has long been apparent and is even more important today, the growth of motor transport having outstripped repair facilities. Iron bore life has been surpassed by improvement in the life of other component parts in the modern diesel engine. The provision of hard chrome plated liners can restore the balance. Further development and turbocharging of diesel engines has shown the need for a bore material capable of preventing scuffing and galling at elevated temperatures. Hard chrome has already proved itself in four-stroke engines under these conditions.
Technical Paper

“Condensation – Why it Needs to be Addressed in Every Aircraft”

2003-09-08
2003-01-3000
A wide body aircraft carries almost a half–ton of water and ice between the cabin and skin of the aircraft. The water can get on wires and connectors, which can cause electrical problems, cause corrosion and rust, and, eventually, “rain in the plane”. The speaker is the CEO of CTT Systems that has developed a system that solves the condensation by using dry air. The speaker will discuss how condensation can be prevented and how airlines can also save maintenance costs in the process. This topic is relevant for the attendees at the Aerospace Expo, as they are decision makers who need to be aware of this issue. It is also important for the MRO shows as the attendees are on the front lines of dealing with this problem.
Technical Paper

“CDaero” - A Parametric Aerodynamic Drag Prediction Tool

1998-02-23
980398
The objective of the development of the aerodynamic drag predictive tool CDaero was for use as a module for the Automobile Design Support System (AutoDSS). CDaero is an empirically based drag coefficient predictive tool based initially on the MIRA (Motor Industry Research Association) algorithm. The development philosophy was to be able to predict the aerodynamic drag coefficient of an automobile with knowledge of the features of the surface geometry control curves. These are the curves that control the 3-dimensional geometry as seen in the profile, plan and front and rear views. CDaero has been developed in a computing environment using the equation solver TKSolver™. Fifty-one input feature values are first determined from the automobile geometry and then entered into the program. CDaero models the drag coefficient with thirteen different components covering the basic body, as well as additional components such as the wheels, mud flaps, etc.
Technical Paper

eNOTIFY: Definition of a Methodology and Tools for Automatic Identification and Notification of Road Accidents

2012-04-16
2012-01-1178
Worldwide, 1.2 million people die in road crashes yearly; 43,000 in Europe alone. This implies a cost to European society of approximately 160 billion euros, and takes up 10% of all healthcare resources. To reduce these rates, safety technologies have been developed which help to minimize the severity of injuries to vehicle occupants. However, studies have shown that most deaths due to road accidents occur in the time between the accident and the arrival of medical care. Therefore, a fast and efficient rescue operation would significantly increase the injured person's probability of survival. The aim of this project was to define the On-Board Unit (OBU) hardware and software installed in all modern vehicles which could request medical and technical support after a road accident. This device, based on the information from the vehicle sensors, automatically decides whether the car has suffered a road accident or not, the severity of the accident and the kind of accident (impact area).
Technical Paper

e-Thermal: A Vehicle-Level HVAC/PTC Simulation Tool

2004-03-08
2004-01-1510
This paper describes a vehicle-level simulation model for climate control and powertrain cooling developed and currently utilized at GM. The tool was developed in response to GM's need to speed vehicle development for HVAC and powertrain cooling to meet world-class program execution timing (18 to 24 month vehicle development cycles). At the same time the simulation tool had to complement GM's strategy to move additional engineering responsibility to its HVAC suppliers. This simulation tool called “e-Thermal” was quickly developed and currently is in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper describes GM's objectives and requirements for developing e-Thermal. The structure of the tool and the capabilities of the simulation tool modules (refrigeration, front end airflow, passenger compartment, engine, transmission, Interior air handling …) is introduced. Model data requirements and GM's strategy for acquiring component data are also described.
Technical Paper

design procedure forVIBRATION ISOLATION on Nonrigid Supporting Structures

1960-01-01
600037
PAPER DESCRIBES a procedure for the dynamical design of linear vibration isolators to protect a rigid equipment from the sinusoidal motions of a nonrigid supporting structure. A single degree of translational freedom of the equipment is assumed. Three types of data are required: (1) The equipment mass and its so-called fragility curve, (2) the mechanical admittance of the supporting structure and its amplitude of vibration when it supports no load, and (3) information to establish a minimum stiffness of the isolators. The procedure yields a region of permissible natural frequency and fraction of critical damping combinations for the isolator-mass system. The specification for the isolator dynamical requirements, including allowable tolerances, is derived from this region.*
Technical Paper

Zn-Ni Plating as a Cadmium Alternative

2007-09-17
2007-01-3837
In a 2-year program sponsored by SJAC, an aqueous electroplating process using alkaline Zn-Ni with trivalent chromium post treatment is under evaluation for high strength steel for aircraft application as an alternative to cadmium. Commercial Zn-15%Ni rack/barrel plating solutions are basis for plating aircraft parts or fasteners. Brightener was reduced from the original formula to form porous plating that enables bake-out of hydrogen to avoid hydrogen embrittlement condition. Properties of the deposit, such as appearance, adhesion, un-scribed corrosion resistance, and galvanic corrosion resistance in contact with Al alloy, were evaluated. Coefficient of friction was compared with Cd plating by torque-tension measurements. Evaluation of the plating for scribed corrosion resistance, primer adhesion, etc. will continue in FY2007.
Technical Paper

Zinc Extrusion

1966-02-01
660051
The extrusion of zinc alloys, with special reference to zinc-titanium alloys, is described. Parameters for this process are defined. The excellent tensile and creep properties obtained in a typical extruded zinc-titanium alloy are presented. Extruded zinc with a quality copper-nickel-chrome plated finish offers a new approach to the production of automotive trim and of similar products.
Technical Paper

Zinc Electrochemical Metallizing for Corrosion Protection of Automobile Wheel Hubs

1991-10-01
912288
Many papers have been written for SAE on electrochemical metallizing, a modern term for “selective” or “brush” plating. These papers have dealt primarily with the aerospace industry, including the use of non-embrittling cadmium LHE® coatings for corrosion protection on aircraft. Shadowed by 30 years of successes in the aerospace industry, electrochemical metallizing corrosion protection in the automotive industry is often overlooked. Specifically, the use of selectively applied zinc coatings for corrosion protection on wheel hubs during manufacture has proven integral at several European automotive manufacturers. In the past, environmental conditions have corroded both the hubs and wheels of automobiles. Quite often the corrosion is in the microscopic gap between the hub and the wheel, which over time causes the wheel to seize and prevents removal. This has been frustrating to both stranded motorists and shop mechanics.
Technical Paper

Zinc Diecast Die Design for Plating Applications

1983-02-01
830178
AS PART of its continuing research to improve the die casting process, International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Inc. has prepared a computer program, “Computer-Aided Design for Zinc Die Casting Dies,” which will enable a die caster to design the metal flow system for a die within a matter of minutes—simply and more accurately than ever possible, previously. It is helping convert what has been an art into a science.
Technical Paper

Zero-G Simulation using Neutral Buoyancy

1989-07-01
891529
For human beings who have been reared on the earth with its 1 G gravitational field, the condition of weightlessness is a world with which we are unfamiliar. Even if the layout and equipment configuration of a spacecraft designed to compensate for operation under Zero-G conditions, there are some things which are not effective under actual weightless conditions. In the design of a manned spacecraft, it is necessary to accumulate design data on human performance in a weightless condition, then to undertake design evaluations and verification under weightless conditions. In this paper, testing for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of Zero-G simulation using neutral buoyancy, conducted first of all in Japan, and recommendations on the equipment and Facilities required to conduct such simulations, are described.
Technical Paper

Zero Prototype Approach in the Development of a Plastic Automotive Component

2004-11-16
2004-01-3300
In the developement process, the engineer is required to design, validate and deliver the components for manufacturing, in an as short as possible lead time. For that, the engineer may use some available tools to save not only time, but also cost. This work presents a zero prototype approach applyied to a plastic component, whose main accomplishment was the decreasing of lead time development due to the intensive use of virtual tools (CAD/CAE). As a result, the product was delivered in a short time, with no need of building physical prototypes, thus reducing development cost.
Technical Paper

Zero Hand Coding Approach for Controller Development

2002-03-04
2002-01-0142
As the demand for more complex system development and the ever-increasing requirement for improvement in software productivity, the need for graphical programming or Zero-Hand Coding for automatic generation of controller software becomes highly desirable. The graphical programming must not be limited to the algorithm development which consists of the application modules but must be extended to the microcontroller platform, which include the middleware (i.e. operating system, I/O device drivers) and hardware. Automatic code generation is very important for programming the complex microcontroller internal parameters and registers. The combined software tool chain is to generate the final target specific executable code. This approach is very beneficial for system development, reduction of the development cycle and bridges the gap between control and software engineers reducing time, effort and cost of the production software.
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