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Technical Paper

“Second-Generation” SAE 5W-30 Passenger Car Engine Oils

High performance lubricant additive systems have been developed to formulate SAE 5W-30 passenger car engine oils which meet current and anticipated requirements of the North American original equipment manufacturers. The trend in North America is to recommend SAE 5W-30 oils that not only meet the API SF requirements for gasoline engines (“first-generation” oils), but also meet the stringent API CC requirement for light duty diesel engines (“second-generation” oils). Furthermore, the engine builders have issued “world specifications” for motor oils which incorporate additional “second-generation” SAE 5W-30 characteristics, such as enhanced API SF limits, improved fuel efficiency, an increased margin of bearing protection, and lower finished-oil phosphorus levels. The additive systems described herein exceed API SF and CC requirements as well as “second-generation” performance hurdles.
Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper


Research information on solid lubricants has been compiled for consideration in the possible use of such materials in aircraft electrical equipment. Solid lubricants are capable of lubricating at the maximum temperatures (600° F) for aircraft electrical equipment. Many solids that adhere well to metals may be useful lubricants; those with layer-lattice structure usually give low friction. Solid lubricants are most commonly used as bonded films but the use of fluid carriers and surface reaction products have considerable merit.
Technical Paper

“CDaero” - A Parametric Aerodynamic Drag Prediction Tool

The objective of the development of the aerodynamic drag predictive tool CDaero was for use as a module for the Automobile Design Support System (AutoDSS). CDaero is an empirically based drag coefficient predictive tool based initially on the MIRA (Motor Industry Research Association) algorithm. The development philosophy was to be able to predict the aerodynamic drag coefficient of an automobile with knowledge of the features of the surface geometry control curves. These are the curves that control the 3-dimensional geometry as seen in the profile, plan and front and rear views. CDaero has been developed in a computing environment using the equation solver TKSolver™. Fifty-one input feature values are first determined from the automobile geometry and then entered into the program. CDaero models the drag coefficient with thirteen different components covering the basic body, as well as additional components such as the wheels, mud flaps, etc.
Technical Paper

eNOTIFY: Definition of a Methodology and Tools for Automatic Identification and Notification of Road Accidents

Worldwide, 1.2 million people die in road crashes yearly; 43,000 in Europe alone. This implies a cost to European society of approximately 160 billion euros, and takes up 10% of all healthcare resources. To reduce these rates, safety technologies have been developed which help to minimize the severity of injuries to vehicle occupants. However, studies have shown that most deaths due to road accidents occur in the time between the accident and the arrival of medical care. Therefore, a fast and efficient rescue operation would significantly increase the injured person's probability of survival. The aim of this project was to define the On-Board Unit (OBU) hardware and software installed in all modern vehicles which could request medical and technical support after a road accident. This device, based on the information from the vehicle sensors, automatically decides whether the car has suffered a road accident or not, the severity of the accident and the kind of accident (impact area).
Technical Paper

e-Thermal: A Vehicle-Level HVAC/PTC Simulation Tool

This paper describes a vehicle-level simulation model for climate control and powertrain cooling developed and currently utilized at GM. The tool was developed in response to GM's need to speed vehicle development for HVAC and powertrain cooling to meet world-class program execution timing (18 to 24 month vehicle development cycles). At the same time the simulation tool had to complement GM's strategy to move additional engineering responsibility to its HVAC suppliers. This simulation tool called “e-Thermal” was quickly developed and currently is in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper describes GM's objectives and requirements for developing e-Thermal. The structure of the tool and the capabilities of the simulation tool modules (refrigeration, front end airflow, passenger compartment, engine, transmission, Interior air handling …) is introduced. Model data requirements and GM's strategy for acquiring component data are also described.
Technical Paper

design procedure forVIBRATION ISOLATION on Nonrigid Supporting Structures

PAPER DESCRIBES a procedure for the dynamical design of linear vibration isolators to protect a rigid equipment from the sinusoidal motions of a nonrigid supporting structure. A single degree of translational freedom of the equipment is assumed. Three types of data are required: (1) The equipment mass and its so-called fragility curve, (2) the mechanical admittance of the supporting structure and its amplitude of vibration when it supports no load, and (3) information to establish a minimum stiffness of the isolators. The procedure yields a region of permissible natural frequency and fraction of critical damping combinations for the isolator-mass system. The specification for the isolator dynamical requirements, including allowable tolerances, is derived from this region.*
Technical Paper

Zero-G Simulation using Neutral Buoyancy

For human beings who have been reared on the earth with its 1 G gravitational field, the condition of weightlessness is a world with which we are unfamiliar. Even if the layout and equipment configuration of a spacecraft designed to compensate for operation under Zero-G conditions, there are some things which are not effective under actual weightless conditions. In the design of a manned spacecraft, it is necessary to accumulate design data on human performance in a weightless condition, then to undertake design evaluations and verification under weightless conditions. In this paper, testing for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of Zero-G simulation using neutral buoyancy, conducted first of all in Japan, and recommendations on the equipment and Facilities required to conduct such simulations, are described.
Technical Paper

Zero Prototype Approach in the Development of a Plastic Automotive Component

In the developement process, the engineer is required to design, validate and deliver the components for manufacturing, in an as short as possible lead time. For that, the engineer may use some available tools to save not only time, but also cost. This work presents a zero prototype approach applyied to a plastic component, whose main accomplishment was the decreasing of lead time development due to the intensive use of virtual tools (CAD/CAE). As a result, the product was delivered in a short time, with no need of building physical prototypes, thus reducing development cost.
Technical Paper

Zero Hand Coding Approach for Controller Development

As the demand for more complex system development and the ever-increasing requirement for improvement in software productivity, the need for graphical programming or Zero-Hand Coding for automatic generation of controller software becomes highly desirable. The graphical programming must not be limited to the algorithm development which consists of the application modules but must be extended to the microcontroller platform, which include the middleware (i.e. operating system, I/O device drivers) and hardware. Automatic code generation is very important for programming the complex microcontroller internal parameters and registers. The combined software tool chain is to generate the final target specific executable code. This approach is very beneficial for system development, reduction of the development cycle and bridges the gap between control and software engineers reducing time, effort and cost of the production software.
Technical Paper

Yugoslav Approach to the Solution to Problems of Ecological Environment

Development of car production industry in Yugoslavia has three ecological phases. The first one is to satisfy ECE Rules by optimization of engine and vehicle equipment. The second phase is to enter the American market with help of professional foreign development institutions. The third phase is now in focus; to adjust to new European regulations. For the development tasks it is typical to lean on foreign licenses. The real development jobs were occasionally given to faculties, while the research units in factories were overburdened by operative tasks from production. Research jobs were always at mother companies, only some small segment of them was, for the short period, at some faculty or larger institute.
Technical Paper

Yielding Strengh Analysis for Self Supported Pressure Vessels

The hazardous bulk chemical liquid cargo transportation is usually made through highways, using special automotive devices, named semitrailer tank, a kind of mobile tank specially developed to perform this task, manufactured with many types of steel, selected according to the chemical characteristics of the product to be transported. Equipment sizing is made based on specific standards which include specified formulas, loading, and safety factors representing the design criteria of this type of device. Despite of the detailed design criteria for semitrailer tank, it has been observed failure of some pieces of equipment during operation, in a shorter effective life than that one considered in the design phase itself. Considering a detailed study of the stress distribution in this type of equipment, this paper shows a verification of the possibility of yielding failure in the semitrailer tank structure.
Technical Paper

Xerox's Distributed Real Time Control System

XEROX has developed and implemented a network architecture for a real time control system which has expansion flexibility, high reliability, noise immunity, and low cost. This two level multiplex system with a single wire system bus at one level for distributed processors connected to local serial buses at the second level for remote functions and loads is described. The XEROX Microelectronics Center has developed a set of custom VLSI chips to implement the multiplexing architecture. Control software was developed using both assemblers and high level language tools. The software and chip set have been designed, built and integrated into XEROX'S latest generation of products.
Technical Paper

XLV Truck Cab - Designed for Low Volume Production Overseas

United States automotive manufacturers, to maintain their pre-eminent position in world motor vehicle production, must expand their operations overseas. Tooling amortization expenses for the highly sophisticated domestic models are exorbitant because of low production volumes overseas. Therefore, it has been desirable to develop a vehicle which can be easily manufactured overseas for minimum capital expenditures. Chrysler International’s XLV truck cab has been styled, designed, and processed for low volume production overseas. This paper deals with the XLV program -- from the original idea to production in Turkey.
Technical Paper

XB-70A Laboratory for Progress

The development of the XB-70 research aircraft produced advancements in many fields of technology. This paper covers a few of these advancements in the areas of materials, equipment, and manufacturing. These include honeycomb construction, PH 15-7 alloy steel, vacuum melted H-11 steel, equipment capable of withstanding high temperatures, chemical milling of many different alloys, miniaturized welding equipment, and exothermic brazing techniques.
Technical Paper

XB-70 Ground Servicing and Safety Precautions

Planning for ground servicing and maintenance started in the proposal phase and has been followed by test program experience with the XB-70 Mach 3 air vehicle. Servicing and associated safety requirements are summarized. Discussion of maintenance and support actions includes mention of equipment provided to meet the requirements. Preflight, postflight, and periodic operations are outlined, along with some indication of changes that resulted when plans were put into practice. The demands of a high performance flight test air vehicle limit movements toward simplification.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Rocking Curve Analysis of the Aging and Deformation Characteristics in the Al-Li Alloy

A non-destructive x-ray technique, the double crystal diffractometer method, is presented as a tool to investigate the aging and deformation behavior of the Al-Li alloy. This is a sensitive method for measuring the strain and dislocation density within individual grains through the x-ray rocking curve. In addition, models were developed to describe the aging and deformation characteristics of this alloy.
Technical Paper

X-Ray - A Necessary Tool for Detecting Incipient Structural Failures in Service Aircraft

X-ray is an indispensable aid in locating and determining the extent of incipient failures in structure which is inaccessible by position or covered by multiple layers of metal. It is also the most feasible method for checking oil coolers for contamination; bonded honeycomb panels for water; fuel lines for erosion; and with a 360 deg emission tube, fuselage frames for structural integrity without removing the interior upholstery and panels from the passenger compartment or cargo compartments.