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Technical Paper

“Targeting Consumer Needs in the Perfect Storm: Changing the Automotive Lifestyle”

2008-10-20
2008-21-0038
The intersection of changing lifestyles and evolving transportation needs finds smart USA well positioned for launch in 2008 during one of the most competitive periods in U.S. automotive history. In a zero sum market with new global entrants competing for single points of share, where quality levels have been redefined and fractions of points separate the best from the challengers, lifestyle awareness, innovation and product positioning become the differentiators. Simply adding features has left some with hefty investments and confused consumers. Bigger is not always better. More is not always desirable. The real opportunity for new entrants to the US market may be defined within niche markets where changing lifestyles allow for the emergence of new segments. Today, smart USA has surfaced as a clear example of right product, right place, right time.
Technical Paper

“TFC/IW in 1982”

1982-02-01
820301
TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia weight is reported with other engineering variables for recent EPA data for industry passenger cars and truck. TFC/IW is used in comparisons between gasoline and diesel engines, 49 States and California, passenger cars and trucks. The California fuel economy penalty due to more stringent emissions standards is discussed. The relationship between TFC/IW and ton miles per gallon is shown. Special attention is focused on 4 cylinder gasoline powered vehicles in 49 States passenger car fleet. The use of TFC/IW to answer the question, ‘What Changed?’ when comparing the fuel economies of two fleets is described.
Technical Paper

“Seizure-Delay” Method for Determining the Seizure Protection of EP Lubricants

1939-01-01
390146
IT does not yet seem to be recognized fully that it is the local temperature at the surface of contact and not the local specific pressure that chiefly determines the occurrence of seizure under extreme-pressure-lubrication conditions. This local temperature is the result of the temperature level of the parts lubricated, considered as a whole (“bulk” temperature) and of a superimposed instantaneous temperature rise (temperature “flash”) which is localized in the surface of contact. It appears typical for extreme-pressure-lubrication conditions, as met in gear practice, that the temperature flash is much higher than the bulk temperature. With existing conventional test methods for the determination of the protection against seizure afforded by EP lubricants, a considerable rise of the bulk temperature mostly occurs; as it cannot be controlled sufficiently; thus, leaving an unknown margin for the temperature flash, it renders impossible a reliable determination.
Technical Paper

“Rubber Coupling” at a 4×4 Transmition System

2003-11-18
2003-01-3684
There are many different vibration sources in a car. Engine, gears, road roughness, impacts against the wheels cause vibration and sound that can decrease the parts and the car durability as well as affect drivability, safety and passengers and community comfort. In 4×4 cars, some extra vibration sources are the parts responsible for transmitting the torque and power to the rear wheels. Each of them has their own vibration modes, excited mostly by its imbalance or by the second order engine vibration. The engine vibration is a very well known phenomena and the rear driveshaft is designed not to have any vibration mode in the range of frequencies that the engine works or its second order. The imbalance of a driveshaft is also a design requirement. That means, the acceptable imbalance of the driveshaft is limited to a maximum value.
Technical Paper

“Return to Nascar” Dodge NCTS History

2002-12-02
2002-01-3353
Dodge wanted to promote the new Dodge Ram 1500 pick-up truck and regain a presence in NASCAR and was looking for a venue that would accommodate this presence. NASCAR launched the NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series (NCTS) in 1995 and Dodge joined the series. This paper will cover the history of Dodge Motorsports Engineering presence in this series. The engineering objective was to develop an organization that would meet the corporate goals. The initial problem was that Dodge hadn't participated in a NASCAR series since 1978 and had no recent experience. The conclusion was that Dodge Motorsports Engineering could be competitive in NASCAR series racing.
Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

2014-04-01
2014-01-0924
This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper

“Personal Integrity” and Man-Machine Integration

1982-02-01
821348
A sense of “personal integrity” blocks pilot use of new information about how he thinks. Research on human performance under stress done over the past fifty years indicates increased rigidity and regression to earlier learned behavior in high stress, and in low Stress a shift in attention to any domestic situation or on the job controversy which is of higher stress than that of the job at hand, all without the pilot's knowledge. Informal surveys of commercial pilot training and commercial pilot attitudes towards these studies indicate that the study findings directly confront learned cultural responses. Pilot and trainer reactions prevent the information from being adequately investigated or formally taught. The findings are not written into training manuals and pilots who are informally given the information do not have adequate access to the knowledge when it is needed.
Technical Paper

“Passenger Vehicle Petrol Consumption - Measurement in the Real World”

1988-03-01
871159
A survey of the in-service fuel consumption of passenger vehicles and derivatives in the Australian fleet was carried out in 1984-85. Seven hundred and four owners across Australia took part in the survey. Vehicle owners reported by questionnaire the amount of fuel used during four tank fills of normal operation, the distance travelled, and other details of the operating circumstances. The survey shows a clear downward trend in the fuel consumption of the Australian passenger fleet. The data also provides comparisons of actual fuel consumption obtained on the road, with laboratory derived values for fuel consumption. Vehicles in a sub-set of 40 were fitted with fuel flow meters during the survey and tested to Australian Standard 2077 for fuel consumption. The questionnaire method is shown to be a valid and accurate technique for determining in-service fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

“Insert and Fly” Using PCMCIA PC Cards in the Avionics Market

1994-11-01
942553
When looking into using PCMCIA PC Cards in the avionics market, three areas must be researched. The first is what are the applications and benefits of using the PC Cards while in flight, followed by the applications and benefits on the ground, and thirdly on how to make a PC Card that would stand up to the rugged avionics environment. PCMCIA PC Cards can be used in all aspects of flight. Three possible applications on the ground are; paperless documentation, modifications, flightline changes. Once airborne, PC Cards can be removed and a different functionality card can be inserted. One PC card socket can be used for many different functions during one flight. Some of the possible applications for PC Cards inflight are; flight plan changes, backup Line Replaceable Units (LRUs), and solid state data collection.
Technical Paper

“Flexible” Cargo Handling Systems for Standard-Body Airplanes

1986-09-01
861153
The manner in which the lower deck cargo compartments of standard-body airplanes are designed, equipped, and serviced has not changed appreciably over the past 50 years. A number of factors now at work within the air transportation industry are causing carriers and airplane manufacturers to explore alternative approaches to these tasks. This paper reviews these factors, presents a new approach to lower deck cargo handling systems design, and describes how this approach can be applied to standard-body airplanes.
Technical Paper

“Fair” Comparison of Powertrain Configurations for Plug-In Hybrid Operation Using Global Optimization

2009-04-20
2009-01-1334
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) use electric energy from the grid rather than fuel energy for most short trips, therefore drastically reducing fuel consumption. Different configurations can be used for PHEVs. In this study, the parallel pre-transmission, series, and power-split configurations were compared by using global optimization. The latter allows a fair comparison among different powertrains. Each vehicle was operated optimally to ensure that the results would not be biased by non-optimally tuned or designed controllers. All vehicles were sized to have a similar all-electric range (AER), performance, and towing capacity. Several driving cycles and distances were used. The advantages of each powertrain are discussed.
Technical Paper

“Evaluation of the Drift of vehicle Inspection/Maintenance Emission Analyzers in use- A California Case Study”

1989-05-01
891119
Quality assurance (QA) in motor vehicle emissions inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs is a continuing concern, especially in decentralized programs with hundreds or even thousands of licensed stations. The emissions analyzers used in such stations are an important focus of governmental QA efforts because of the central role of analyzers in determining which vehicles need to be repaired. Therefore, the In-use performance of I/M emission analyzers has a large impact on the quality of 1/M programs as a whole. This paper reports on the results of an investigation in California designed to determine in-use performance of emission analyzers in the field. The investigation was designed to evaluate both drift rates and the ability of analyzer systems with automatic gas calibration capability to correct analyzer responses outside of accepted tolerances.
Technical Paper

“Electric Aircraft” Pioneer The Focke-Wulf Fw 190

1996-10-01
965631
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 was one of the truly outstanding fighter aircraft of the Second World War. It distinguished itself over all fronts on which the Luftwaffe fought in conditions ranging from arctic wastes to the deserts of North Africa. The Fw 190 represented the epitome of conventional piston-engine fighter design on the threshold of the jet age. Conceived nearly sixty years ago, flying for the first time on the eve of the war in 1939 and acknowledged as “the best all-around fighter in the world” in the mid-war years, derivatives of the Fw 190 were still pushing the ultimate capability boundary for this class of aircraft at war's end in 1945 (reaching maximum level true airspeeds of 470 mph [about Mach 0.7] at altitudes of well over 40,000 feet). This paper assesses the design attributes and technology approaches, including innovative use of advanced electrical systems, that were used to make the Fw 190 one of the great all-around fighters in aviation history.
Technical Paper

“Doing More with Less” - The Fuel Economy Benefits of Cooled EGR on a Direct Injected Spark Ignited Boosted Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0589
Due to the rising costs of fuel and increasingly stringent regulations, auto makers are in need of technology to enable more fuel-efficient powertrain technologies to be introduced to the marketplace. Such powertrains must not sacrifice performance, safety or driver comfort. Today's engine and powertrain manufacturers must, therefore, do more with less by achieving acceptable vehicle performance while reducing fuel consumption. One effective method to achieve this is the extreme downsizing of current direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engines through the use of high levels of boosting and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Key challenges to highly downsized gasoline engines are retarded combustion to prevent engine knocking and the necessity to operate at air/fuel ratios that are significantly richer than the stoichiometric ratio.
Technical Paper

“Aviation Transportation Security”

2003-03-03
2003-01-1346
This essay presents a brief history of aviation security measures, including problems exploited by terror attacks such as those of September 11th. Recent policy modifications are also discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and rationally developed into a policy proposal for developing a more secure system of domestic aviation transportation.
Technical Paper

“A Successful Electronic Ignition System thru Fundamental Problem Analysis”

1974-02-01
740154
For 1974, Ford Motor Company is providing, as standard equipment, a solid state ignition system on all 400 CID and 460 CID engines as well as on all California vehicles equipped with 200 through 351 CID engines. This paper explains the Ford solid state ignition system and the objectives and design philosophy that was used in the development of the system. Further, a review of the design and production validation test plans is discussed. With this background, specific examples of the effectiveness of complete problem analysis for fundamental cause and corrective action is presented in addition to control methods and evaluation of corrective action. This problem analysis system allowed this automotive electronic product to go into production with a high degree of confidence in meeting the reliability goals.
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