As increasing populations set demands for the abundant natural resources of the colder regions, the complex industrial machines of American Industry are expected to build the new railroads, roads, cities, mines, power sources, airports and factories, and operate these activities year round. This paper reviews the basic problems of “winterization” and the design practices, materials and components used with varying effectiveness in “winterizing” construction and associated equipment for use in moderate and extreme cold geographical areas. Several new charts are included which offer design temperature data for the northern United States, Canada, Alaska, Greenland, as well as average January isotherms around the earth. The authors are members of CIMTC Subcommittee XV, “Environment”.
There are many different vibration sources in a car. Engine, gears, road roughness, impacts against the wheels cause vibration and sound that can decrease the parts and the car durability as well as affect drivability, safety and passengers and community comfort. In 4×4 cars, some extra vibration sources are the parts responsible for transmitting the torque and power to the rear wheels. Each of them has their own vibration modes, excited mostly by its imbalance or by the second order engine vibration. The engine vibration is a very well known phenomena and the rear driveshaft is designed not to have any vibration mode in the range of frequencies that the engine works or its second order. The imbalance of a driveshaft is also a design requirement. That means, the acceptable imbalance of the driveshaft is limited to a maximum value.
The results of several anti-knock studies are discussed in this paper. Road anti-knock performance for 1000 fuel blends covering the years 1940 to 1957 have been investigated. The laboratory Research octane numbers of these fuels covered the range from 80 to 105. The fuels were evaluated in 46 cars representing a cross-section of the automotive products for these years. The objective of these investigations was to determine the practical application of the laboratory to road octane rating relationships, and the effect of vehicles, and operating conditions on these relationships. The results show that there is a valid correlation between laboratory and road octane ratings. The relative importance of Research and Motor octane ratings on road performance is influenced by make of car, engine speed, throttle position, and distributor advance characteristics. It also indicated that aromatics improve, whereas olefins reduce high speed Modified Borderline ratings.
This paper is an extension of our previous work on the CHASE (Classification by Holistic Analysis of Scene Environment) algorithm, that automatically classifies the driving complexity of a road scene image during day-time conditions and assigns it an ‘Ease of Driving’ (EoD) score. At night, apart from traffic variations and road type conditions, illumination changes are a major predominant factor that affect the road visibility and the driving easiness. In order to resolve the problem of analyzing the driving complexity of roads at night, a brightness detection module is incorporated in our end-to-end nighttime EoD system, which computes the ‘brightness factor’ (bright or dark) for that given night-time road scene. The brightness factor along with a multi-level machine learning classifier is then used to classify the EoD score for a night-time road scene. Our end-to-end ‘Night-time EoD system’ is a real-time onboard system implemented and tested on road scene data collected in Japan.
A new truck type street sweeper has been developed which incorporates some of the sweeping advantages of a three wheeled sweeper (tricycle steer) and the transport advantages of a legal highway truck. It offers major productivity improvements through better operator environment and decrease of nonsweeping time in the operational cycle. It is possible for a small “short line” special purpose vehicle manufacturer to develop, test, and produce such a vehicle and meet Federal regulatory requirements with limited “In house” design and testing facilities. Here this was accomplished through judicious augmentation by outside specialized design and testing organizations.
THE FIRST YEAR of jet airline operation has brought many problems — and satisfactions — to the industry. Here the author discusses some of the more serious problems: 1. Scheduling. American Airlines used the “Monte Carlo” method to calculate payloads and flight times. 2. Baggage handling. Almost nothing annoys a passenger more than long waits for baggage at the end of a flight. One approach to the problem is the baggage expediter system. 3. Mechanical shutdowns. 4. Runway length. 5. Noise. Noise suppressors have not been effective enough, from the standpoint of communities surroundings airports. Development of the turbofan engine offers some hope in this area.*
Worldwide, 1.2 million people die in road crashes yearly; 43,000 in Europe alone. This implies a cost to European society of approximately 160 billion euros, and takes up 10% of all healthcare resources. To reduce these rates, safety technologies have been developed which help to minimize the severity of injuries to vehicle occupants. However, studies have shown that most deaths due to road accidents occur in the time between the accident and the arrival of medical care. Therefore, a fast and efficient rescue operation would significantly increase the injured person's probability of survival. The aim of this project was to define the On-Board Unit (OBU) hardware and software installed in all modern vehicles which could request medical and technical support after a road accident. This device, based on the information from the vehicle sensors, automatically decides whether the car has suffered a road accident or not, the severity of the accident and the kind of accident (impact area).
The property owners, an off-highway motor vehicle club, purchased an abandoned quarry to ride off highway motorcycles (OHM's), snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles (ATV's). The neighbors complained about the noise and tried to stop further riding of recreational vehicles in the quarry. As a result, the town filed a lawsuit against the property owners, citing several zoning code violations, including the fact that the property owners did not obtain a conditional-use permit, which the zoning ordinance requires for any use of the property. This paper reviews the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruling finding the zoning ordinance unconstitutional because there were no permitted uses of the property, just several conditional uses. As written at that time, owners of property within this zoning classification could not use their property for any purpose (recreation, hunting, etc.) unless they applied for and obtained a conditional-use permit.
The current environmental situation in urban areas is demanding new concepts of transportation and innovative vehicle designs. More environmentally-friendly means of transport represent an important feature in local public transport. Improvements in the environmental situation are to be achieved by increased transition from individual transport to public transport on the one hand, and by having more environmentally-friendly buses on the other. Electric drive, whether as diesel, hybrid or zero-emission drive, has a central role to play in this. This report gives a survey of their estimated technical characteristics and possible applications.
Alcohol amongst our teenagers is the #1 problem facing our young people today. There are many solutions to this problem, which includes prevention and education. New youth organizations, legislation and innovative educational efforts are being offered to those who wish to become involved in helping solve this problem.
“Zero Emission Vehicles” in the form of pure electric vehicles are quite feasible and useful for limited cruising ranges. However, market success depends on customer acceptance. Studies show, that customers expect electric vehicles with driving performance similar to conventional vehicles while comparable cruising ranges should be available at low additional cost. With currently available batteries using lithium ion technology a gravimetric energy density of only one percent of the energy density of gasoline or diesel can be reached. With respect to acceptable additional costs this effect leads to significant reduction of the cruising range. For various reasons such as battery aging, demand for heating, traffic jams, etc., this already decreased cruising range is further reduced. In such cases electrical energy can be generated with a demand oriented (down-) sized combustion engine, a so called “Range Extender”.
This paper presents wireless multimedia communications with the intelligent transport system (ITS). First, the new concept of "environment communication" is introduced which combines one's environmental data and information with personal communication technology; the understanding is one's environment continually changing. This concept can secure his safe movement and/or control his level of comfort. The wireless agent is also proposed as one element of environment communication. This technology combines the conventional mobile agent function with information specific to the mobile terminal environment. Also, the combination of the wireless agent and ITS is discussed from the viewpoints of effective data communication. Furthermore, the concept of personal navigation based on personal handy-phone system (PHS) technology is introduced. Last, a couple of technologies to improve wireless transmission performance are discussed.
The wireless Spread Spectrum Ground Communication (SSGC) system will contribute to the enhancement of aircraft maintenance, flight, dispatch, and cargo operations efficiency. A concept layout of the wireless SSGC system implementation in an airport environment is illustrated in Figure 1. The SSGC system will provide both text/graphics data transmission and voice communication for flight crew, maintenance, and dispatch personnel in the airport gate environment. This system will link ground information system and onboard avionics systems, and provide access by ground crew to an information database through portable graphics terminals. The objective is to integrate both airborne avionics, ground crew, and ground based resources into a seamless operating system.