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Technical Paper

“Rigidization-on-Command”™ (ROC) Resin Development for Lightweight Isogrid Booms with MLI

The “Rigidization-on-Command”™ (ROC™) resin development has focused on the development of resin systems that use UV light cure for rigidization. Polymeric sensitizers have been incorporated into the resin formulations to promote cure using Pen-Ray lamps and UV light-emitting diodes (LED's). Formulations containing the polymeric sensitizers were examined by FTIR and DSC. Complete cure was observed after 15 min. exposure with the Pen-Ray lamps. Performance of the Pen-Ray lamps and UV LEDs was thoroughly characterized. Thermal models were developed to optimize the performance of the of the MLI insulation thermal oven used for orbital cure of the boom. Results show that -12°C is the lowest temperature required for cure of the ROC™ resin systems.
Technical Paper

“Quiet” Aspects of the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft JT15D Turbofan

This paper describes the engine design details of the Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1 engine as related to noise generation. Design principles and factors contributing to the very low-noise levels on the Cessna Citation aircraft are illustrated. Noise testing experiences and data from static tests on the United Aircraft of Canada Ltd. (UACL) flight test aircraft and from both static and flight tests on the Citation aircraft are discussed. Lessons learned from these tests and some future probabilities are outlined.
Technical Paper

“Next Generation” Means for Detecting Squeaks and Rattles in Instrument Panels

Engineers doing squeak and rattle testing of instrument panels (IP's) have successfully used large electrodynamic vibration systems to identify sources of squeaks and rattles (S&R's). Their successes led to demands to test more IP's, i.e., to increase throughput of IP's to reflect the many design, material, and/or manufacturing process changes that occur, and to do so at any stage of the development, production, or QA process. What is needed is a radically different and portable way to find S&R's in a fraction of the time and at lower capital cost without compromising S&R detection results.
Technical Paper

“Herschel-Quincke Spiral” A New Interference Silencer

Over the last ten years there has been a steady growth in the market share of light-duty diesel engines, especially in Europe. At the same time, a general trend in petrol engine development has been seen, in which normal aspirated engines are being replaced by downsized turbocharged engines. Therefore, NVH engineers have to deal with new challenges. Turbochargers produce an aerodynamic noise in the frequency range above 1000Hz, which might influence the exterior and interior noise level. As a result, the additional requirement for acoustical components to reduce this flow noise is going to pose an increasing challenge for air intake system suppliers. This paper describes a new design of well-known wide band silencer first mentioned by A. Selamet, N.S.Dickey and J.M.Novak [1,2]. The silencer works according to the interference principle. The sound is guided into two or more parallel pipes of different lengths.
Technical Paper

the identification and characterization of RUMBLE AND THUD

SIMULTANEOUS RECORDINGS of cylinder pressure, audible sound, and crankshaft motion have shown that rumble is a noise associated with bending vibrations of the crankshaft. The vibrations are caused by abnormally high rates of pressure rise near the top dead center piston position. In this study the high rates of pressure rise were obtained by inducting deposits into the the engine. Thud is a torsional vibration of the crankshaft, similar in sound to rumble but resulting from much earlier occurrence of the maximum rates of pressure rise. Rumble vibrations consisted of a fundamental frequency of 600 cps and higher harmonics in the 11/1 compression ratio V-8 laboratory engine used in the investigation. The audible noise of rumble was predominantly composed of the second harmonic or about 1200 cps.
Technical Paper

the first year of the JET AGE . . . .reflections

THE FIRST YEAR of jet airline operation has brought many problems — and satisfactions — to the industry. Here the author discusses some of the more serious problems: 1. Scheduling. American Airlines used the “Monte Carlo” method to calculate payloads and flight times. 2. Baggage handling. Almost nothing annoys a passenger more than long waits for baggage at the end of a flight. One approach to the problem is the baggage expediter system. 3. Mechanical shutdowns. 4. Runway length. 5. Noise. Noise suppressors have not been effective enough, from the standpoint of communities surroundings airports. Development of the turbofan engine offers some hope in this area.*
Technical Paper

the design of Planetary Gear Trains

THE usefulness of planetary gear trains and the engineering techniques necessary for optimum design are discussed in this paper. A simple method for calculating planetary gear ratios is described which can be used to determine quickly the potential usefulness of any planetary configurations. The author lists criteria which help to evaluate the potential of a planetary gear train schematic from the standpoints of gear noise and structural viewpoint. Detailed design of individual members include spacing of the pinions, mounting considerations, thrust direction, lubrication, and stress evaluation.
Technical Paper

knock-knock: Spark Knock, Wild Ping, or Rumble?

ENGINE noise has become an increasing problem with the higher and higher compression ratios of present-day automotive engines. Because fuel octane number cannot be raised indefinitely, the problem is one of engine design and selection of crankcase lubricating oils and gasoline formulations, the authors think. This paper describes investigations into the cause of spark knock, wild ping, rumble, and the added problem of hot-spot surface ignition (which also intensifies as compression ratios increase). The authors have found gasolines with phosphorous additives, used with properly formulated multiviscosity lubricating oils, provide a partial answer to the problem of engine rumble. The authors conclude that very exact tailoring of fuels, lubricants, additives, and engines will be necessary to prevent engine noise if compression ratios continue to rise.
Technical Paper

if you squeeze them, must them SCREAM?

TODAY'S high-compression engines present new problems of engine noise to automotive engineers. This paper deals with some of the factors which contribute to rumble, knock, and surface ignition. The work was primarily concerned with the influence of fuel composition on the equilibrium octane number requirement and surface ignition tendency of high-compression engines. Both the effect of the combustion-chamber deposits formed by the fuel and the effect of the combustion characteristics of the fuel itself were considered. The results indicate that a reduction in gasoline tail-end volatility or the use of an effective ignition control additive can reduce knock, surface ignition, and rumble; while use of gasolines containing high concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons can increase these combustion difficulties.
Technical Paper

Zoning Without Permitted Uses - Case Study of Wisconsin Supreme Court Ruling: Town of Rhine versus Bizzell/Manitowoc Area Off-Highway Vehicle Association

The property owners, an off-highway motor vehicle club, purchased an abandoned quarry to ride off highway motorcycles (OHM's), snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles (ATV's). The neighbors complained about the noise and tried to stop further riding of recreational vehicles in the quarry. As a result, the town filed a lawsuit against the property owners, citing several zoning code violations, including the fact that the property owners did not obtain a conditional-use permit, which the zoning ordinance requires for any use of the property. This paper reviews the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruling finding the zoning ordinance unconstitutional because there were no permitted uses of the property, just several conditional uses. As written at that time, owners of property within this zoning classification could not use their property for any purpose (recreation, hunting, etc.) unless they applied for and obtained a conditional-use permit.
Technical Paper

Zero-Offset in Transducer Output

Zero-offset in transducer output during airbag noise testing is often observed, but mostly ignored due to the lack of understanding of its causes and implications. In the field of high-g acceleration measurement, this phenomenon is well documented, and is referred to as zeroshift. Zero-offset occurs when a component in the measurement chain is exposed to some unexpected inputs which the component has not been designed to handle. These unexpected inputs can be mechanical, electrical, or optical. How the transducer reacts to such inputs and the amount of zero-offset produced depends on the sensing mechanism, material used, and the design of the component itself. This paper explores the causes of zero-offset from a general perspective, covering the entire measurement chain. Although much of the information and discussions are based on data obtained from acceleration measurement systems, the findings are applicable to other transducer types, such as pressure and acoustic measurements.
Technical Paper

Xtreme Make-Over In 24 Hours

Our conference chairman told me that this special technical section was structured to provide “some words of wisdom from the old guys” or something to that effect. I know I can meet most of his requirements. I am a pensioner and an oak tree. However, “words of wisdom” maybe a challenge. Solving noise problems, setting acoustical performance targets and guidelines, and developing noise control systems for new and carry-over vehicles can be very challenging and time consuming particularly in today's culture. In the 1970's and 80's, and 90's we had the same challenges. Our customers demanded and appreciated a quiet vehicle. They want to talk to each other without shouting or to enjoy a favorite music selection regardless of weather, road conditions, or vehicle speed. The use of ear plugs or cotton is not acceptable! Noise Gremlins (Figure 1) can ruin a good day!
Technical Paper

Xerox's Distributed Real Time Control System

XEROX has developed and implemented a network architecture for a real time control system which has expansion flexibility, high reliability, noise immunity, and low cost. This two level multiplex system with a single wire system bus at one level for distributed processors connected to local serial buses at the second level for remote functions and loads is described. The XEROX Microelectronics Center has developed a set of custom VLSI chips to implement the multiplexing architecture. Control software was developed using both assemblers and high level language tools. The software and chip set have been designed, built and integrated into XEROX'S latest generation of products.

X marks the spot

LiquidPiston Inc. has developed a new engine that can run on multiple fuels, including diesel, jet fuel, and gasoline. This platform uses an optimized thermodynamic cycle and a new rotary engine architecture and could increases flight endurance over conventional UAV engines by greater than 50%.
Technical Paper

Wireless Sensing - Future's Password to Digital Avionics System

Performance of Avionics systems is dictated by the timely availability and usage of critical health parameters. Various sensors are extensively used to acquire and communicate the desired parameters. In today's scenario, sensors are hardwired. The number of sensors is growing due to automation which increases the accuracy of intended Aircraft functions. Sensors are distributed all over the Aircraft and they are connected through wired network for signal processing and communication. LRUs (Line Replaceable Unit) which are integrating various sensors also use a wired approach for communication. The use of a wired network approach poses challenges in terms of cable routing, stray capacitances, noise, mechanical structure and added weight to the structure. The weight of cables contributes significantly to the overall weight of the aircraft. As the weight of Aircraft increases, the required fuel quantity also increases. The Key driver for Airline operational cost is fuel.

Wireless Positioning Technologies and Applications

At last—here’s a comprehensive book that puts full details on all short-range wireless-positioning methods at your command for instant access and use. This one-stop resource surveys each technique’s theory of operation, advantages and disadvantages, applicability in different domains, implementation procedures, and accuracy to help you select the right technology for any application and ensure the best results possible. Real-life examples together with 161 diagrams help bring all options into sharp focus. After introducing wireless positioning fundamentals along with various personal, commercial, and industrial applications, the book guides you step by step through radio signal time of flight methods, the signal strength method, the angle of arrival system, and the geometric use of distance measurement to determine location. It discusses location awareness applications and implementations using cellular networks.
Technical Paper

Windshields With New PVB Interlayer for Vehicle Interior Noise Reduction and Sound Quality Improvement

Noise transmission through automotive windshields is the subject of extensive laboratory acoustic and full scale high-speed track NVH evaluation. Standard windshields transmit structure-borne noise through resonances at low frequencies, and wind noise and airborne noise due to coincident effect at high frequencies. Approaches to enhance windshields NVH performance and to improve vehicle interior noise quality are explored. The study shows that the most effective approach is to design a new interlayer for windshields. This leads to the development of an acoustic grade PVB interlayer. To quantify the noise reduction by windshields with the new PVB interlayer, Solutia commissioned NVH testing of the windshields installed on cars, comparing these with factory-equipped standard windshields. Dynamic responses of the windshields were studied in laboratory on a dynamometer and resulting frequency response functions measured.