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Journal Article

ℒ1 Adaptive Flutter Suppression Control Strategy for Highly Flexible Structure

The aim of this work is to apply an innovative adaptive ℒ1 techniques to control flutter phenomena affecting highly flexible wings and to evaluate the efficiency of this control algorithm and architecture by performing the following tasks: i) adaptation and analysis of an existing simplified nonlinear plunging/pitching 2D aeroelastic model accounting for structural nonlinearities and a quasi-steady aerodynamics capable of describing flutter and post-flutter limit cycle oscillations, ii) implement the ℒ1 adaptive control on the developed aeroelastic system to perform initial control testing and evaluate the sensitivity to system parameters, and iii) perform model validation and calibration by comparing the performance of the proposed control strategy with an adaptive back-stepping algorithm. The effectiveness and robustness of the ℒ1 adaptive control in flutter and post-flutter suppression is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

“Virtual Engine/Powertrain/Vehicle” Simulation Tool Solves Complex Interacting System Issues

An integrated simulation tool has been developed, which is applicable to a wide range of design issues. A key feature introduced for the first time by this new tool is that it is truly a single code, with identical handling of engine, powertrain, vehicle, hydraulics, electrical, thermal and control elements. Further, it contains multiple levels of engine models, so that the user can select the appropriate level for the time scale of the problem (e.g. real-time operation). One possible example of such a combined simulation is the present study of engine block vibration in the mounts. The simulation involved a fully coupled model of performance, thermodynamics and combustion, with the dynamics of the cranktrain, engine block and the driveline. It demonstrated the effect of combustion irregularity on engine shaking in the mounts.
Technical Paper

“Use Of 75ST In Structural Applications”

The material known as 75ST is a new high strength aluminum alloy that can be used in certain aircraft structural applications to effect a saving in weight or an increase in strength or both over designs using other alloys. However, the structural engineer should be well acquainted with the advantages and limitations of this material before utilizing it in design.
Technical Paper

“RoHS” Compliant Chrome - Free Conversion Coating for Aerospace Manufacturing

This paper presents, chemistry, test data and processing procedures on a non toxic and environmentally friendly chrome-free conversion coating alternative with the same level of adhesion and secondary corrosion resistance as that found in chrome containing conversion coating systems. Test data from military and independent sources will be presented on secondary coating adhesion, electrical conductivity, filiform and neutral salt-spray corrosion resistance as compared to chromate based systems .on magnesium, aluminum and zinc and their respective alloys. The European “RoSH” initiative will not allow for the presence of any hexavalent chromium on imported electrical components as of July first of 2006. Trivalent chromium based systems generate hexavalent chromium due to the oxidation of the trivalent chromium and as such will not be allowed.
Technical Paper

“ROADRUNNER”-Real-time simulation in anti-lock brake system development

The simulation system “Roadrunner” has the ability to compute 3-dimensional vehicle behavior during simulated ABS-stops or Traction Control (TC) operation on a PC based test rig system. This can be done in real-time mode with fast DSP (digital signal processor) boards and an ABS/TC-ECU as a ‘Hardware-in-the-loop’ device (HIL) or off-line (non-real-time), on the PC only. In the off-line-mode, the PC additionally performs the ABS/TC control algorithms. The simulated system includes model equations for chassis and wheel movement, hydraulics and road to tire interactions. A driver model enables the reproduction of standard steering maneuvers.
Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper

“Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure, Temperature, and Loads Related to the Crank Slider Mechanism of I.C. Engines: A Computational Model”

This paper describes the initial works related to the study of Internal Combustion Engines, as an object of mechanical design, at the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. It is reported a concise, complete methodology for simple model of internal combustion engine. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the use of the in-cylinder parameters (pressure and temperature) and inertial loads in the crank-slider mechanism to derive the loads that act on all the components of the crank-slider mechanism as well as the theoretical output torque for a given geometrical structure and inertial properties. These loads can then be used to estimate the preliminary dimensions of engine components in the initial stage of engine development. To obtain the pressure and temperature inside the cylinder, under different operation parameters, such as air fuel ratio and spark angle advance, a Zero dimensional model is applied. The heat transfer from the cylinder and friction are not taken into account.
Technical Paper


Research information on solid lubricants has been compiled for consideration in the possible use of such materials in aircraft electrical equipment. Solid lubricants are capable of lubricating at the maximum temperatures (600° F) for aircraft electrical equipment. Many solids that adhere well to metals may be useful lubricants; those with layer-lattice structure usually give low friction. Solid lubricants are most commonly used as bonded films but the use of fluid carriers and surface reaction products have considerable merit.
Technical Paper

“One-Side Aluminized Steel Sheet” Development and Properties of a New Anti-Corrosion Material

Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. has developed a new process for the production of a “one-side aluminized steel sheet”. The process utilizes a double layer one-side “stop-off” coating to prevent the molten Al from adhering to the steel surface. The “Stop-off” coating is removed by simple mechanical brushing after hot dipping. The characteristics of this product by above mentioned process are: 1) The steel side was as clean as a conventional cold rolled surface and showed no trace of the “stop-off” layer. Thereby, phosphating and ED painting were performed. 2) In the salt spray test data was obtained from zinc and Al coated steel surfaces; the coatings on both surfaces being of equal thickness.
Technical Paper

“Motion in FEA”: An Innovative Approach for More Physical and More Accurate Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

Vehicle dynamics is a discipline of mechanical engineering that benefited of significant improvements thanks to the progress of computational engineering. Vehicle dynamics engineers are using CAE for the development of a vehicle with MBS and FEA. The concurrent use of these two technologies is a standard in the automotive industry. However the current simulation process is not fully efficient because local geometrical and material nonlinearities are not accurately modeled in classical MBS software. This paper introduces a methodology for vehicle dynamics simulation integrating MBS capabilities in one single nonlinear FEA environment enabling an accurate modeling of nonlinearity in vehicles.
Technical Paper

“Model Based Predictive Control of MELISSA Photobioreactors. Steady State Determination”

Mathematical modeling and control of artificial ecosystems, such as MELISSA, require first the study of physical and biological characteristics in optimal and limiting conditions. Following the previous determination of the stoichiometric equations (Spirulina compartment) and regarding the two phototrophic compartments of MELISSA (Rhodospirillaceae and Spirulina), we have first to focus our control study on the growth kinetics for the light source. In this paper, we recall the theoretical equations of microbial growth kinetics and emphasise the problem of the light transfer in a photobioreactor. We present their adaptations to our pilot plant taking into account technological and biological specifics (lamp spectrum, working illuminated volume, growth rate,…). We then develop the principles and structure of the control system and describe tests of both the hardware and software for several steady state configurations.
Technical Paper

“Metallic Core Technology”…and the Production of One Piece, Hollow Composite Components Which Have Complex Internal Geometry

Engineers have long been restricted in designing and manufacturing one piece, hollow composite components with complex internal geometry. Complex core pulls in the plastic tool, major concessions made in the actual component design or components joined from several pieces were the early means of producing such components. Progressive thinking led to the use of matrix materials such as sand, salt and wax, which provided a measure of flexibility in allowing designed-in undercut areas. These materials, however, lacked the capability to meet the required demands of dimensional accuracy and internal surface, as well as proving themselves unsuitable for high volume production. The concerns for repetitive dimensional accuracy, quality internal surface and high volume production capability has now been satisfied with the use of low melting temperature metal alloys.
Technical Paper

“Meta-modeling”, Optimization and Robust Engineering of Automotive Systems Using Design of Experiments

This paper describes the application of statistical techniques known as Design of Experiments (D.O.E.) to efficiently use the results of numerical analysis data in order to improve the configuration of automotive systems. The general framework of these techniques is presented in a format aiming at the design engineer as their end user. Besides, a case study is presented with the purpose of illustrating their practical use. The first step of the case study is to build predictive models for the behaviour of the automotive system being developed by means of the Response Surface Method (RSM), using the proper D.O.E. options. Once these predictive models are available, automatic numerical optimization algorithms are used to improve the responses of interest for given operating conditions. Finally, the automotive systems are robust designed taking into account that the operating conditions vary randomly.
Technical Paper

“MONOGAL”: A New Anti-Corrosion Material for the Automotive Industry

MONOGAL is a coated steel developped to improve the corrosion resistance of exposed automotive body applications. Its process os based on the brittleness of the η zinc coating in a range of temperatures below the melting point of the zinc. MONOGAL is produced on a hot dip galvanizing line; at the exit of the pot the free zinc is brushed off the light side of the differentially coated sheet. Side 1 of MONOGAL presents a very thin and continuous layer of iron-zinc diffusion alloy with no free zinc. Side 2 is a standard G90 or G60 zinc coating. The iron-zinc alloy layer has excellent anti-galling properties which improve the formability of MONOGAL over two side hot dip galvanized steel with the same r value. MONOGAL also shows good weldability, paintability and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

“Greater Than the Sum of its Parts” Integrated Flight Training/Aircrew Coordination

The requirement for crew resource management (CRM), or aircrew coordination training (ACT) in military parlance, has been well documented and attested to. In addition, aircraft systems training has become more intense and more in-depth in the new aircraft designs, especially in multi-crew and complex aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey Tiltrotor. (see Figure 1) Former training systems detailed training procedures that called for classroom training and simulation/simulator training followed by flight training. Improvements in aircraft flight skills training provide increased flying training capability coupled with reduced training time by integrating a mixed simulation/flight training syllabus, e.g. two to three simulation periods followed by one or two flight training periods covering the same material/skills. In addition, the simulation training will introduce new skills; the following flight periods will further refine/hone those skills.
Technical Paper

“Getting the Best Out of 12 Volts” The Development of an Advanced Electrical Architecture Vehicle

The paper focuses and develops issues raised by the SAE paper ‘THE FUTURE OF VEHICLE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPACT ON SYSTEM DESIGN’ [1] and describes the realisation of a vehicle with a 12 V architecture of flexible configuration and a power management function. The paper describes the methodology, reasoning and mission behind the creation of the vehicle, developed after collaborative exercises in Europe and the USA, and resulting in a joint programme involving a major vehicle manufacturer and a European system supplier. The electrical system is becoming the focus of activity world-wide due to rapid changes in vehicle requirements, in the areas of safety, environmental and functional demands. There are opportunities for:- (a) Improved starting (b) Integrated management of power generation and demand. (c) Higher system integrity (d) Higher efficiency (e) Improvement of the vehicle electrical environment, giving benefits in component cost.
Technical Paper

“Fatigue Behavior of Sheet Steels for Automotive Industry”

Carbon and rephosphorized pre-strained sheet steels for cold drawing forming operations were studied and the tensile, high cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation properties were determined. The fatigue limit was found to be higher for 20% than for 1% pre-strained condition. Threshold stress intensity factors (▵Ků) of 5.29 MPa. m1/2 for rephosphorized steel and 7.07 MPa. m1/2 for carbon steel. Critical crack lenghts were calculated by ▵Ků and fatigue limit data using the Lukas-Klesnil short-crack criterion. Through fractographic analysis it was possible to determine the general behavior of tested materials near threshold.