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Technical Paper

“Wireless Communications for Vehicle Safety:Radio Link Performance & Wireless Connectivity Methods”

2006-10-16
2006-21-0030
Many accidents occur today when distant objects or roadway impediments are not quickly detected. To help avoid these accidents, longer-range safety systems are needed with real-time detection capability and without requiring a line-of-sight (LOS) view by the driver or sensor. Early detection at intersections is required for obstacle location around blind corners and dynamic awareness of approaching vehicles on intersecting roadways. Many of today's vehicular safety systems require short LOS distances to be effective. Such systems include forward collision warning, adaptive cruise control, and lane keeping assistance. To operate over longer LOS distances and in Non-LOS (NLOS) conditions, cooperative wireless communications systems are being considered. This paper describes field results for LOS and NLOS radio links for one candidate wireless system: 5.9GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC).
Technical Paper

“The Turbo-Chief” - San Francisco Fire Department's Gas Turbine Powered Fire Apparatus

1965-02-01
650462
For the past four years the San Francisco Fire Department has owned and operated an American La France Triple Combination Engine Company powered with a Boeing Model 502 gas turbine engine. This engine company, in first line fire service, has illustrated the practicability of the gas turbine in vehicular applications. The purpose of this paper is to outline the experience gained by the use of a gas turbine engine in such an installation.
Technical Paper

“The Accuracy of Speed Captured by Commercial Vehicle Event Data Recorders”

2004-03-08
2004-01-1199
Many newer commercial vehicles have an event data recorder (EDR) that can record pre-event and post-event speeds. The EDR is incorporated into the engines electronic control module (ECM). In this study, the accuracy of the ECM-reported speed was tested during acceleration, gear shifting and braking at speeds between 16 and 88 km/h (10 to 55mph). The ECM-reported speed was compared to the speed measured by a calibrated optical 5th wheel. The results showed that the accuracy of the ECM-reported speed matched closely during acceleration, cycled to periods of under-reporting the speed during hard braking due to the ABS brake function, briefly under-reporting the speed after letting off the throttle for braking or gear shift and briefly over-reporting the speed near the end of a gear shift phase. This study also looked at calibration factors of the ECM and their effect on the ECM-reported speed.
Journal Article

“Sticky” Lining – the Phenomena, Mechanism and Prevention

2008-04-14
2008-01-0819
An unique bonding mechanism was studied after several instances, where the linings stuck to the brake drums on transit buses, were reported. Evidences suggested that the linings were “glued” to the brake drums surface after wear debris (dust) was turned into “adhesive paste” through complicated thermal and chemical changes. Factors such as the friction materials, environment and service conditions, which could activate and deactivate the lining bonding, were observed and discussed. The prevention measures are proposed.
Technical Paper

“Smart sensing” of Oil Degradation and Oil Level Measurements in Gasoline Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1366
Proper lubrication of moving parts is a critical factor in internal combustion engine performance and longevity. Determination of ideal lubricant change intervals is a prerequisite to ensuring maximum engine efficiency and useful life. When oil change intervals are pushed too far, increased engine wear and even engine damage can result. On the other hand, premature oil changes are inconvenient, add to vehicle maintenance cost, and result in wasted natural resources. In order to determine the appropriate oil change interval, we have developed an oil condition sensor that measures the electrical properties of engine oil, and correlates these electrical properties to the physical and chemical properties of oil. This paper provides a brief background discussion of the oil degradation process, followed by a description of the sensor operational principles and the correlation of the sensor output with physical and chemical engine oil properties.
Technical Paper

“Seat Belt Sweepstakes” - An Incentive Program

1983-02-01
830474
As part of an overall effort to support the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) national program to increase seat belt usage, General Motors instituted an employe seat belt use incentive program at the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. This program was responsible for raising seat belt use at the Tech Center from 36% to 70% during its 5 1/2 month duration. The program was patterned, in part, after research work done by professor E. Scott Geller of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University under a grant from the General Motors Research Laboratories and a program conducted by Berg Electronics (a DuPont subsidiary). The intent of the program was to provide sufficient positive incentive to employes to buckle up for an extended period of time, thereby establishing a seat belt use habit that will continue after the incentives are no longer offered.
Technical Paper

“SODART” Telescope Silicon Detector Cooling System (Thermal Test Results of the Scale-Down Model)

1992-07-01
921365
The onboard “SODART” telescope silicon detector cooling system of the “Spectrum-X-Gamma” observatory, which is designed for the space objects X-ray radiation study, is described. The scale-down model of the passive cooling system description and thermal vacuum test results of this model are given. In the real cooling system the minimal detector temperature at 300 mW heat release is expected about 107 K.
Technical Paper

“RoHS” Compliant Chrome - Free Conversion Coating for Aerospace Manufacturing

2006-09-12
2006-01-3130
This paper presents, chemistry, test data and processing procedures on a non toxic and environmentally friendly chrome-free conversion coating alternative with the same level of adhesion and secondary corrosion resistance as that found in chrome containing conversion coating systems. Test data from military and independent sources will be presented on secondary coating adhesion, electrical conductivity, filiform and neutral salt-spray corrosion resistance as compared to chromate based systems .on magnesium, aluminum and zinc and their respective alloys. The European “RoSH” initiative will not allow for the presence of any hexavalent chromium on imported electrical components as of July first of 2006. Trivalent chromium based systems generate hexavalent chromium due to the oxidation of the trivalent chromium and as such will not be allowed.
Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

2014-04-01
2014-01-0924
This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An Approach Using Augmented Reality

2018-04-03
2018-01-1053
A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behaviour caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure.
Technical Paper

“Jet Air” Compressor Control System

1971-02-01
710203
This paper describes the interrelated controls for automatic start sequencing, fuel scheduling, customer air delivery, and supervisory and protective systems as applied to the Curtiss-Wright CW657E “Jet-Air” Compressor. Model CW657E is capable of delivering 15,000 SCFM air at 85 psig (at 30°F and sea level pressure) and may be used in a diversity of manufacturing, processing, and industrial applications. A description of the control system and its operation in relation to compressor requirements, while furnishing air to feed distribution lines to air assisted water atomizing nozzles for snow making is reviewed as an example. Other models can deliver up to 30,000 SCFM with modified control systems, including pressure controls.
Technical Paper

“In-Car” Fatigue Data Acquisition

1969-02-01
690172
“In-car” measurement of vehicle loads and stresses is a basic step in solving fatigue design problems associated with passenger cars. The application includes measuring systems and techniques for evaluating fatigue design problems related to energy-absorbing steering columns and automotive gas turbines.
Technical Paper

“Fatigue Behavior of Sheet Steels for Automotive Industry”

1992-11-01
921439
Carbon and rephosphorized pre-strained sheet steels for cold drawing forming operations were studied and the tensile, high cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation properties were determined. The fatigue limit was found to be higher for 20% than for 1% pre-strained condition. Threshold stress intensity factors (▵Ků) of 5.29 MPa. m1/2 for rephosphorized steel and 7.07 MPa. m1/2 for carbon steel. Critical crack lenghts were calculated by ▵Ků and fatigue limit data using the Lukas-Klesnil short-crack criterion. Through fractographic analysis it was possible to determine the general behavior of tested materials near threshold.
Technical Paper

“Ease of Driving” Road Classification for Night-time Driving Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0119
This paper is an extension of our previous work on the CHASE (Classification by Holistic Analysis of Scene Environment) algorithm, that automatically classifies the driving complexity of a road scene image during day-time conditions and assigns it an ‘Ease of Driving’ (EoD) score. At night, apart from traffic variations and road type conditions, illumination changes are a major predominant factor that affect the road visibility and the driving easiness. In order to resolve the problem of analyzing the driving complexity of roads at night, a brightness detection module is incorporated in our end-to-end nighttime EoD system, which computes the ‘brightness factor’ (bright or dark) for that given night-time road scene. The brightness factor along with a multi-level machine learning classifier is then used to classify the EoD score for a night-time road scene. Our end-to-end ‘Night-time EoD system’ is a real-time onboard system implemented and tested on road scene data collected in Japan.
Technical Paper

“EFFECT OF DRIVER AIRBAG VENT HOLE SIZES IN THE PERFORMANCE OF THE AIRBAG AND FORCES OCCURRING ON THE DRIVER BODY DUE TO THE AIRBAG DEPLOYMENT IN CASE OF ACCIDENT”

2019-11-21
2019-28-2416
Airbags are very important passive safety component used in vehicle for the safety of the driver during the accident. Airbags are provided with the vent hole for the immediate discharge of the gases which fills the airbag during deployment in case of any accident. Size of the airbag vent hole plays a very important role for the performance of airbag in reducing the driver Injury. Study shows the difference in the performance of the airbags in terms of driver injury and airbag displacement with change in the size of the vent hole for the same airbag.
Technical Paper

“Derivation of Conduction Heat Transfer in Thin Shell Toroids”

2000-07-10
2000-01-2487
This paper presents the derivation of the equations for circumferential, longitudinal and radial heat transfer conductance for a thin shell toroid or a segment of the toroid. A thin shell toroid is one in which the radius to thickness ratio is greater than 10. The equations for the surface area of a toroid or of a toroidal segment will also be derived along with the equation to determine the location of the centroid. The surface area is needed to determine the radial conductance in the toroid or toroidal segment and the centroid is needed to determine the heat transfer center of the toroid or toroidal segment for circumferential and longitudinal conductance. These equations can be used to obtain more accurate results for conductive heat transfer in toroid which is a curved spacecraft components. A comparison will be made (1) using the equations derived in this paper which takes into account the curvature of the toroid (true geometry) and (2) using flat plates to simulate the toroid.
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