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Technical Paper

“ZYTEL” NYLON RESIN AND “TEFLON” TETRAFLUOROETHYLENE RESIN AS BEARING MATERIALS

1956-01-01
560190
Both “Zytel” nylon resin and “Teflon” tetrafluoro-ethylene resin are being used extensively as bearing materials. Most of these applications have been developed independently and no attempt has been made to collect performance data in order to put future design on a firm basis. Typical data on dry or partially lubricated bearings have been collected from a variety of sources. Work in our laboratories on lubricated bearings made of “Zytel” are reported for the first time. In addition, physical properties of these materials are described. With these properties and the bearing work done to date, it is believed that the selection of the material and the design of bearings can be done with greater accuracy.
Technical Paper

“Use Of 75ST In Structural Applications”

1947-01-01
470140
The material known as 75ST is a new high strength aluminum alloy that can be used in certain aircraft structural applications to effect a saving in weight or an increase in strength or both over designs using other alloys. However, the structural engineer should be well acquainted with the advantages and limitations of this material before utilizing it in design.
Journal Article

“Sticky” Lining – the Phenomena, Mechanism and Prevention

2008-04-14
2008-01-0819
An unique bonding mechanism was studied after several instances, where the linings stuck to the brake drums on transit buses, were reported. Evidences suggested that the linings were “glued” to the brake drums surface after wear debris (dust) was turned into “adhesive paste” through complicated thermal and chemical changes. Factors such as the friction materials, environment and service conditions, which could activate and deactivate the lining bonding, were observed and discussed. The prevention measures are proposed.
Technical Paper

“Smart sensing” of Oil Degradation and Oil Level Measurements in Gasoline Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1366
Proper lubrication of moving parts is a critical factor in internal combustion engine performance and longevity. Determination of ideal lubricant change intervals is a prerequisite to ensuring maximum engine efficiency and useful life. When oil change intervals are pushed too far, increased engine wear and even engine damage can result. On the other hand, premature oil changes are inconvenient, add to vehicle maintenance cost, and result in wasted natural resources. In order to determine the appropriate oil change interval, we have developed an oil condition sensor that measures the electrical properties of engine oil, and correlates these electrical properties to the physical and chemical properties of oil. This paper provides a brief background discussion of the oil degradation process, followed by a description of the sensor operational principles and the correlation of the sensor output with physical and chemical engine oil properties.
Technical Paper

“Second-Generation” SAE 5W-30 Passenger Car Engine Oils

1986-10-01
861515
High performance lubricant additive systems have been developed to formulate SAE 5W-30 passenger car engine oils which meet current and anticipated requirements of the North American original equipment manufacturers. The trend in North America is to recommend SAE 5W-30 oils that not only meet the API SF requirements for gasoline engines (“first-generation” oils), but also meet the stringent API CC requirement for light duty diesel engines (“second-generation” oils). Furthermore, the engine builders have issued “world specifications” for motor oils which incorporate additional “second-generation” SAE 5W-30 characteristics, such as enhanced API SF limits, improved fuel efficiency, an increased margin of bearing protection, and lower finished-oil phosphorus levels. The additive systems described herein exceed API SF and CC requirements as well as “second-generation” performance hurdles.
Technical Paper

“RoHS” Compliant Chrome - Free Conversion Coating for Aerospace Manufacturing

2006-09-12
2006-01-3130
This paper presents, chemistry, test data and processing procedures on a non toxic and environmentally friendly chrome-free conversion coating alternative with the same level of adhesion and secondary corrosion resistance as that found in chrome containing conversion coating systems. Test data from military and independent sources will be presented on secondary coating adhesion, electrical conductivity, filiform and neutral salt-spray corrosion resistance as compared to chromate based systems .on magnesium, aluminum and zinc and their respective alloys. The European “RoSH” initiative will not allow for the presence of any hexavalent chromium on imported electrical components as of July first of 2006. Trivalent chromium based systems generate hexavalent chromium due to the oxidation of the trivalent chromium and as such will not be allowed.
Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

2014-04-01
2014-01-0924
This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper

“Metallic Core Technology”…and the Production of One Piece, Hollow Composite Components Which Have Complex Internal Geometry

1992-02-01
920507
Engineers have long been restricted in designing and manufacturing one piece, hollow composite components with complex internal geometry. Complex core pulls in the plastic tool, major concessions made in the actual component design or components joined from several pieces were the early means of producing such components. Progressive thinking led to the use of matrix materials such as sand, salt and wax, which provided a measure of flexibility in allowing designed-in undercut areas. These materials, however, lacked the capability to meet the required demands of dimensional accuracy and internal surface, as well as proving themselves unsuitable for high volume production. The concerns for repetitive dimensional accuracy, quality internal surface and high volume production capability has now been satisfied with the use of low melting temperature metal alloys.
Technical Paper

“MONOGAL”: A New Anti-Corrosion Material for the Automotive Industry

1982-02-01
820335
MONOGAL is a coated steel developped to improve the corrosion resistance of exposed automotive body applications. Its process os based on the brittleness of the η zinc coating in a range of temperatures below the melting point of the zinc. MONOGAL is produced on a hot dip galvanizing line; at the exit of the pot the free zinc is brushed off the light side of the differentially coated sheet. Side 1 of MONOGAL presents a very thin and continuous layer of iron-zinc diffusion alloy with no free zinc. Side 2 is a standard G90 or G60 zinc coating. The iron-zinc alloy layer has excellent anti-galling properties which improve the formability of MONOGAL over two side hot dip galvanized steel with the same r value. MONOGAL also shows good weldability, paintability and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

“In-Car” Fatigue Data Acquisition

1969-02-01
690172
“In-car” measurement of vehicle loads and stresses is a basic step in solving fatigue design problems associated with passenger cars. The application includes measuring systems and techniques for evaluating fatigue design problems related to energy-absorbing steering columns and automotive gas turbines.
Technical Paper

“Fatigue Behavior of Sheet Steels for Automotive Industry”

1992-11-01
921439
Carbon and rephosphorized pre-strained sheet steels for cold drawing forming operations were studied and the tensile, high cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation properties were determined. The fatigue limit was found to be higher for 20% than for 1% pre-strained condition. Threshold stress intensity factors (▵Ků) of 5.29 MPa. m1/2 for rephosphorized steel and 7.07 MPa. m1/2 for carbon steel. Critical crack lenghts were calculated by ▵Ků and fatigue limit data using the Lukas-Klesnil short-crack criterion. Through fractographic analysis it was possible to determine the general behavior of tested materials near threshold.
Technical Paper

“Derivation of Conduction Heat Transfer in Thin Shell Toroids”

2000-07-10
2000-01-2487
This paper presents the derivation of the equations for circumferential, longitudinal and radial heat transfer conductance for a thin shell toroid or a segment of the toroid. A thin shell toroid is one in which the radius to thickness ratio is greater than 10. The equations for the surface area of a toroid or of a toroidal segment will also be derived along with the equation to determine the location of the centroid. The surface area is needed to determine the radial conductance in the toroid or toroidal segment and the centroid is needed to determine the heat transfer center of the toroid or toroidal segment for circumferential and longitudinal conductance. These equations can be used to obtain more accurate results for conductive heat transfer in toroid which is a curved spacecraft components. A comparison will be made (1) using the equations derived in this paper which takes into account the curvature of the toroid (true geometry) and (2) using flat plates to simulate the toroid.
Technical Paper

“DELRIN” ACETAL RESIN —a new engineering material

1959-01-01
590033
“DELRIN” is a new thermoplastic which offers high strength, excellent thermal stability, good fatigue life, low creep, and excellent solvent resistance. This paper describes the physical and chemical properties of the material, and the range of possible uses. The material is easily fabricated into complex shapes by standard injection-molding techniques. Also, it can be easily joined to itself or to other materials. The authors think that the material offers advantages over metals in its good fric-tional properties, abrasion resistance, and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

“Bump Test” of Wet Friction Materials: Modeling and Experiments

2001-03-05
2001-01-1154
In one of the fatigue tests for wet friction materials, “bump test”, an inertia-type rig equipped with a multi-disk assembly is used. One of the steel disks in the assembly has radial bumps for the purpose of creating high local contact pressure and high temperature. Due to the severe contact conditions, a comparative testing for different friction materials can be conducted within a relatively small number of cycles. In the paper, a design of a “bump” assembly used for automotive wet friction materials is described. Based on both experimental tests and advanced contact modeling, non-uniform contact pressure generated by the bumps and resulting temperature are estimated. The computational model is used then to study the influence of the modulus of elasticity of the friction material and reaction plate thickness on the contact conditions. The bump fatigue tests lead ultimately to material failure.
Technical Paper

“Buckling” Failure Assessment for Long Cylinders

1976-02-01
760641
A new method for the structural study of long hydraulic cylinders has been developed. The rational analysis, taking cognizance of most known conditions and disturbances, is capable of an iterative type solution by computer. Some examples of its use are given, illustrating the effects of stroke length and mounting position on stresses, deflections, internal bearing loads, and critical axial load.
Technical Paper

‘Skins’ by Design: Humans to Habitats

2003-07-07
2003-01-2655
Whether we live on land, underwater, or out there in space, what makes it possible is our ‘skin’. The one we were born with, the one we wear, the one we live in, and the one we travel in. The skin is a response to where we live: it protects as our first line of defense against a hostile environment; it regulates as part of our life-support system; and, it communicates as our interface to everything within and without. In the context of space architecture – we, our space suits, vehicles and habitats are all equipped with highly specialized ‘skins’ that pad us, protect us and become an integral part of the design expression. This paper approaches the subject from a holistic perspective considering ‘skins’ and their manifestation as structure, as vessel, as texture, and as membrane. The paper then goes on to showcase innovative use of materials in practice through two case studies: the ‘spacesuit’ and ‘inflatable habitats’.
Technical Paper

the use of Radioactive Tracer Techniques to determine the effect of operating variables on Eng ine Wear

1960-01-01
600035
RADIOTRACERS were used to study the wear effects of engine speed, load, jacket water temperature, fuel temperature, and chromium-plated rings in a medium-speed diesel engine. One distillate fuel and two residual fuels were tested. This paper describes the tests and their results. Some of the conclusions are: The brake thermal efficiency with high viscosity residual fuel was essentially equal to distillate diesel fuel over a wide range of loads, providing the residual fuel was heated to the proper temperature. Engine speed did not affect the wear rate of cast-iron rings when distillate fuel was used, while with residual fuel wear decreased with increased speed. With distillate fuel, engine load had essentially no effect on cast-iron ring wear. With residual fuel, decreasing engine load produced a marked increase in ring wear*
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