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Journal Article

“Verify-on-Demand” - A Practical and Scalable Approach for Broadcast Authentication in Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

In general for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, message authentication is performed on every received wireless message by conducting verification for a valid signature, and only messages that have been successfully verified are processed further. In V2V safety communication, there are a large number of vehicles and each vehicle transmits safety messages frequently; therefore the number of received messages per second would be large. Thus authentication of each and every received message, for example based on the IEEE 1609.2 standard, is computationally very expensive and can only be carried out with expensive dedicated cryptographic hardware. An interesting observation is that most of these routine safety messages do not result in driver warnings or control actions since we expect that the safety system would be designed to provide warnings or control actions only when the threat of collision is high.
Technical Paper

“SHIFT-MATE” A Fuel Efficiency Monitor

The SHIFT-MATE is a dashboard mounted computer based device that cues a truck driver to shift more efficiently. Through electronic circuitry, key vehicle parameters are monitored, computed, then via graphic display, instructs the driver when to shift for improved fuel economy. The theory of operation is described in the text.
Technical Paper

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An Approach Using Augmented Reality

A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behaviour caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure.
Technical Paper

“Multi Vector” Field of View Design Tool

A multi vector design tool to accurately predict instrument panel obscuration was developed to insure that critical legal displays in vehicles are not obscured. The concept provides for a computer generated light source shaped to replicate the human eyes. The light source is then projected onto a 3D math based arrangement and the resultant shadows are visible on the instrument panel surface and its displays. Design studios require criteria for the placement of the instrument cluster gages and displays, various controls, switches, and steering column stalks before an interior theme can be completed. Therefore, instrument panel obscuration and visibility must be determined early in the design process. The obscured areas are a function of the instrument panel surface, steering wheel rim, hub, spokes, and the location of the driver's eyes. This light source method allows engineers and designers the ability to quickly determine obscured areas.
Technical Paper

“Fitting Data”: A Case Study on Effective Driver Distraction State Classification

The goal of this project was to investigate how to make driver distraction state classification more efficient by applying selected machine learning techniques to existing datasets. The data set used in this project included both overt driver behavior measures (e.g., lane keeping and headway measures) and indices of internal cognitive processes (e.g., driver situation awareness responses) collected under four distraction conditions, including no-distraction, visual-manual distraction only, cognitive distraction only, and dual distraction conditions. The baseline classification method that we employed was a support vector machine (SVM) to first identify driver states of visual-manual distraction and then to identify any cognitive-related distraction among the visual-manual distraction cases and other non-visual manual distraction cases.
Technical Paper

μAFS High Resolution ADB/AFS Solution

A cooperation of several research partners supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education proposes a new active matrix LED light source. A multi pixel flip chip LED array is directly mounted to an active driver IC. A total of 1024 pixel can be individually addressed through a serial data bus. Several of these units are integrated in a prototype headlamp to enable advanced light distribution patterns in an evaluation vehicle.
Technical Paper

iDrive – The New Interaction Concept for Automotive Cockpits

The very first objective of each HMI system is to arrange its handling as intuitive and easy as possible so that the driver can concentrate on the driving, which means driving in a safe manner as well as real fun to drive. Since the arrival of microelectronics, the number of functions in the vehicle which go beyond the straightforward business of driving have been ever increasing. This enormous range of functionality and information should continue to be usable easily and intuitively by the most varied types of driver without diverting the driver's attention from the traffic and putting the safety of the driver and passengers at risk. With the new operation concept iDrive BMW has set a big milestone.
Technical Paper

Zero Hand Coding Approach for Controller Development

As the demand for more complex system development and the ever-increasing requirement for improvement in software productivity, the need for graphical programming or Zero-Hand Coding for automatic generation of controller software becomes highly desirable. The graphical programming must not be limited to the algorithm development which consists of the application modules but must be extended to the microcontroller platform, which include the middleware (i.e. operating system, I/O device drivers) and hardware. Automatic code generation is very important for programming the complex microcontroller internal parameters and registers. The combined software tool chain is to generate the final target specific executable code. This approach is very beneficial for system development, reduction of the development cycle and bridges the gap between control and software engineers reducing time, effort and cost of the production software.
Technical Paper

XMM - RGS Cryogenic Detector Housing

The Reflection Grating Spectrometer experiment (RGS) on the ESA corner stone X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM) uses charge coupled devices (CCD) as detectors. Thermal requirements are the main driver for the layout of the detector housing. Parasitic heat inputs stem primarily from radiative coupling and from conduction over the structural support. Improvements in the design of the electro optical model (EOM) over the bread board model (BBM) resulted in a system that guarantees a CCD temperature of -130 °C at the end of the mission while not precluding the possibility to heat the detectors as high as +130°C which might be useful for annealing the CCDs.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Truck Electronic Systems -- Trends for the 90s

It is the goal of this paper, to discuss the impact of electronics on modern day commercial vehicles an buses. Seen from the position of advanced engineering of an European commercial vehicle manufacturer, the emphasis will be placed on the mechanical-electronical system itself, rather than the electronics themselves. User friendly, logic protected systems will minimize operator unfamiliarity and misapplication and will offer not only component control, but shortly the integration of all of these subsystems in the total vehicle control. Total vehicle control will be the ultimate result, when the driver, the truck and the environment are brought together. Such vehicles will be more responsive, safer and easier to drive than today's commercial vehicles and buses and offer a cost effective utilization of these new technologies to the customer.
Technical Paper

Workload Analysis Method via Optimal Driver Model

Race car design requires precise estimation of car behavior under aggressive driving conditions. Ground vehicles are highly complicated man-machine systems, in which driver operation plays a great role. Thus, analysis based on a driver model is advantageous. In this research, an H∞ optimal driver model is formulated, and the cost index of the operation workload, which is derived from the lead operation of the driver, is developed. In addition, sensitivity to disturbances, such as bumps on the road, is evaluated using control theory. The proposed method can estimate workload and the effects of disturbances on man-machine systems. This is especially valuable for First Order Analysis. Several parametric studies have contributed to the development of guidelines for high-performance car design to guarantee a good workload level, high tracking performance, and low disturbance sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Wireless Vehicle to Vehicle Warning System

To satisfy the increasing demand for automotive safety a warning system (WARN) to support drivers has been developed. The basic idea is to transmit safety-related information from one vehicle to surrounding vehicles by direct wireless communication. To ensure user-acceptance of the system different strategies have been developed in order to provide only relevant information to a specific driver. The strategies rely on a comparison of the received alert messages with the current driving situation. Simulations show a significant safety-improvement due to the system if at least 10 percent of all vehicles are equipped with the system.
Technical Paper

Wireless Sensing - Future's Password to Digital Avionics System

Performance of Avionics systems is dictated by the timely availability and usage of critical health parameters. Various sensors are extensively used to acquire and communicate the desired parameters. In today's scenario, sensors are hardwired. The number of sensors is growing due to automation which increases the accuracy of intended Aircraft functions. Sensors are distributed all over the Aircraft and they are connected through wired network for signal processing and communication. LRUs (Line Replaceable Unit) which are integrating various sensors also use a wired approach for communication. The use of a wired network approach poses challenges in terms of cable routing, stray capacitances, noise, mechanical structure and added weight to the structure. The weight of cables contributes significantly to the overall weight of the aircraft. As the weight of Aircraft increases, the required fuel quantity also increases. The Key driver for Airline operational cost is fuel.
Technical Paper

Wiper Systems With Flexible Structures - Instabilities Analysis and Correlation with a Theoretical Model

Optimizing the wiper system performance motivates the design engineer to create a product as robust as possible against the occurrence of wipe defects related to vibratory phenomena between the rubber blade and the windshield. In some configurations, these vibrations generate visual or audible annoyance for the driver. These instabilities phenomena only appear under specific operating and environmental conditions characterized by windshield moisture and cleanness, contact pressure of the rubber blade on the glass, attack angle of the wiper blade on the windshield, component stiffness, windshield curvature etc. In the process of eliminating all potential instabilities, modeling the wiper system structures can contribute to understand its working dynamics. Therefore, a new computation tool is developed and validated by experimentation on a specific test bench.
Technical Paper

Winter Testing of Cars and Tires for Magazine Comparisons

Winter testing of cars and tires for consumer comparisons is not an easy task to begin with; this is further complicated by the fact that reliable methods for evaluating performance and access to good testing conditions are unavailable to most magazines. The testing group at Tekniikan Maailma Magazine, Finland, has been fortunate to have both the right conditions as well as reasonable resources to develop methods of testing to the extent that they provide sufficiently reliable data to assess vehicle and tire performance in winter conditions. Before any final evaluations are published in the magazine, the weighing of different factors, i.e. the amount of importance placed on different performance characteristics, is carefully considered. In order to achieve a meaningful ranking of these products in relation to different characteristics, constant reference runs, statistical research methods, and highly skillful test drivers are employed.

Windshield Wiper Systems - Trucks, Buses, and Multipurpose Vehicles

This SAE Recommended Practice establishes for left-hand steer on-road trucks, buses, and multipurpose passenger vehicles with GVW of 4500 kg (10 000 lb) or greater: a Minimum performance requirements for windshield wiping systems. b Uniform test procedures that include those tests that can be conducted on uniform test equipment by commercially available laboratory facilities. c Uniform terminology of windshield wiper system characteristics and phenomena consistent with those found in guides for the use of engineering layout studies to evaluate system performance. d Guides for the design and location of components of the systems for function, servicing of the system, etc. The test procedures and minimum performance requirements, outlined in this document, are based on currently available engineering data. It is the intent that all portions of the document will be periodically reviewed and revised as additional data regarding windshield wiping system performance are developed.
Technical Paper

Windshield Display for Safe and Comfortable Driving

We have developed Wind Shield Display (WSD), a large-sized head up display with stereovision. Information from the ITS infrastructure, car navigation system, or a variety of sensors including a night vision camera can be superimposed at the appropriate 3D position by adjusting the binocular disparity of the display. By WSD, images will be displayed in the vicinity of the driver's line of sight. The driver can perceive the information with minimum eye movement and reaccommodation time. These characteristics of WSD reduce driver's cognitive workload and contribute to safe and comfortable driving.

Windshield Defrosting Systems Test Procedure and Performance Requirements—Trucks, Buses, and Multipurpose Vehicles

This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures and performance requirements for the defrosting system of enclosed cab trucks, buses, and multipurpose vehicles. It is limited to a test that can be conducted on uniform test equipment in commercially available laboratory facilities. Current engineering practice prescribes that for laboratory evaluation of defroster systems, an ice coating of known thickness be applied to the windshield and left- and right-hand side windows to provide more uniform and repeatable test results, even though under actual conditions such a coating would necessarily be scraped off before driving. The test condition, therefore, represents a more severe condition than the actual condition, where the defroster system must merely be capable of maintaining a cleared viewing area.
Technical Paper

Wind Noise Spectral Predictions Using a Lattice-Based Method

The current ability of the Virtual Aerodynamic/ Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to predict interior vehicle sound pressure levels is demonstrated using an automobile model which has variable windshield angles. This prediction method uses time-averaged flow solutions from a lattice gas CFD code coupled with wave number-frequency spectra for the various flow regimes to calculate the side window vibration from which the sound pressure level spectrum at the driver's ear is determined. These predictions are compared to experimental wind tunnel data. The results demonstrate the ability of this methodology to correctly predict wind noise spectral trends as well as the overall loudness at the driver's ear. A more sophisticated simulation method employing the same lattice gas code is investigated for prediction of the time-accurate flow field necessary to compute the actual side glass pressure spectra.
Technical Paper

Whole-Body Vibration Exposures in Urban Bus Drivers: The Influence of Road Type

Bus drivers are daily exposed to whole-body vibrations (WBV) submitted to risks for develop health problems related to these conditions. Numerous studies focused to quantify and identify the risks that drivers are exposed have been developed in recent years. Many factors influence the transmission of vibration to the body. Road type may be an important factor in determining the WBV exposure a bus driver receives. In urban areas, common types of routes include several road surfaces like: smooth highway, older rough freeway, pavement, bumpy, speed humps, and others. The purpose of this study was to determine whether different kinds of road surfaces, found in urban routes, cause different WBV responses, and determine the influence for each road type in daily exposure to WBV according the standard ISO 2631-1 (1997).