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Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper

“One-Side Aluminized Steel Sheet” Development and Properties of a New Anti-Corrosion Material

Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. has developed a new process for the production of a “one-side aluminized steel sheet”. The process utilizes a double layer one-side “stop-off” coating to prevent the molten Al from adhering to the steel surface. The “Stop-off” coating is removed by simple mechanical brushing after hot dipping. The characteristics of this product by above mentioned process are: 1) The steel side was as clean as a conventional cold rolled surface and showed no trace of the “stop-off” layer. Thereby, phosphating and ED painting were performed. 2) In the salt spray test data was obtained from zinc and Al coated steel surfaces; the coatings on both surfaces being of equal thickness.
Technical Paper

“MONOGAL”: A New Anti-Corrosion Material for the Automotive Industry

MONOGAL is a coated steel developped to improve the corrosion resistance of exposed automotive body applications. Its process os based on the brittleness of the η zinc coating in a range of temperatures below the melting point of the zinc. MONOGAL is produced on a hot dip galvanizing line; at the exit of the pot the free zinc is brushed off the light side of the differentially coated sheet. Side 1 of MONOGAL presents a very thin and continuous layer of iron-zinc diffusion alloy with no free zinc. Side 2 is a standard G90 or G60 zinc coating. The iron-zinc alloy layer has excellent anti-galling properties which improve the formability of MONOGAL over two side hot dip galvanized steel with the same r value. MONOGAL also shows good weldability, paintability and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

“Fatigue Behavior of Sheet Steels for Automotive Industry”

Carbon and rephosphorized pre-strained sheet steels for cold drawing forming operations were studied and the tensile, high cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation properties were determined. The fatigue limit was found to be higher for 20% than for 1% pre-strained condition. Threshold stress intensity factors (▵Ků) of 5.29 MPa. m1/2 for rephosphorized steel and 7.07 MPa. m1/2 for carbon steel. Critical crack lenghts were calculated by ▵Ků and fatigue limit data using the Lukas-Klesnil short-crack criterion. Through fractographic analysis it was possible to determine the general behavior of tested materials near threshold.
Technical Paper

“Cromard” Thin Wall Steel Liners and Hard Chrome Plated Liners for High Production Gasoline and Diesel Engines

This paper, confined to the application of hard chrome plated liners to high-speed four-stroke diesel and gasoline engines, illustrates the increase in their popularity in the United Kingdom, and the advanced production methods which make this economically possible. The need for balanced engine life has long been apparent and is even more important today, the growth of motor transport having outstripped repair facilities. Iron bore life has been surpassed by improvement in the life of other component parts in the modern diesel engine. The provision of hard chrome plated liners can restore the balance. Further development and turbocharging of diesel engines has shown the need for a bore material capable of preventing scuffing and galling at elevated temperatures. Hard chrome has already proved itself in four-stroke engines under these conditions.
Technical Paper

“Bump Test” of Wet Friction Materials: Modeling and Experiments

In one of the fatigue tests for wet friction materials, “bump test”, an inertia-type rig equipped with a multi-disk assembly is used. One of the steel disks in the assembly has radial bumps for the purpose of creating high local contact pressure and high temperature. Due to the severe contact conditions, a comparative testing for different friction materials can be conducted within a relatively small number of cycles. In the paper, a design of a “bump” assembly used for automotive wet friction materials is described. Based on both experimental tests and advanced contact modeling, non-uniform contact pressure generated by the bumps and resulting temperature are estimated. The computational model is used then to study the influence of the modulus of elasticity of the friction material and reaction plate thickness on the contact conditions. The bump fatigue tests lead ultimately to material failure.
Technical Paper

the effect of Residual Stresses Induced by Strain-Peening upon Fatigue Strength

THE PURPOSE of this experiment was to determine the role of residual stresses in fatigue strength independent of other factors usually involved when residual stresses are introduced. It consisted of an investigation of the influence of residual stresses introduced by shotpeening on the fatigue strength of steel (Rockwell C hardness 48) in unidirectional bending. Residual stresses were varied by peening under various conditions of applied strain. This process introduced substantially the same amount and kind of surface cold working with residual stresses varying over a wide range of values. It was found that shotpeening of steel of this hardness is beneficial primarily because of the nature of the macro-residual-stresses introduced by the process. There is no gain attributable to “strain-hardening” for this material. An effort was made to explain the results on the basis of three failure criteria: distortion energy, maximum shear stress, and maximum stress.*
Technical Paper

some metallurgical aspects of … Pontiac V-8 Engine Pearlitic Malleable Iron Crankshaft

PEARLITIC malleable iron crankshafts are being used in the new Pontiac engine as a result of recent developments. This paper discusses the physical properties of pearlitic malleable iron such as elastic modulus, fatigue endurance, and tensile strength. According to the author, definite machining economies result from using pearlitic malleable iron crankshafts.
Technical Paper

Zn-Ni Plating as a Cadmium Alternative

In a 2-year program sponsored by SJAC, an aqueous electroplating process using alkaline Zn-Ni with trivalent chromium post treatment is under evaluation for high strength steel for aircraft application as an alternative to cadmium. Commercial Zn-15%Ni rack/barrel plating solutions are basis for plating aircraft parts or fasteners. Brightener was reduced from the original formula to form porous plating that enables bake-out of hydrogen to avoid hydrogen embrittlement condition. Properties of the deposit, such as appearance, adhesion, un-scribed corrosion resistance, and galvanic corrosion resistance in contact with Al alloy, were evaluated. Coefficient of friction was compared with Cd plating by torque-tension measurements. Evaluation of the plating for scribed corrosion resistance, primer adhesion, etc. will continue in FY2007.
Technical Paper

Zinc-Manganese Alloy Electroplated Steel for Automotive Body

Zinc-manganese alloy electroplated has been developed for automotive body panel applications. The product is manufactured on a conventional electrogalvanizing line using an electrolyte containing zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate and sodium citrate. Electroplated steel with an alloy content of 30-50% manganese exhibits excellent corrosion resistance both as-produced and after painting. Zinc-manganese coatings also show good workability and voidability. Accordingly, this product is suitable for both unexposed parts and the interior surfaces of exposed parts. Finally, zinc-manganese electroplated steel displays good wet adhesion and anti-cratering characteristics so that the product can also be used for exposed applications as automotive body panels.
Technical Paper

Zinc-Magnesium-Aluminium (ZM)-HDG-Coated Steel Sheet for Structural Parts to Outer Panels

Zinc-coatings with a substantial Magnesium content have been in use for over 30 years by now. Unlike the well-established Zn-Al-Mg coatings originating from Japan which have significant higher alloying contents applied mainly for building applications, this Zinc Magnesium Aluminum coating (ZM) is also specifically designed to meet the requirements of car manufacturers. The ZM coating introduced by voestalpine, corrender, is in the upper range of ZM-alloying compositions, which was set by VDA (German Association of the Automotive Industry) and SAE to be within 1.0 to 2.0 wt. % Mg and 1.0 to 3.0 wt. % Al. The properties of these “European” Zinc-Magnesium coatings are well comparable within this range. Compared to GI and GA ZM coatings exhibit significant advantages in the press shops with its excellent formability and reduced galling and powdering respectively which is a significant advantage for the forming of outer panels.
Technical Paper

Zinc Phosphate Pretreatment Systems for Aluminum-Steel Assemblies

The critical component for maintaining uniform zinc phosphate coatings on aluminum is fluoride. The control of free fluoride is critical to the operation of the process, because aluminum is dissolved in a zinc phosphate bath as a step in the coating reaction. If the dissolved aluminum is not removed from the bath, it will inhibit the formation of coatings on all metals being treated. This paper presents the characteristics and composition of zinc phosphate coatings on aluminum and steel, and lists some practical considerations of the transition from steel to aluminum components. Some possible problem areas discussed are: galvanic corrosion, underpaint quality, surface finish, electro-painting, and new paint surfaces.
Technical Paper

Zinc Coating Influence on Spot-Weldability of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheets

HOT-DIP galvanized steel sheets have been increasingly used in the automotive industry. However, two major problems occur during spot-welding because of the presence of zinc: 1/ Welding parameters differ from those used for bare sheets 2/ Electrodes life span often decreases. Two products have been thoroughly tested: 1/ Usinor MONOGAL® sheet 2/ Two-sides hot-dip galvanized sheet with various zinc-coating thicknesses. Welding parameters have been optimized by the determination of weldability lobes. Both products present a wide range of intensities, provided that weld current and electrode force are increased. The effect of an enventual variation of zinc-coating thickness is negligible. Electrodes life satisfies the FORD 2000 spot welds acceptance test. At last, temperature measurements inside the electrodes have shown the interest in increasing the electrodes tip diameter.
Technical Paper

Zinc Coated Press-Hardening Steel - Challenges and Solutions

Press-hardening steels get more and more popular for body in white applications as an approach to meet the demands of passenger safety and CO2 reduction. Unlike the larger part of the structure that is typically zinc coated, the majority of the PHS parts is either uncoated or aluminum silicon coated. This paper shall give an overview of press-hardening steels with zinc coatings with detailed results for corrosion resistance, weldability and mechanical properties for strength levels of 490 to 1800 MPa. Furthermore as for zinc coated material maintaining a robust press-hardening process is of even higher importance than for uncoated or AlSi coated material. A range of different processes including indirect and direct process are shown in detail. Especially the topic of micro-cracks, mechanisms and avoidance of micro-cracks in the direct process will be discussed. Results from industrial and semi industrial production are shown.
Technical Paper

Yielding Strengh Analysis for Self Supported Pressure Vessels

The hazardous bulk chemical liquid cargo transportation is usually made through highways, using special automotive devices, named semitrailer tank, a kind of mobile tank specially developed to perform this task, manufactured with many types of steel, selected according to the chemical characteristics of the product to be transported. Equipment sizing is made based on specific standards which include specified formulas, loading, and safety factors representing the design criteria of this type of device. Despite of the detailed design criteria for semitrailer tank, it has been observed failure of some pieces of equipment during operation, in a shorter effective life than that one considered in the design phase itself. Considering a detailed study of the stress distribution in this type of equipment, this paper shows a verification of the possibility of yielding failure in the semitrailer tank structure.
Technical Paper

XB-70A Laboratory for Progress

The development of the XB-70 research aircraft produced advancements in many fields of technology. This paper covers a few of these advancements in the areas of materials, equipment, and manufacturing. These include honeycomb construction, PH 15-7 alloy steel, vacuum melted H-11 steel, equipment capable of withstanding high temperatures, chemical milling of many different alloys, miniaturized welding equipment, and exothermic brazing techniques.
Journal Article

X-ray Imaging of Cavitation in Diesel Injectors

Cavitation plays a significant role in high pressure diesel injectors. However, cavitation is difficult to measure under realistic conditions. X-ray phase contrast imaging has been used in the past to study the internal geometry of fuel injectors and the structure of diesel sprays. In this paper we extend the technique to make in-situ measurements of cavitation inside unmodified diesel injectors at pressures of up to 1200 bar through the steel nozzle wall. A cerium contrast agent was added to a diesel surrogate, and the changes in x-ray intensity caused by changes in the fluid density due to cavitation were measured. Without the need to modify the injector for optical access, realistic injection and ambient pressures can be obtained and the effects of realistic nozzle geometries can be investigated. A range of single and multi-hole injectors were studied, both sharp-edged and hydro-ground. Cavitation was observed to increase with higher rail pressures.