3-D Flow separations such as those that occur on the rear end of a vehicle have an impact on wall pressure distribution, hence on aerodynamic forces. The identification of these phenomena can be made through the analysis of skin friction patterns, which consist of the “footprints” of flow separations. These can be determined from qualitative and quantitative data obtained from near-wall PIV measurements. The wake flow of different configurations of a simplified 1/4 scale car model are analyzed. The influence of the slant angle and the Reynolds number on 3-D separated flow patterns and their induced pressure distribution is addressed, based on near-wall PIV, standard PIV and wall pressure measurements. This enables to understand how a topological change (the size or shape of a separation pattern) modifies the associated pressure distribution (therefore the drag coefficient). Finally, insights into instantaneous topology identification are presented.
This recommended practice prescribes clear and consistent labeling methodology for communicating important xEV high voltage safety information. Examples of such information include identifying key high voltage system component locations and high voltage disabling points. These recommendations are based on current industry best practices identified by the responder community. Although this recommended practice is written for xEVs with high voltage systems, these recommendations can be applied to any vehicle type.
The AS6224 specification covers environment resistant, permanent insulation repair sleeves for repairing different types of insulation damages of wire or cable jackets in installed applications. The repair sleeve is intended to repair damaged primary wire or cable jacket covers where the shielding and wire conductors are not damaged.
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are equipped with Mobile Air Conditioning systems (MACs) to ensure a comfortable cabin temperature in all climates and ambient conditions as well as the optional conditioning of the traction battery. An assessment of the global electrical energy consumption of various MACs has been derived, where the basis of the assessment procedure is the climate data GREEN-MAC-LCCP 2007 (Global Refrigerants Energy & Environmental - Mobile Air Condition - Life Cycle Climate Performance) and the improved LCCP2013 (Life Cycle Climate Performance. The percentage driving time during 6 AM and 24 PM is divided into six different temperature bins with the solar radiation and relative humidity for 211 cities distributed over Europe, North, Central, and South America, Asia, South West Pacific, and Africa. The energy consumption of the MACs is determined by a thermal vehicle simulation. In this work, four different MACs are simulated and compared.
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes procedure for the issuance and assignment of a World Manufacturer Identifier (WMI) on a uniform basis to vehicle manufacturers who may desire to incorporate it in their Vehicle Identification Numbers (VIN). This recommended practice is intended to be used in conjunction with the recommendations for VIN systems described in SAE J853, J187, J272, and other SAE reports for VIN systems. These procedures were developed to assist in identifying the vehicle as to its point of origin. It was felt that review and coordination of the WMI by a single organization would avoid duplication of manufacturer identifiers and assist in the identification of vehicles by agencies such as those concerned with motor vehicle titling and registration, law enforcement, and theft recovery.