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Technical Paper

“Spacematic” Monitoring System

1998-09-15
982138
Pneumatic, manually operated, drilling machines are used to produce a significant proportion of all holes drilled during wing manufacture. Drilling machine design and the manual drilling process has not changed significantly in decades. By employing miniature, low power, electronics and interfacing techniques, a monitoring system has been developed. This system enables improved process control of the manual drilling operation. Machine calibration management, measurement of drill performance, jig drilling error control and asset management are some of the benefits attainable. This project will hopefully encourage others to discover the potential for improving historically established processes, by employing modern technological developments.
Technical Paper

“One-Side Aluminized Steel Sheet” Development and Properties of a New Anti-Corrosion Material

1983-02-01
830519
Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. has developed a new process for the production of a “one-side aluminized steel sheet”. The process utilizes a double layer one-side “stop-off” coating to prevent the molten Al from adhering to the steel surface. The “Stop-off” coating is removed by simple mechanical brushing after hot dipping. The characteristics of this product by above mentioned process are: 1) The steel side was as clean as a conventional cold rolled surface and showed no trace of the “stop-off” layer. Thereby, phosphating and ED painting were performed. 2) In the salt spray test data was obtained from zinc and Al coated steel surfaces; the coatings on both surfaces being of equal thickness.
Technical Paper

“Next Generation” Means for Detecting Squeaks and Rattles in Instrument Panels

1997-05-20
972061
Engineers doing squeak and rattle testing of instrument panels (IP's) have successfully used large electrodynamic vibration systems to identify sources of squeaks and rattles (S&R's). Their successes led to demands to test more IP's, i.e., to increase throughput of IP's to reflect the many design, material, and/or manufacturing process changes that occur, and to do so at any stage of the development, production, or QA process. What is needed is a radically different and portable way to find S&R's in a fraction of the time and at lower capital cost without compromising S&R detection results.
Technical Paper

“Metallic Core Technology”…and the Production of One Piece, Hollow Composite Components Which Have Complex Internal Geometry

1992-02-01
920507
Engineers have long been restricted in designing and manufacturing one piece, hollow composite components with complex internal geometry. Complex core pulls in the plastic tool, major concessions made in the actual component design or components joined from several pieces were the early means of producing such components. Progressive thinking led to the use of matrix materials such as sand, salt and wax, which provided a measure of flexibility in allowing designed-in undercut areas. These materials, however, lacked the capability to meet the required demands of dimensional accuracy and internal surface, as well as proving themselves unsuitable for high volume production. The concerns for repetitive dimensional accuracy, quality internal surface and high volume production capability has now been satisfied with the use of low melting temperature metal alloys.
Technical Paper

“Mechanical Brake Assist - A Potential New Standard Safety Feature”

1999-03-01
1999-01-0480
This paper presents an innovative brake booster which permits the brake assist function of the electric brake assist system to be implemented with mechanical means. The resultant significant reduction of manufacturing costs enhances the chances for a wide-spread use of this feature in all vehicle classes, thereby making an important contribution to the general improvement of traffic safety. Based on an analysis of the mechanically detectable physical variables for recognizing a panic situation and an evaluation of possible methods of mechanical valve activation, the paper presents a mass production solution and describes its functional properties. In particular, it should be noted that the possibility of controlling the braking pressure within the brake assist function even represents a functional advantage
Technical Paper

“Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing”

1968-02-01
680488
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is both a “language” and a “technique.” Its objective is to facilitate design, production, and inspection and, simultaneously, provide the most economic results. This paper describes the implementation and practice to accomplish these through illustrating methods to state design requirements specifically and clearly and to provide for maximum producibility, uniformity of interpretation, etc. The need to reflect a common objective for design, production, and inspection via the stated drawing requirement is emphasized. Application and interpretation of geometric characteristics (emphasizing symbology), fundamentals, rules, etc. are presented. Basis for the content of this paper is USASI Y14.5-1966 “Dimensioning and Tolerancing for Engineering Drawings.”
Technical Paper

“Cromard” Thin Wall Steel Liners and Hard Chrome Plated Liners for High Production Gasoline and Diesel Engines

1964-01-01
640361
This paper, confined to the application of hard chrome plated liners to high-speed four-stroke diesel and gasoline engines, illustrates the increase in their popularity in the United Kingdom, and the advanced production methods which make this economically possible. The need for balanced engine life has long been apparent and is even more important today, the growth of motor transport having outstripped repair facilities. Iron bore life has been surpassed by improvement in the life of other component parts in the modern diesel engine. The provision of hard chrome plated liners can restore the balance. Further development and turbocharging of diesel engines has shown the need for a bore material capable of preventing scuffing and galling at elevated temperatures. Hard chrome has already proved itself in four-stroke engines under these conditions.
Technical Paper

“Converticar” - The Roadable Helicopter

1998-09-28
985513
The Boeing Company in Mesa, Arizona, has been conducting a concept design study of a roadable helicopter called the “Converticar” to assess its feasibility. This is a twin-engine vehicle with twin retractable coaxial counter-rotating rotors. The purpose of the study is to describe a vehicle that carries four passengers in the equivalent of a luxury car that also can fly like a helicopter, and can be priced like a luxury car. To come near this cost goal, the production rate must be on the order of 500,000 units a year. At that rate there is no chance of training a comparable number of pilots each year. So the machine must fly and navigate autonomously, with the pilot just dialing in where he/she wants to go. Technologically, the concept appears to be feasible. Modern design processes, new materials, and improved manufacturing process should allow the Converticar to be built at the prescribed rate when the proper infrastructure for manufacturing it is made available.
Technical Paper

“Concept to Concrete” Development of a Truck Type Street Sweeper

1979-02-01
790879
A new truck type street sweeper has been developed which incorporates some of the sweeping advantages of a three wheeled sweeper (tricycle steer) and the transport advantages of a legal highway truck. It offers major productivity improvements through better operator environment and decrease of nonsweeping time in the operational cycle. It is possible for a small “short line” special purpose vehicle manufacturer to develop, test, and produce such a vehicle and meet Federal regulatory requirements with limited “In house” design and testing facilities. Here this was accomplished through judicious augmentation by outside specialized design and testing organizations.
Technical Paper

“Chip on Glass” Technology for Large Scale Automotive Displays

1984-02-01
840148
Large scale automotive displays e.g., liquid crystal displays, require chip on glass technology at least for the driver-ICs. In this paper different IC-packages, metallization, bonding and encapsulation techniques are compared and conclusions for production methods are drawn.
Technical Paper

“A Successful Electronic Ignition System thru Fundamental Problem Analysis”

1974-02-01
740154
For 1974, Ford Motor Company is providing, as standard equipment, a solid state ignition system on all 400 CID and 460 CID engines as well as on all California vehicles equipped with 200 through 351 CID engines. This paper explains the Ford solid state ignition system and the objectives and design philosophy that was used in the development of the system. Further, a review of the design and production validation test plans is discussed. With this background, specific examples of the effectiveness of complete problem analysis for fundamental cause and corrective action is presented in addition to control methods and evaluation of corrective action. This problem analysis system allowed this automotive electronic product to go into production with a high degree of confidence in meeting the reliability goals.
Technical Paper

‘Sleeping With the Stars’ – The Design of a Personal Crew Quarter for the International Space Station

2001-07-09
2001-01-2169
As the International Space Station (ISS) takes shape, the prospect of living in space for prolonged periods becomes a reality for a greater number of individuals. Crewmembers aboard the ISS will live alongside each other for months, in confined spaces, under difficult conditions. Living in a hermetic environment, with other individuals from a variety of cultural backgrounds, will inevitably cause stresses. The living environment must meet a variety of needs in order to be conducive to the well being of the individual and the crew community. This Master’s design project addresses the design of a private, individual, crew quarter. The goal is to meet a crewmember’s functional requirements, as well as providing the means to achieve privacy and comfort while considering the qualitative aspects of the personal space.
Technical Paper

‘Almost’ Real-Time Diagnosis and Correction of Manufacturing Scrap Using an Expert System

1987-04-07
870905
This paper describes preliminary findings on an expert system that uses both operator and transducer inputs in ‘almost’ real-time to diagnose scrap type and recommend corrective action to reduce/eliminate further production of this scrap type. During the development of the expert system, equal consideration was given to hardware installation and debugging; system architecture, logic, and triggering; and knowledge acquisition. The system is applied to a specific manufacturing process; however, the ideas are applicable to a wide range of problems in the production environment.
Technical Paper

‘A Comparative Study of the Integrity of Joints Between Multilayer Fuel Line Constructions and Different Connector ‘Barb’ Designs

2000-03-06
2000-01-1098
With the advent of low evaporative emission requirements there has been the rapid adoption of multilayer extrusion technology into the production of Fuel and Vapour tubing used on Fuel systems on automobiles. Multilayer extrusion technology enables a manufacturer of Fuel and Vapour tubing to simultaneously co-extrude dissimilar thermoplastic materials in tubular form. This allows the manufacturer to combine expensive and brittle high performance evaporative emission ‘barrier’ polymers with lower cost engineering polymers. However, it is a well-known characteristic of these multilayer tube constructions that the joints between them and connector ‘barbs’ have lower joint integrity. Joint integrity is most often quantified by ‘Pull-off’ and leakage tests. Recent developments in LEV-II requirements for 2004 and beyond indicate that joint integrity will become a focus area for study and improvement.
Technical Paper

the potential of Unconventional Powerplants for Vehicle Propulsion

1959-01-01
590039
COMPARISON of work capacity per unit mass and volume of different energy carriers shows that liquid hydrocarbons are superior to other energy sources. Solar and nuclear powerplants as well as their use in conjunction with a steam engine are examined in this paper. Suitability of an electric drive is discussed. Using a production 2-stroke diesel engine and its development forecast, a comparison is made of spark ignition, diesel, and gas turbine engines. The status of the free-piston engine turbine combination is reviewed.
Technical Paper

the expanding Polymer Horizon

1960-01-01
600013
THE DEVELOPMENT of new polymers offering properties and new combinations of desirable characteristics, coupled with advances in manufacturing techniques, has expanded the plastics horizon. This paper describes some of these new materials and a few of their many possible applications in the automotive industry. The author emphasizes that greater use of plastics in the automotive field depends to a great degree on the imagination and ability applied in creating new products. Design features most overcome the fundamental limitations of the new materials. The basic weaknesses of plastics are listed. Production techniques will affect the future expansion of the industry. Three methods show particular promise: blow molding, fluidized polymer deposition, and potting compounds.*
Technical Paper

recent developments make ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS more realistic

1959-01-01
590046
SPECIFICATIONS that are realistic for production and result in a product that functions properly can be set with a three-step method evolved from statistical control techniques. The tolerances thus established reduce production costs, as well as costs arising from faulty products, the author states. The author applies the method to a leakage problem encountered on mechanical-hydraulic units. Through the use of statistical control techniques, the cause of the leakage was discovered.
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