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Technical Paper

“Use Of 75ST In Structural Applications”

1947-01-01
470140
The material known as 75ST is a new high strength aluminum alloy that can be used in certain aircraft structural applications to effect a saving in weight or an increase in strength or both over designs using other alloys. However, the structural engineer should be well acquainted with the advantages and limitations of this material before utilizing it in design.
Technical Paper

“The Producers” New Row-Crop Tractors From John Deere

1982-02-01
821062
A line of five new row-crop tractors is being introduced by John Deere with innovative features including a 15-speed full power shift transmission, a high capacity, highly-maneuverable full-time mechanical front-wheel drive and micro-processor controlled instrumentation. In addition, the tractors have increased power, improved fuel economy, greater hydraulic power, improved hitch sensing, improved operator controls, lower sound levels, and revised styling. This paper documents the design and development of these new John Deere row-crop tractors.
Technical Paper

“The Influence of Idle, Drive Cycle and Accessories on the Fuel Economy of Urban Hybrid Electric Buses - Chassis Dynamometer Tests”

2003-11-10
2003-01-3438
Fuel economy can be part of a business case for a fleet making the decision to buy new HD hybrid drivetrain technologies. Chassis dynamometer tests using SAE Recommended Practice J2711 on a bus equipped with an Allison EP SYSTEM ™ hybrid system and operated on standard bus driving cycles have produced impressive gains of over 60%. Preliminary urban bus field tests, on the other hand, have shown lower fuel economy gains. The difference can be attributed, in part, to the use of accessories - most importantly air conditioning - which are parasitic loads on the vehicle. In this paper the characteristics of driving cycles are studied to determine those factors which have the strongest influence on fuel economy for hybrids. The data show that the number of stopping events in a route or cycle is a strong influence as is the average vehicle speed. Energy analysis will show the relationship of fuel economy benefit and battery energy within a driving cycle.
Technical Paper

“TFC/IW in 1982”

1982-02-01
820301
TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia weight is reported with other engineering variables for recent EPA data for industry passenger cars and truck. TFC/IW is used in comparisons between gasoline and diesel engines, 49 States and California, passenger cars and trucks. The California fuel economy penalty due to more stringent emissions standards is discussed. The relationship between TFC/IW and ton miles per gallon is shown. Special attention is focused on 4 cylinder gasoline powered vehicles in 49 States passenger car fleet. The use of TFC/IW to answer the question, ‘What Changed?’ when comparing the fuel economies of two fleets is described.
Technical Paper

“Second-Generation” SAE 5W-30 Passenger Car Engine Oils

1986-10-01
861515
High performance lubricant additive systems have been developed to formulate SAE 5W-30 passenger car engine oils which meet current and anticipated requirements of the North American original equipment manufacturers. The trend in North America is to recommend SAE 5W-30 oils that not only meet the API SF requirements for gasoline engines (“first-generation” oils), but also meet the stringent API CC requirement for light duty diesel engines (“second-generation” oils). Furthermore, the engine builders have issued “world specifications” for motor oils which incorporate additional “second-generation” SAE 5W-30 characteristics, such as enhanced API SF limits, improved fuel efficiency, an increased margin of bearing protection, and lower finished-oil phosphorus levels. The additive systems described herein exceed API SF and CC requirements as well as “second-generation” performance hurdles.
Technical Paper

“SHIFT-MATE” A Fuel Efficiency Monitor

1985-12-01
852340
The SHIFT-MATE is a dashboard mounted computer based device that cues a truck driver to shift more efficiently. Through electronic circuitry, key vehicle parameters are monitored, computed, then via graphic display, instructs the driver when to shift for improved fuel economy. The theory of operation is described in the text.
Technical Paper

“RoHS” Compliant Chrome - Free Conversion Coating for Aerospace Manufacturing

2006-09-12
2006-01-3130
This paper presents, chemistry, test data and processing procedures on a non toxic and environmentally friendly chrome-free conversion coating alternative with the same level of adhesion and secondary corrosion resistance as that found in chrome containing conversion coating systems. Test data from military and independent sources will be presented on secondary coating adhesion, electrical conductivity, filiform and neutral salt-spray corrosion resistance as compared to chromate based systems .on magnesium, aluminum and zinc and their respective alloys. The European “RoSH” initiative will not allow for the presence of any hexavalent chromium on imported electrical components as of July first of 2006. Trivalent chromium based systems generate hexavalent chromium due to the oxidation of the trivalent chromium and as such will not be allowed.
Technical Paper

“Projection-by-Projection” Approach: A Spectral Method for Multiaxial Random Fatigue

2014-04-01
2014-01-0924
This paper presents a fatigue criterion based on stress invariants for the frequency-based analysis of multiaxial random stresses. The criterion, named “Projection-by-Projection” (PbP) spectral method, is a frequency-based reformulation of its time-domain definition. In the time domain PbP method, a random stress path is first projected along the axes of a principal reference frame in the deviatoric space, thus defining a set of uniaxial random stress projections. In the frequency-domain approach, the damage of stress projections is estimated from the stress PSD matrix. Fatigue damage of the multiaxial stress is next calculated by summing up the fatigue damage of every stress projection. The criterion is calibrated on fatigue strength properties for axial and torsion loading. The calculated damage is shown to also depend on the relative ratio of hydrostatic to deviatoric stress components.
Technical Paper

“Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure, Temperature, and Loads Related to the Crank Slider Mechanism of I.C. Engines: A Computational Model”

2003-03-03
2003-01-0728
This paper describes the initial works related to the study of Internal Combustion Engines, as an object of mechanical design, at the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. It is reported a concise, complete methodology for simple model of internal combustion engine. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the use of the in-cylinder parameters (pressure and temperature) and inertial loads in the crank-slider mechanism to derive the loads that act on all the components of the crank-slider mechanism as well as the theoretical output torque for a given geometrical structure and inertial properties. These loads can then be used to estimate the preliminary dimensions of engine components in the initial stage of engine development. To obtain the pressure and temperature inside the cylinder, under different operation parameters, such as air fuel ratio and spark angle advance, a Zero dimensional model is applied. The heat transfer from the cylinder and friction are not taken into account.
Technical Paper

“POSSIBILITIES IN THE FIELD OF DRY LUBRICANTS”

1958-01-01
580278
Research information on solid lubricants has been compiled for consideration in the possible use of such materials in aircraft electrical equipment. Solid lubricants are capable of lubricating at the maximum temperatures (600° F) for aircraft electrical equipment. Many solids that adhere well to metals may be useful lubricants; those with layer-lattice structure usually give low friction. Solid lubricants are most commonly used as bonded films but the use of fluid carriers and surface reaction products have considerable merit.
Technical Paper

“One-Side Aluminized Steel Sheet” Development and Properties of a New Anti-Corrosion Material

1983-02-01
830519
Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. has developed a new process for the production of a “one-side aluminized steel sheet”. The process utilizes a double layer one-side “stop-off” coating to prevent the molten Al from adhering to the steel surface. The “Stop-off” coating is removed by simple mechanical brushing after hot dipping. The characteristics of this product by above mentioned process are: 1) The steel side was as clean as a conventional cold rolled surface and showed no trace of the “stop-off” layer. Thereby, phosphating and ED painting were performed. 2) In the salt spray test data was obtained from zinc and Al coated steel surfaces; the coatings on both surfaces being of equal thickness.
Technical Paper

“Omega” Fin Design for Enhanced Cooling Capability on IGBTs

2020-04-14
2020-01-0597
Vehicle electrification is a rapidly growing and developing technology. As with any new technology there are hurdles that must be overcome as development marches forward. Overcoming these obstacles will require new and innovative solutions. One area of electrification that is quickly developing is the ability to convert voltage from AC to DC and from DC to AC. This is important since the battery pack outputs a DC voltage which must be converted to AC to drive the electric motor. The reverse is true when braking, the AC voltage generated by the electric motor is converted to DC in order to charge the battery. The conversion of voltage back and forth is controlled through the use of an inverter. The inverter uses Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors or IGBTs which generate heat while in operation. As the IGBTs heat up their efficiency goes down. In order to maintain a high level of efficiency the circuity can be directly cooled through the use of a heat sink.
Technical Paper

“OPERAS” In Advanced Diesel Engines for Commercial and Military Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0927
Advanced diesel engines developed for the commercial market need to be adapted to the military requirements by OPERAS (Optimizing the injection pressure P, the Exhaust gas recirculation E, injection events Retard and/or Advance and the swirl ratio S). The different after treatment devices, already used or expected to be applied to diesel engines, require feed gases of appropriate properties for their efficient operation. To produce these gases some OPERAS are needed to control the diesel combustion process. Since military vehicles do not need the after treatment devices, the OPERAS of the commercial engines should be modified to meet the military requirements for high power density, better fuel economy, reduction of parasitic losses caused by the cooled EGR system, and reduction of invisible black and white smoke in the field.
Technical Paper

“Nucleate Boiling Investigations and the Effects of Surface Roughness”

1999-03-01
1999-01-0577
The findings presented in this paper are part of a long term project aimed at raising the science of heat transfer in internal combustion engine cooling galleries. Initial work has been undertaken by the authors and an experimental facility is able to simulate different sizes of coolant passages. External heat is applied and data for the forced convective, nucleate boiling and transition or critical heat flux (CHF) regimes has been obtained. The results highlighted in this paper attempt to quantify the effects of cooling passage surface roughness on the nucleate boiling regime. Tests have been conducted using aluminium test pieces with surface finishes described as smooth, intermediate and as-cast. It has been found that the as-cast surface increases the heat flux density in the nucleate boiling region over that of the smooth and intermediate surfaces.
Technical Paper

“Metallic Core Technology”…and the Production of One Piece, Hollow Composite Components Which Have Complex Internal Geometry

1992-02-01
920507
Engineers have long been restricted in designing and manufacturing one piece, hollow composite components with complex internal geometry. Complex core pulls in the plastic tool, major concessions made in the actual component design or components joined from several pieces were the early means of producing such components. Progressive thinking led to the use of matrix materials such as sand, salt and wax, which provided a measure of flexibility in allowing designed-in undercut areas. These materials, however, lacked the capability to meet the required demands of dimensional accuracy and internal surface, as well as proving themselves unsuitable for high volume production. The concerns for repetitive dimensional accuracy, quality internal surface and high volume production capability has now been satisfied with the use of low melting temperature metal alloys.
Technical Paper

“MONOGAL”: A New Anti-Corrosion Material for the Automotive Industry

1982-02-01
820335
MONOGAL is a coated steel developped to improve the corrosion resistance of exposed automotive body applications. Its process os based on the brittleness of the η zinc coating in a range of temperatures below the melting point of the zinc. MONOGAL is produced on a hot dip galvanizing line; at the exit of the pot the free zinc is brushed off the light side of the differentially coated sheet. Side 1 of MONOGAL presents a very thin and continuous layer of iron-zinc diffusion alloy with no free zinc. Side 2 is a standard G90 or G60 zinc coating. The iron-zinc alloy layer has excellent anti-galling properties which improve the formability of MONOGAL over two side hot dip galvanized steel with the same r value. MONOGAL also shows good weldability, paintability and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

“MBE 4000-A New Engine for the US Class 8 Truck Market”

2000-12-04
2000-01-3457
Due to ever soaring fuel costs and even more stringent emission regulations which require more elaborate technical efforts and unfortunately lead to a negative trend on fuel economy as well, todays and future trucking business is extremely challenged. These facts create an urgent requirement for the engine manufacturer to offer an engine with an optimized cost-benefit-ratio for the trucking business. Mercedes-Benz, as the leader in the European commercial vehicle market - of which e. g. high fuel costs, long maintenance intervals and high engine power-to-weight ratios have always been key characteristics - has developed a new class 8 engine for the US market. The MBE 4000 is a 6 cylinder inline engine in the compact size and low weight category, but due to its displacement of 12,8 liters it offers high performance characteristics like heavier big block engines.
Technical Paper

“Implementation of Lithium Ion Battery System” for FCX Clarity

2009-04-20
2009-01-1013
A lithium ion battery system has been developed for use in Honda's FCX Clarity fuel cell vehicle. This represents the first time that Honda has employed lithium ion batteries. The battery system equals the high level of power of the ultracapacitor system used in the previous FCX vehicle but achieves a higher level of energy, contributing to various improvements in performance, such as the Clarity's superior acceleration feel and improved fuel efficiency. The system displays sufficient durability and reliability at the same time as satisfying requirements from the perspective of safety. In addition, positioning the battery system under the floor of the vehicle has increased cabin space, boosting the Clarity's commercial appeal.
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