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Technical Paper

“Fatigue Behavior of Sheet Steels for Automotive Industry”

Carbon and rephosphorized pre-strained sheet steels for cold drawing forming operations were studied and the tensile, high cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation properties were determined. The fatigue limit was found to be higher for 20% than for 1% pre-strained condition. Threshold stress intensity factors (▵Ků) of 5.29 MPa. m1/2 for rephosphorized steel and 7.07 MPa. m1/2 for carbon steel. Critical crack lenghts were calculated by ▵Ků and fatigue limit data using the Lukas-Klesnil short-crack criterion. Through fractographic analysis it was possible to determine the general behavior of tested materials near threshold.
Technical Paper

‘A Comparative Study of the Integrity of Joints Between Multilayer Fuel Line Constructions and Different Connector ‘Barb’ Designs

With the advent of low evaporative emission requirements there has been the rapid adoption of multilayer extrusion technology into the production of Fuel and Vapour tubing used on Fuel systems on automobiles. Multilayer extrusion technology enables a manufacturer of Fuel and Vapour tubing to simultaneously co-extrude dissimilar thermoplastic materials in tubular form. This allows the manufacturer to combine expensive and brittle high performance evaporative emission ‘barrier’ polymers with lower cost engineering polymers. However, it is a well-known characteristic of these multilayer tube constructions that the joints between them and connector ‘barbs’ have lower joint integrity. Joint integrity is most often quantified by ‘Pull-off’ and leakage tests. Recent developments in LEV-II requirements for 2004 and beyond indicate that joint integrity will become a focus area for study and improvement.
Technical Paper

the expanding Polymer Horizon

THE DEVELOPMENT of new polymers offering properties and new combinations of desirable characteristics, coupled with advances in manufacturing techniques, has expanded the plastics horizon. This paper describes some of these new materials and a few of their many possible applications in the automotive industry. The author emphasizes that greater use of plastics in the automotive field depends to a great degree on the imagination and ability applied in creating new products. Design features most overcome the fundamental limitations of the new materials. The basic weaknesses of plastics are listed. Production techniques will affect the future expansion of the industry. Three methods show particular promise: blow molding, fluidized polymer deposition, and potting compounds.*
Technical Paper

Zinc-Magnesium-Aluminium (ZM)-HDG-Coated Steel Sheet for Structural Parts to Outer Panels

Zinc-coatings with a substantial Magnesium content have been in use for over 30 years by now. Unlike the well-established Zn-Al-Mg coatings originating from Japan which have significant higher alloying contents applied mainly for building applications, this Zinc Magnesium Aluminum coating (ZM) is also specifically designed to meet the requirements of car manufacturers. The ZM coating introduced by voestalpine, corrender, is in the upper range of ZM-alloying compositions, which was set by VDA (German Association of the Automotive Industry) and SAE to be within 1.0 to 2.0 wt. % Mg and 1.0 to 3.0 wt. % Al. The properties of these “European” Zinc-Magnesium coatings are well comparable within this range. Compared to GI and GA ZM coatings exhibit significant advantages in the press shops with its excellent formability and reduced galling and powdering respectively which is a significant advantage for the forming of outer panels.
Technical Paper

Zinc Extrusion

The extrusion of zinc alloys, with special reference to zinc-titanium alloys, is described. Parameters for this process are defined. The excellent tensile and creep properties obtained in a typical extruded zinc-titanium alloy are presented. Extruded zinc with a quality copper-nickel-chrome plated finish offers a new approach to the production of automotive trim and of similar products.
Technical Paper

XMC ™ and HMC ™-Structural Molding Compounds

XMC™ and HMC™ are two families of fiber glass reinforced molding sheets that can be processed into structural shapes through the use of heated matched metal dies and hydraulic presses. The need to remove weight from power driven vehicles has increased in direct proportion to the world-wide energy shortage, and in light of this XMC™ and HMC™ were designed to compete with high density, high strength metals commonly used in structural parts for the transportation industry. XMC™ and HMC™ are distinguished from other molding compounds by their very high percentage of fiber glass (up to 80% by weight) which is incorporated into thickenable, thermosetting resin systems. XMC™ utilizes filament winding techniques and programmed winding angles to incorporate continuous strands of fiber glass. Upon completion of the filament winding process, the XMC™ is removed from the mandrel as a to continue before molding.

Wrought copper and Copper Alloys

This standard1 describes the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for a wide range of wrought copper and copper alloys used in the automotive and related industries.

Wrought Copper and Copper Alloys

This standard1 describes the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for a wide range of wrought copper and copper alloys used in the automotive and related industries.
Technical Paper

Window Encapsulation with Internal Mold Release RIM Polyurethane

In 1982 the introduction of Internal Mold Release systems revolutionized the Reaction Injection Molding (RIM) polyurethane fascia industry. IMR technology significantly reduced the frequency of spraying external mold release agents, making substantial increases in productivity possible. This technological gain has been industry proven and well documented. IMR technology can benefit the molding efficiency for RIM window encapsulation by reducing the need for spraying external mold release and by reducing the mold cleaning time. The unique requirements for manufacturing modular automotive windows mandated that the standard IMR systems, used for fascia, were not suitable for this application. New IMR systems were developed which improved storage stability and flowability, while providing excellent releasability, physical properties, adhesion, and processing.
Technical Paper

Window Encapsulation - European Experiences and Developments

Window encapsulation with the polyurethane reaction injection molding (RIM) technique, first developed in the USA, has now been adopted by major car manufacturers in Europe utilizing advanced and automated production systems. This paper gives an overview of the present glass encapsulation applications among the European car industry and expected developments. General information about state-of-the-art equipment and production systems currently employed in Europe completes the lecture.
Technical Paper

Why Metals?

Thousands of alloy compositions have been investigated for use in automotive and other commercial applications. Zinc, aluminum and magnesium die casting alloys have similar strength properties Data are presented on tensile strengths, and thermal and electrical properties Material cost comparisons are made for an average die casting and an average unfilled molded plastic. Processing and finishing methods for pressure die castings are described.