Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 20 of 15054
Technical Paper

"Nickel electroformed" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0272
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. While rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP and RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured by combining Stereolithography (SL), RP technique, with nickel electroforming process. The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called Accurate Clear Epoxy Solid (ACES).
Technical Paper

"Quick" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0270
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. Rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools. While, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP & RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured directly from Stereolithography (SL). The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called QuickCast infiltrated with Aluminum-Filled Epoxy, designated as Quick Tool.
Technical Paper

<PP/SEBS> Compounds: Sealing an Easier Future for Automotive Designers and Specifiers

2002-07-09
2002-01-1997
There is a definite trend toward the increasing use of “Glass Encapsulation Technology” in the automotive industry. In this technology a glass object such as a window is placed within a mould and an elastomer is injected around the window giving a tight sealing system. A wide variety of materials are currently used as the sealing materials in either static or semi-static encapsulated glazing systems, including a wide range of “elastomers”. New thermoplastic elastomer compounds are being developed that are characterized by their consistent properties; including high melt-fluidity, very good surface appearance, sealing properties, and resistance to weathering. Compound performance is highly dependent on formulation variables as well as the chemistries of the base materials. KRATON® SEBS polymers1 are block copolymers of styrene and ethylene/butylene.
Technical Paper

1-D MODEL DEVELOPMENT TO STUDY THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF THE MECHANICAL DIODE CONFIGURATION APPLIED TO ONE-WAY CLUTCH (OWC)

2009-10-06
2009-36-0230
Two types of One-Way Clutch (OWC) are commonly used in automotive applications – the roller and the sprag types. Some manufacturers claim the advantages of a different type of OWC having a mechanical diode OWC. The aim of this research is to study the mechanical diode system in order to point out reasons that explain why this configuration is not a spread out system in automotive applications that require lockup functionality. To achieve this objective the research work focuses on the development of 1-D models to simulate system behavior and evaluate product performance against design variables. Improvements to the system are suggested based on the simulation results.
Technical Paper

10 Years of STOL - The Twin Otter's First Decade

1975-02-01
750596
The Twin Otter was designed as a utility bushplane for operation in the Canadian north. While it has fulfilled that role, it has also been widely adopted for use in urban commuter services which do not demand its STOL and rough field capabilities. Now, after 10 years, these commuter services are widening in scope to the point where these virtues, hitherto unused, are becoming significant. The Twin Otter, by its continued presence over this decade, has helped mould the STOL services promised for the next.
Technical Paper

100% Post-Consumer Recycled Nylon 6: Repolymerized Resin Provides Full Mechanical, Physical, & Aesthetic Properties

2000-03-06
2000-01-1394
The increased use of recycled resins can create a dilemma for automotive designers. On the one hand, there is a growing initiative to increase recycled materials content on vehicles, globally. On the other hand, traditional methods of recycling polymeric materials -both thermoplastics and thermosets - can lead to degradation of engineering, mechanical, processing, and / or aesthetic properties of the resin. In an era where quality rules, this situation forces designers to accept a much lower percentage of recyclate than they might otherwise wish to use or risk unacceptable property loss in molded parts - something no automaker can “afford ” for long. Hence, a valuable feedstream of materials (polymers) often ends up destined for a landfill once many consumer products are broken down and more easily reusable or recyclable materials are salvaged. As a case in point, each passenger car built globally contains an average of 15 - 20 kg of nylon polymers.
Technical Paper

110 Ton Payload on Two Axles with Hydro-Mechanical Drive

1966-02-01
660237
Late developments in tires and in lightweight, high horsepower engines and transmissions have enabled the earthmoving and mining industry equipment manufacturers to design and produce several types of preproduction 100-ton capacity trucks. A straight-forward approach to the design of a 110-ton end dump truck on two axles with a hydro-mechanical drive was followed by KW-Dart Truck Co. to produce a low cost per ton-mile vehicle.
Technical Paper

12V/14V to 36V/42V Automotive System Supply Voltage Change and the New Technologies

2002-11-19
2002-01-3557
This paper shows some aspects of the automotive voltage energy system level shift from 14 to 42 Volts. New features and prospective emissions/fuel economy requirements are creating electrical power needs in future automobiles, which today's conventional system cannot adequately supply at 14 Vdc (nominal, with a 12 Volt battery). It will be necessary to provide electric motors, DC/DC converters, inverters, battery management, and other electronic controls to meet higher voltage requirements. Suppliers must now include 42 Volt components and systems within their product range and make these new components as light, small, and cost efficient as possible. This paper is a compilation of several published works aiming to offer a synthesis to introduce this subject to the Brazilian Automotive Market.
Technical Paper

175°C-Capable Thermoplastic Elastomers for Automotive Air Management and Sealing Applications

2007-11-28
2007-01-2576
Flexibility, oil resistance, and the need for heat resistance to 150°C-plus temperatures have traditionally limited automotive design engineers to two options - thermoset rubber or heat-shielding conventional thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Both of these options present limitations in part design, the ability to consolidate the number of components in a part of assembly, and on total cost. This paper presents a class of high-performance, flexible thermoplastic elastomers based on dynamically vulcanized polyacrylate (ACM) elastomer dispersed in a continuous matrix of polyamide (PA) thermoplastic. These materials are capable of sustained heat resistance to 150°C and short-term heat resistance to 175°C, without requiring heat shielding. Recent advancements in blow molding and functional testing of the PA//ACM TPEs for automotive air management (ducts) and underhood sealing applications will be shown.
Technical Paper

1978 U. S. Automotive Service Market: How Large is Large?

1981-02-01
810054
The size of the 1978 automotive service market is the total dollars spent on car and truck repair and maintenance in 1978. The 1978 personal-use automotive service market is the retail dollars spent in 1978 on repair and maintenance for cars and trucks used primarily for personal transportation. Service market estimates in this report do not include body repair parts and body repairs. Bureau of Economic Analysis data indicate a personal-use service market, excluding do-it-yourself (DIY) service, of $36 billion. A similar estimate made by General Motors Research Laboratories, based on a large national survey of actual consumer expenditures, is $ 37 billion. The personal-use automotive service market, excluding DIY, is roughly 3/4's the size of the total automotive service market, based on data from the Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association and Frost & Sullivan, Inc.
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

1982-02-01
820019
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

1996 GM 7.4 Liter Engine Upgrade

1996-02-01
960012
General Motors Powertrain Division has developed the next generation big block V8 engine for introduction in the 1996 model year. In addition to meeting tighter emission and on-board diagnostic legislation, this engine evolved to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges. Starting with the proven dependability of the time tested big block V8, goals were set to substantially increase the power, torque, fuel economy and overall pleaseability of GM's large load capacity gasoline engine. The need for this new engine to meet packaging requirements in many vehicle platforms, both truck and OEM, as well as a requirement for minimal additional heat rejection over the engine being replaced, placed additional constraints on the design.
Technical Paper

1997 GM 5.7 LITER LS1 V8 ENGINE

1997-02-24
970915
General Motors Powertrain Group (GMPTG) has developed an all new small block V8 engine, designated LS1, for introduction into the 1997 Corvette. This engine was designed to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges while also meeting the ever increasing legislated requirements of emissions and fuel economy. This 5.7L V8 provides increased power and torque while delivering higher fuel economy. In addition, improvements in both QRD and NVH characteristics were made while meeting packaging constraints and achieving significant mass reductions.
Technical Paper

2-Cycle Engine Exhaust Control Device

1991-11-01
911228
Motorcycles, as an international market product, must satisfy increasingly diverse user needs. These demands lead to various improvements being added and new systems and mechanisms being developed in an effort to arrive at an ideal product concept. Since the two-cycle engine offers particular advantages in combining light weight and compact size with a high output level, attention is focused on this type of engine for use in motorcross bikes and compact sports models. One drawback of the two-cycle engine, however, is that the output characteristic is sharply divided into low-speed and high-speed types. In order to overcome this disadvantage, motorcycle manufacturers are developing exhaust devices which will boost low-speed torque without sacrificing high-speed output. This presentation will describe some of the development and applications concerning exhaust devices already underway at Suzuki.
Technical Paper

2-D Soot Visualization in Unsteady Spray Flame by means of Laser Sheet Scattering Technique

1991-02-01
910223
The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of liquid and Vapor Fuel in an I.C. Engine

1988-02-01
880521
A sheet of laser light from a frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser approximately 200μm thick is shone through the combustion chamber of a single cylinder, direct injection internal combustion engine. The injected decane contains exciplex—forming dopants which produce spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phases. The fluorescence signal is collected through a quartz window in the cylinder head and is imaged onto a diode array camera. The camera is interfaced to a microcomputer for data acquisition and processing. The laser and camera are synchronized with the crankshaft of the engine so that 2—D images of the liquid and vapor phase fuel distributions can be obtained at different times during the engine cycle. Results are presented at 600, 1200 and 1800 rpm, and from the beginning to just after the end of injection. The liquid fuel traverses the cylinder in a straight line in the form of a narrow cone, but does not reach the far wall in the plane of the laser sheet.
Technical Paper

20 A Combined Experimental and Numerical Approach for Motorcycle Crank Noise: Experimental Validation

2002-10-29
2002-32-1789
The demands for comfort and a cleaner environment have been increasing for the past years for motorcycle as well as car manufacturers. With the need to decrease the time-to-market, there is a clear drive to apply CAE-based methods in order to evaluate new designs and to propose design changes that solve any identified problems. More specifically, the demands on the comfort of the rider are not only related to ride & handling and vibration levels(1), but also to the noise levels generated by the motorcycle. This paper presents the virtual modeling of one-cylinder engine of a motorcycle that identifies the mechanism behind the generation of an annoying noise. Furthermore, different possible design changes were evaluated in order to solve the problem. A combined experimental and numerical approach was followed to achieve this. Experiments were used to identify important parameters that determine the engine behavior and thus are critical for the modeling of such an engine.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Interior Trim & Electrical

2004-03-08
2004-01-1256
Driven by a tight vehicle development schedule and unique performance and styling goals for the new Ford GT, a Ford-Lear team delivered a complete interior and electrical package in just 12 months. The team used new materials, processes and suppliers, and produced what may be the industry's first structural instrument panel.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Electrical & Electronics

2004-03-08
2004-01-1259
The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe

2005-04-11
2005-01-0465
This paper describes the engineering, manufacturing and integration necessary to produce the Corvette's first ever all-aluminum spaceframe (see Figure 1). The engineering and manufacturing of the spaceframe was a joint venture between General Motors and suppliers ALCOA (Aluminum Company of America) and Dana Corporation. ALCOA led the initial design of the spaceframe; Dana Corp led the manufacturing; General Motors' Engineering and Manufacturing groups led the integration of the assembly. The aluminum spaceframe design is modeled after the baseline steel structure of the Corvette coupe. The aluminum spaceframe reduces 140 lbs from the steel baseline and enters the plant at 285 lbs. This frame allows the 2006 Corvette Z06 to enter the market at a 3100 lbs curb weight. Aluminum casting, extruding, stamping, hydroforming, laser welding, Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, Self Pierce Riveting (SPR), and full spaceframe machining make up the main technologies used to produce this spaceframe.
X