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Journal Article

ℒ1 Adaptive Flutter Suppression Control Strategy for Highly Flexible Structure

The aim of this work is to apply an innovative adaptive ℒ1 techniques to control flutter phenomena affecting highly flexible wings and to evaluate the efficiency of this control algorithm and architecture by performing the following tasks: i) adaptation and analysis of an existing simplified nonlinear plunging/pitching 2D aeroelastic model accounting for structural nonlinearities and a quasi-steady aerodynamics capable of describing flutter and post-flutter limit cycle oscillations, ii) implement the ℒ1 adaptive control on the developed aeroelastic system to perform initial control testing and evaluate the sensitivity to system parameters, and iii) perform model validation and calibration by comparing the performance of the proposed control strategy with an adaptive back-stepping algorithm. The effectiveness and robustness of the ℒ1 adaptive control in flutter and post-flutter suppression is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

“Virtual Engine/Powertrain/Vehicle” Simulation Tool Solves Complex Interacting System Issues

An integrated simulation tool has been developed, which is applicable to a wide range of design issues. A key feature introduced for the first time by this new tool is that it is truly a single code, with identical handling of engine, powertrain, vehicle, hydraulics, electrical, thermal and control elements. Further, it contains multiple levels of engine models, so that the user can select the appropriate level for the time scale of the problem (e.g. real-time operation). One possible example of such a combined simulation is the present study of engine block vibration in the mounts. The simulation involved a fully coupled model of performance, thermodynamics and combustion, with the dynamics of the cranktrain, engine block and the driveline. It demonstrated the effect of combustion irregularity on engine shaking in the mounts.
Technical Paper

“ROADRUNNER”-Real-time simulation in anti-lock brake system development

The simulation system “Roadrunner” has the ability to compute 3-dimensional vehicle behavior during simulated ABS-stops or Traction Control (TC) operation on a PC based test rig system. This can be done in real-time mode with fast DSP (digital signal processor) boards and an ABS/TC-ECU as a ‘Hardware-in-the-loop’ device (HIL) or off-line (non-real-time), on the PC only. In the off-line-mode, the PC additionally performs the ABS/TC control algorithms. The simulated system includes model equations for chassis and wheel movement, hydraulics and road to tire interactions. A driver model enables the reproduction of standard steering maneuvers.
Technical Paper

“Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure, Temperature, and Loads Related to the Crank Slider Mechanism of I.C. Engines: A Computational Model”

This paper describes the initial works related to the study of Internal Combustion Engines, as an object of mechanical design, at the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. It is reported a concise, complete methodology for simple model of internal combustion engine. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the use of the in-cylinder parameters (pressure and temperature) and inertial loads in the crank-slider mechanism to derive the loads that act on all the components of the crank-slider mechanism as well as the theoretical output torque for a given geometrical structure and inertial properties. These loads can then be used to estimate the preliminary dimensions of engine components in the initial stage of engine development. To obtain the pressure and temperature inside the cylinder, under different operation parameters, such as air fuel ratio and spark angle advance, a Zero dimensional model is applied. The heat transfer from the cylinder and friction are not taken into account.
Technical Paper

“Motion in FEA”: An Innovative Approach for More Physical and More Accurate Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

Vehicle dynamics is a discipline of mechanical engineering that benefited of significant improvements thanks to the progress of computational engineering. Vehicle dynamics engineers are using CAE for the development of a vehicle with MBS and FEA. The concurrent use of these two technologies is a standard in the automotive industry. However the current simulation process is not fully efficient because local geometrical and material nonlinearities are not accurately modeled in classical MBS software. This paper introduces a methodology for vehicle dynamics simulation integrating MBS capabilities in one single nonlinear FEA environment enabling an accurate modeling of nonlinearity in vehicles.
Technical Paper

“Model Based Predictive Control of MELISSA Photobioreactors. Steady State Determination”

Mathematical modeling and control of artificial ecosystems, such as MELISSA, require first the study of physical and biological characteristics in optimal and limiting conditions. Following the previous determination of the stoichiometric equations (Spirulina compartment) and regarding the two phototrophic compartments of MELISSA (Rhodospirillaceae and Spirulina), we have first to focus our control study on the growth kinetics for the light source. In this paper, we recall the theoretical equations of microbial growth kinetics and emphasise the problem of the light transfer in a photobioreactor. We present their adaptations to our pilot plant taking into account technological and biological specifics (lamp spectrum, working illuminated volume, growth rate,…). We then develop the principles and structure of the control system and describe tests of both the hardware and software for several steady state configurations.
Technical Paper

“Meta-modeling”, Optimization and Robust Engineering of Automotive Systems Using Design of Experiments

This paper describes the application of statistical techniques known as Design of Experiments (D.O.E.) to efficiently use the results of numerical analysis data in order to improve the configuration of automotive systems. The general framework of these techniques is presented in a format aiming at the design engineer as their end user. Besides, a case study is presented with the purpose of illustrating their practical use. The first step of the case study is to build predictive models for the behaviour of the automotive system being developed by means of the Response Surface Method (RSM), using the proper D.O.E. options. Once these predictive models are available, automatic numerical optimization algorithms are used to improve the responses of interest for given operating conditions. Finally, the automotive systems are robust designed taking into account that the operating conditions vary randomly.
Technical Paper

“Greater Than the Sum of its Parts” Integrated Flight Training/Aircrew Coordination

The requirement for crew resource management (CRM), or aircrew coordination training (ACT) in military parlance, has been well documented and attested to. In addition, aircraft systems training has become more intense and more in-depth in the new aircraft designs, especially in multi-crew and complex aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey Tiltrotor. (see Figure 1) Former training systems detailed training procedures that called for classroom training and simulation/simulator training followed by flight training. Improvements in aircraft flight skills training provide increased flying training capability coupled with reduced training time by integrating a mixed simulation/flight training syllabus, e.g. two to three simulation periods followed by one or two flight training periods covering the same material/skills. In addition, the simulation training will introduce new skills; the following flight periods will further refine/hone those skills.
Technical Paper

“Getting the Best Out of 12 Volts” The Development of an Advanced Electrical Architecture Vehicle

The paper focuses and develops issues raised by the SAE paper ‘THE FUTURE OF VEHICLE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS AND THEIR IMPACT ON SYSTEM DESIGN’ [1] and describes the realisation of a vehicle with a 12 V architecture of flexible configuration and a power management function. The paper describes the methodology, reasoning and mission behind the creation of the vehicle, developed after collaborative exercises in Europe and the USA, and resulting in a joint programme involving a major vehicle manufacturer and a European system supplier. The electrical system is becoming the focus of activity world-wide due to rapid changes in vehicle requirements, in the areas of safety, environmental and functional demands. There are opportunities for:- (a) Improved starting (b) Integrated management of power generation and demand. (c) Higher system integrity (d) Higher efficiency (e) Improvement of the vehicle electrical environment, giving benefits in component cost.
Technical Paper

“Ease of Driving” Road Classification for Night-time Driving Conditions

This paper is an extension of our previous work on the CHASE (Classification by Holistic Analysis of Scene Environment) algorithm, that automatically classifies the driving complexity of a road scene image during day-time conditions and assigns it an ‘Ease of Driving’ (EoD) score. At night, apart from traffic variations and road type conditions, illumination changes are a major predominant factor that affect the road visibility and the driving easiness. In order to resolve the problem of analyzing the driving complexity of roads at night, a brightness detection module is incorporated in our end-to-end nighttime EoD system, which computes the ‘brightness factor’ (bright or dark) for that given night-time road scene. The brightness factor along with a multi-level machine learning classifier is then used to classify the EoD score for a night-time road scene. Our end-to-end ‘Night-time EoD system’ is a real-time onboard system implemented and tested on road scene data collected in Japan.
Technical Paper

“Digital Prototype” Simulations to Achieve Vehicle Level NVH Targets in the Presence of Uncertainties

“Digital Prototype” simulations have been used at DaimlerChrysler to achieve vehicle level NVH objectives. The effectiveness of these simulations to guide the design when faced with vehicle parameter uncertainties is discussed. These uncertainties include, but are not limited to, material properties, material gauges, damping, structural geometry, loads, boundary conditions and weld integrity. Manufacturing and assembly processes introduce variations in the nominal values of these parameters resulting in a scatter of vehicle level NVH simulation responses. An example of a high frequency NVH concern will be studied and modified to arrive at robust design guidance when faced with uncertainty. The validity of a “deterministic digital prototype” simulation model and its relevant role as a “trend predictor” rather than “absolute predictor” tool in guiding the design is also discussed.
Technical Paper

“CDaero” - A Parametric Aerodynamic Drag Prediction Tool

The objective of the development of the aerodynamic drag predictive tool CDaero was for use as a module for the Automobile Design Support System (AutoDSS). CDaero is an empirically based drag coefficient predictive tool based initially on the MIRA (Motor Industry Research Association) algorithm. The development philosophy was to be able to predict the aerodynamic drag coefficient of an automobile with knowledge of the features of the surface geometry control curves. These are the curves that control the 3-dimensional geometry as seen in the profile, plan and front and rear views. CDaero has been developed in a computing environment using the equation solver TKSolver™. Fifty-one input feature values are first determined from the automobile geometry and then entered into the program. CDaero models the drag coefficient with thirteen different components covering the basic body, as well as additional components such as the wheels, mud flaps, etc.
Technical Paper

“Bump Test” of Wet Friction Materials: Modeling and Experiments

In one of the fatigue tests for wet friction materials, “bump test”, an inertia-type rig equipped with a multi-disk assembly is used. One of the steel disks in the assembly has radial bumps for the purpose of creating high local contact pressure and high temperature. Due to the severe contact conditions, a comparative testing for different friction materials can be conducted within a relatively small number of cycles. In the paper, a design of a “bump” assembly used for automotive wet friction materials is described. Based on both experimental tests and advanced contact modeling, non-uniform contact pressure generated by the bumps and resulting temperature are estimated. The computational model is used then to study the influence of the modulus of elasticity of the friction material and reaction plate thickness on the contact conditions. The bump fatigue tests lead ultimately to material failure.
Technical Paper

μ - Synthesis of Robust Control on Active Mounts for Vehicle Vibration Reduction

This paper presents a new design method for solving the vehicle vibration problem induced by engine drive, by using a μ-synthesis. We have tried the active control of engine mounts to insulate the vibration of engine. We experimented on the effects by using computer simulation and vibration simulator. Computer simulation results show that resonance peak can be effectively reduced. We have also confirmed the effect of vibration simulator, which shall be reported in this paper.
Technical Paper

¼ Scale VehicleWake Pattern Analysis using Near-Wall PIV

3-D Flow separations such as those that occur on the rear end of a vehicle have an impact on wall pressure distribution, hence on aerodynamic forces. The identification of these phenomena can be made through the analysis of skin friction patterns, which consist of the “footprints” of flow separations. These can be determined from qualitative and quantitative data obtained from near-wall PIV measurements. The wake flow of different configurations of a simplified 1/4 scale car model are analyzed. The influence of the slant angle and the Reynolds number on 3-D separated flow patterns and their induced pressure distribution is addressed, based on near-wall PIV, standard PIV and wall pressure measurements. This enables to understand how a topological change (the size or shape of a separation pattern) modifies the associated pressure distribution (therefore the drag coefficient). Finally, insights into instantaneous topology identification are presented.
Journal Article

xD+1D Catalyst Simulation-A Numerical Study on the Impact of Pore Diffusion

This paper presents a numerical study on the impact of washcoat diffusion on the overall conversion performance of catalytic converters. A comprehensive transient 1D pore diffusion reaction model is embedded in state-of-the-art 1D and 3D catalytic converter models. The pore diffusion model is discussed with its model equations and the applied diffusive transport approaches are summarized. The diffusion reaction model is validated with the help of two available analytical solutions. The impact of basic washcoat characteristics such as pore diameters or thickness on overall conversion performance is investigated by selected 1D+1D calculations. This model is also used to highlight the impact of boundary layer transfer, pore diffusion and reaction on the overall converter conversion performance. The interaction of pore diffusion and flow non-uniformities is demonstrated by 3D+1D CFD simulations.
Technical Paper

modeFRONTIER for Virtual Design and Optimization of Compact Heat Exchangers

The main purpose of this study is the development of an innovative methodology for Heat Exchangers (HE) design to replace the conventional design procedures. The new procedure is based on the definition of a software package managed by modeFRONTIER, a multi-objective optimization software produced by ESTECO, able to create HE virtual models by targeting several objectives, like HE performance, optimal use of material, HE minimal weight and size and optimal manufacturability. The proposed methodology consists first in the definition of a workflow for the automatic CFD simulation of a parametric model of a periodic HE cellular element.
Technical Paper

euces Software Development

The euces project was initiated to be prepared for the future role of EADS as stage system prime for stage and launcher developments. Launcher stages for NGLV need to meet ambitious mission and operational demands. The paper will present a brief overview of the currently existing COMPONENT libraries and its possibilities as well as an application example which will be a simplified functional model of the ARIANE 5 EPS upper stage w.r.t. physical model formulation of its incorporated components, its schematic, data initialisation and simulation results obtained. The simulation results will be compared to flight data of a dedicated flight.
Technical Paper

e-Thermal: Automobile Air-Conditioning Module

e-Thermal is a vehicle level thermal analysis tool developed by General Motors to simulate the transient performance of the entire vehicle HVAC and Powertrain cooling system. It is currently in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper discusses the details of the air-conditioning module of e-Thermal. Most of the literature available on transient modeling of the air conditioning systems is based on finite difference approach that require large simulation times. This has been overcome by appropriately modeling the components using Sinda/Fluint. The basic components of automotive air conditioning system, evaporator, condenser, compressor and expansion valve, are parametrically modeled in Sinda/Fluint. For each component, physical characteristics and performance data is collected in form of component data standards. This performance data is used to curve fit parameters that then reproduce the component performance.