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Technical Paper

“The Producers” New Row-Crop Tractors From John Deere

1982-02-01
821062
A line of five new row-crop tractors is being introduced by John Deere with innovative features including a 15-speed full power shift transmission, a high capacity, highly-maneuverable full-time mechanical front-wheel drive and micro-processor controlled instrumentation. In addition, the tractors have increased power, improved fuel economy, greater hydraulic power, improved hitch sensing, improved operator controls, lower sound levels, and revised styling. This paper documents the design and development of these new John Deere row-crop tractors.
Technical Paper

“The Influence of Idle, Drive Cycle and Accessories on the Fuel Economy of Urban Hybrid Electric Buses - Chassis Dynamometer Tests”

2003-11-10
2003-01-3438
Fuel economy can be part of a business case for a fleet making the decision to buy new HD hybrid drivetrain technologies. Chassis dynamometer tests using SAE Recommended Practice J2711 on a bus equipped with an Allison EP SYSTEM ™ hybrid system and operated on standard bus driving cycles have produced impressive gains of over 60%. Preliminary urban bus field tests, on the other hand, have shown lower fuel economy gains. The difference can be attributed, in part, to the use of accessories - most importantly air conditioning - which are parasitic loads on the vehicle. In this paper the characteristics of driving cycles are studied to determine those factors which have the strongest influence on fuel economy for hybrids. The data show that the number of stopping events in a route or cycle is a strong influence as is the average vehicle speed. Energy analysis will show the relationship of fuel economy benefit and battery energy within a driving cycle.
Technical Paper

“TFC/IW in 1982”

1982-02-01
820301
TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia weight is reported with other engineering variables for recent EPA data for industry passenger cars and truck. TFC/IW is used in comparisons between gasoline and diesel engines, 49 States and California, passenger cars and trucks. The California fuel economy penalty due to more stringent emissions standards is discussed. The relationship between TFC/IW and ton miles per gallon is shown. Special attention is focused on 4 cylinder gasoline powered vehicles in 49 States passenger car fleet. The use of TFC/IW to answer the question, ‘What Changed?’ when comparing the fuel economies of two fleets is described.
Technical Paper

“Second-Generation” SAE 5W-30 Passenger Car Engine Oils

1986-10-01
861515
High performance lubricant additive systems have been developed to formulate SAE 5W-30 passenger car engine oils which meet current and anticipated requirements of the North American original equipment manufacturers. The trend in North America is to recommend SAE 5W-30 oils that not only meet the API SF requirements for gasoline engines (“first-generation” oils), but also meet the stringent API CC requirement for light duty diesel engines (“second-generation” oils). Furthermore, the engine builders have issued “world specifications” for motor oils which incorporate additional “second-generation” SAE 5W-30 characteristics, such as enhanced API SF limits, improved fuel efficiency, an increased margin of bearing protection, and lower finished-oil phosphorus levels. The additive systems described herein exceed API SF and CC requirements as well as “second-generation” performance hurdles.
Technical Paper

“SHIFT-MATE” A Fuel Efficiency Monitor

1985-12-01
852340
The SHIFT-MATE is a dashboard mounted computer based device that cues a truck driver to shift more efficiently. Through electronic circuitry, key vehicle parameters are monitored, computed, then via graphic display, instructs the driver when to shift for improved fuel economy. The theory of operation is described in the text.
Technical Paper

“OPERAS” In Advanced Diesel Engines for Commercial and Military Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0927
Advanced diesel engines developed for the commercial market need to be adapted to the military requirements by OPERAS (Optimizing the injection pressure P, the Exhaust gas recirculation E, injection events Retard and/or Advance and the swirl ratio S). The different after treatment devices, already used or expected to be applied to diesel engines, require feed gases of appropriate properties for their efficient operation. To produce these gases some OPERAS are needed to control the diesel combustion process. Since military vehicles do not need the after treatment devices, the OPERAS of the commercial engines should be modified to meet the military requirements for high power density, better fuel economy, reduction of parasitic losses caused by the cooled EGR system, and reduction of invisible black and white smoke in the field.
Technical Paper

“MBE 4000-A New Engine for the US Class 8 Truck Market”

2000-12-04
2000-01-3457
Due to ever soaring fuel costs and even more stringent emission regulations which require more elaborate technical efforts and unfortunately lead to a negative trend on fuel economy as well, todays and future trucking business is extremely challenged. These facts create an urgent requirement for the engine manufacturer to offer an engine with an optimized cost-benefit-ratio for the trucking business. Mercedes-Benz, as the leader in the European commercial vehicle market - of which e. g. high fuel costs, long maintenance intervals and high engine power-to-weight ratios have always been key characteristics - has developed a new class 8 engine for the US market. The MBE 4000 is a 6 cylinder inline engine in the compact size and low weight category, but due to its displacement of 12,8 liters it offers high performance characteristics like heavier big block engines.
Technical Paper

“Implementation of Lithium Ion Battery System” for FCX Clarity

2009-04-20
2009-01-1013
A lithium ion battery system has been developed for use in Honda's FCX Clarity fuel cell vehicle. This represents the first time that Honda has employed lithium ion batteries. The battery system equals the high level of power of the ultracapacitor system used in the previous FCX vehicle but achieves a higher level of energy, contributing to various improvements in performance, such as the Clarity's superior acceleration feel and improved fuel efficiency. The system displays sufficient durability and reliability at the same time as satisfying requirements from the perspective of safety. In addition, positioning the battery system under the floor of the vehicle has increased cabin space, boosting the Clarity's commercial appeal.
Technical Paper

“Doing More with Less” - The Fuel Economy Benefits of Cooled EGR on a Direct Injected Spark Ignited Boosted Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0589
Due to the rising costs of fuel and increasingly stringent regulations, auto makers are in need of technology to enable more fuel-efficient powertrain technologies to be introduced to the marketplace. Such powertrains must not sacrifice performance, safety or driver comfort. Today's engine and powertrain manufacturers must, therefore, do more with less by achieving acceptable vehicle performance while reducing fuel consumption. One effective method to achieve this is the extreme downsizing of current direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engines through the use of high levels of boosting and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Key challenges to highly downsized gasoline engines are retarded combustion to prevent engine knocking and the necessity to operate at air/fuel ratios that are significantly richer than the stoichiometric ratio.
Technical Paper

“Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions about Safety and Their Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Safety”

2010-10-19
2010-01-2336
The U.S. National Highway Transportation and Safety Agency's (NHTSA) early estimates of Motor Traffic Fatalities in 2009 in the United States [1] show continuing progress on improving traffic safety on the U.S. roadways. The number of total fatalities and the fatality rate per 100 Million Vehicle Miles (MVM), both show continuing declines. In the 10 year period from 1999 through 2009, the total fatalities have dropped from 41,611 to 33,963 and the fatality rate has dropped from 1.5 fatalities per 100MVM to 1.16 fatalities per 100MVM, a compound annual drop of 2.01% and 2.54% respectively. The large number of traffic fatalities, and the slowing down of the fatality rate decline, compared to the decade before, continues to remain a cause of concern for regulators.
Technical Paper

λDSF: Dynamic Skip Fire with Homogeneous Lean Burn for Improved Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Drivability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0891
Dynamic skip fire (DSF) has shown significant fuel economy improvement potential via reduction of pumping losses that generally affect throttled spark-ignition (SI) engines. In DSF operation, individual cylinders are fired on-demand near peak efficiency to satisfy driver torque demand. For vehicles with a downsized-boosted 4-cylinder engine, DSF can reduce fuel consumption by 8% in the WLTC (Class 3) drive cycle. The relatively low cost of cylinder deactivation hardware further improves the production value of DSF. Lean burn strategies in gasoline engines have also demonstrated significant fuel efficiency gains resulting from reduced pumping losses and improved thermodynamic characteristics, such as higher specific heat ratio and lower heat losses. Fuel-air mixture stratification is generally required to achieve stable combustion at low loads.
Journal Article

xD+1D Catalyst Simulation-A Numerical Study on the Impact of Pore Diffusion

2012-04-16
2012-01-1296
This paper presents a numerical study on the impact of washcoat diffusion on the overall conversion performance of catalytic converters. A comprehensive transient 1D pore diffusion reaction model is embedded in state-of-the-art 1D and 3D catalytic converter models. The pore diffusion model is discussed with its model equations and the applied diffusive transport approaches are summarized. The diffusion reaction model is validated with the help of two available analytical solutions. The impact of basic washcoat characteristics such as pore diameters or thickness on overall conversion performance is investigated by selected 1D+1D calculations. This model is also used to highlight the impact of boundary layer transfer, pore diffusion and reaction on the overall converter conversion performance. The interaction of pore diffusion and flow non-uniformities is demonstrated by 3D+1D CFD simulations.
Technical Paper

modeFRONTIER for Virtual Design and Optimization of Compact Heat Exchangers

2014-09-30
2014-01-2406
The main purpose of this study is the development of an innovative methodology for Heat Exchangers (HE) design to replace the conventional design procedures. The new procedure is based on the definition of a software package managed by modeFRONTIER, a multi-objective optimization software produced by ESTECO, able to create HE virtual models by targeting several objectives, like HE performance, optimal use of material, HE minimal weight and size and optimal manufacturability. The proposed methodology consists first in the definition of a workflow for the automatic CFD simulation of a parametric model of a periodic HE cellular element.
Technical Paper

mDSF: Improved Fuel Efficiency, Drivability and Vibrations via Dynamic Skip Fire and Miller Cycle Synergies

2019-04-02
2019-01-0227
mDSF is a novel cylinder deactivation technology developed at Tula Technology, which combines the torque control of Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) with Miller cycle engines to optimize fuel efficiency at minimal cost. mDSF employs a valvetrain with variable valve lift plus deactivation and novel control algorithms founded on Tula’s proven DSF technology. This allows cylinders to dynamically alternate among 3 potential states: high-charge fire, low-charge fire, and skip (deactivation). The low-charge fire state is achieved through an aggressive Miller cycle with Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC). The three operating states in mDSF can be used to simultaneously optimize engine efficiency and driveline vibrations. Acceleration performance is retained using the all-cylinder, high-charge firing mode.
Technical Paper

eFlite Dedicated Hybrid Transmission for Chrysler Pacifica

2018-04-03
2018-01-0396
Electrified powertrains will play a growing role in meeting global fuel consumption and CO2 requirements. In support of this, FCA US has developed its first dedicated hybrid transmission (the eFlite® transmission), used in the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid. The Chrysler Pacifica is the industry’s first electrified minivan. [2] The new eFlite hybrid transmission architecture optimizes performance, fuel economy, mass, packaging and NVH. The transmission is an electrically variable FWD transaxle with an input split configuration and incorporates two electric motors, both capable of driving in EV mode. The lubrication and cooling system makes use of two pumps, one electrically operated and one mechanically driven. The Chrysler Pacifica has a 16kWh lithium ion battery and a 3.6-liter Pentastar® engine which offers total system power of 260 hp with 84 MPGe, 33 miles of all electric range and 566 miles total driving range. [2] This paper’s focus is on the eFlite transmission.
Technical Paper

and Repeatability of Transient Heat Release Analysis for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1125
Reduced emissions, improved fuel economy, and improved performance are a priority for manufacturers of internal combustion engines. However, these three goals are normally interrelated and difficult to optimize simultaneously. Studying the experimental heat release provides a useful tool for combustion optimization. Heavy-duty diesel engines are inherently transient, even during steady state operation engine controls can vary due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or aftertreatment requirements. This paper examines the heat release and the derived combustion characteristics during steady state and transient operation for a 1992 DDC series 60 engine and a 2004 Cummins ISM 370 engine. In-cylinder pressure was collected during repeat steady state SET and the heavy-duty transient FTP test cycles.
Technical Paper

an evaluation of AFTERCOOLING in Turbocharged Diesel Engine Performance

1959-01-01
590049
AFTERCOOLING, coupled with higher pressure turbocharging can increase vehicle engine output. The author thinks that it is possible to anticipate diesel engines being run with compressors supplying air at pressure ratios higher than 2/1. Density ratio is the most important consideration in increasing pressure ratio, since the engine's output is dependent upon weight rather than volume of air supplied. Because the density of the compressed air is dependent upon its temperature at any pressure level, cooling the air after compression results in density increases. This paper describes various methods of after-cooling which increase engine output and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Zeroshift. A Seamless Automated Manual Transmission (AMT)With No Torque Interrupt

2007-04-16
2007-01-1307
Zeroshift technology allows a manual transmission to change gear in zero time. The Zeroshift automated manual transmission (AMT) is easy to manufacture and allows a cost effective alternative to the traditional torque converter based automatic transmission. Zeroshift offers potential fuel economy improvements from driveline efficiency and the best possible vehicle acceleration. Compared to an existing AMT, Zeroshift offers an uninterrupted torque path from the engine to vehicle which allows for a seamless gearshift. This paper provides an introduction to the technology together with test data from a demonstrator vehicle.
Technical Paper

Zeroshift Automated Manual Transmission (AMT)

2007-01-17
2007-26-061
Zeroshift technology allows a manual transmission to change gear in zero seconds. The Zeroshift Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) is easy to manufacture and allows a cost effective alternative to the traditional torque converter based automatic transmission. Zeroshift offers potential fuel economy improvements from driveline efficiency and the best possible vehicle acceleration. Compared to an existing AMT, Zeroshift offers an uninterrupted torque path from the engine to vehicle which allows for a seamless gearshift. This seminal paper provides an introduction to the technology together with test data from a demonstrator vehicle.
Journal Article

Zero-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion and Heat Release Rate in DI Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1065
Zero-dimensional heat release rate models have the advantage of being both easy to handle and computationally efficient. In addition, they are capable of predicting the effects of important engine parameters on the combustion process. In this study, a zero-dimensional combustion model based on physical and chemical sub-models for local processes like injection, spray formation, ignition and combustion is presented. In terms of injection simulation, the presented model accounts for a phenomenological nozzle flow model considering the nozzle passage inlet configuration and an approach for modeling the characteristics of the Diesel spray and consequently the mixing process. A formulation for modeling the effects of intake swirl flow pattern, squish flow and injection characteristics on the in-cylinder turbulent kinetic energy is presented and compared with the CFD simulation results.
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