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Technical Paper

“Zero Defects”, Statistically Considered

The requirement of “zero defects” is rapidly finding its way as a “standard” of quality in numerous quarters. This phrase has great psychological appeal, and is often taken literally at all levels in an organization even though quality motivation may be the intention. It is common to believe that when zero defects are found in the sample, this must be the case for “all the rest” as well. In this paper the technical side of “zero defects” is examined. We look at the statistics of zero defects and show what is implied about lot or process quality when zero defects is the actual sample outcome. The focus is on attribute measurements and includes some special cases where a significant measurement error exists and cases where a Bayesian statistical analysis may be appropriate.
Technical Paper

“Understanding Diesel Engine Lubrication at Low Temperature”

Oil pumpability in passenger car gasoline engines was well-characterized by an ASTM program and by individual researchers in the 1970's and early 1980's. Oil pumpability in diesel engines however, was not investigated to any significant extent until the mid-1980's. This study was initiated to define the performance of several commercial viscosity modifiers in different formulations containing 3 detergent-inhibitor (DI) additive packages and 4 basestock types. The test oils were run at -18°C (0°F) in a Cummins NTC-400 diesel engine. The results, when statistically analyzed, indicated that a new, second generation olefin copolymer (OCP) viscosity modifier had better performance than a first generation OCP and, furthermore, had performance equal to a polymethacrylate (PMA) viscosity modifier. The analysis also showed that one DI/base stock combination had a significant effect on performance.
Technical Paper

“Taguchi Customer Loss Function” Based Functional Requirements

Understanding customer expectations is critical to satisfying customers. Holding customer clinics is one approach to set winning targets for the engineering functional measures to drive customer satisfaction. In these clinics, customers are asked to operate and interact with vehicle systems or subsystems such as doors, lift gates, shifters, and seat adjusters, and then rate their experience. From this customer evaluation data, engineers can create customer loss or preference functions. These functions let engineers set appropriate targets by balancing risks and benefits. Statistical methods such as cumulative customer loss function are regularly applied for such analyses. In this paper, a new approach based on the Taguchi method is proposed and developed. It is referred to as Taguchi Customer Loss Function (TCLF).
Technical Paper

“Rds_on” Based OBD for Pre-Supply Fuel Pump Driver Modules

In automotive electronics on-board diagnostics does the fault diagnosis and reporting. It provides the level of robustness required for the control electronics against various faults. The amount of diagnostic information available via on board diagnostics are depends on the type of vehicle. Pre-supply fuel pump is the component in the common rail hydraulic system. It pumps the fuel from the fuel tank to the inlet valve of the high pressure fuel pump. Electronic control unit synchronizes its operation with high pressure fuel pump. A dedicated driver module in the ECU controls the operation of pre-supply fuel pump. The driver module consist of an ASIC with internal voltage, current monitoring modules for the fault diagnosis and the pre-drivers to control external HS and LS power stages. The software part of the OBD programmed in the internal memory of the ASIC. The “Rds_on” of the power MOSFETs are used for the fault detection purpose.
Technical Paper

“Motion in FEA”: An Innovative Approach for More Physical and More Accurate Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

Vehicle dynamics is a discipline of mechanical engineering that benefited of significant improvements thanks to the progress of computational engineering. Vehicle dynamics engineers are using CAE for the development of a vehicle with MBS and FEA. The concurrent use of these two technologies is a standard in the automotive industry. However the current simulation process is not fully efficient because local geometrical and material nonlinearities are not accurately modeled in classical MBS software. This paper introduces a methodology for vehicle dynamics simulation integrating MBS capabilities in one single nonlinear FEA environment enabling an accurate modeling of nonlinearity in vehicles.
Technical Paper

“Meta-modeling”, Optimization and Robust Engineering of Automotive Systems Using Design of Experiments

This paper describes the application of statistical techniques known as Design of Experiments (D.O.E.) to efficiently use the results of numerical analysis data in order to improve the configuration of automotive systems. The general framework of these techniques is presented in a format aiming at the design engineer as their end user. Besides, a case study is presented with the purpose of illustrating their practical use. The first step of the case study is to build predictive models for the behaviour of the automotive system being developed by means of the Response Surface Method (RSM), using the proper D.O.E. options. Once these predictive models are available, automatic numerical optimization algorithms are used to improve the responses of interest for given operating conditions. Finally, the automotive systems are robust designed taking into account that the operating conditions vary randomly.
Technical Paper

“Fuel Flow Method2” for Estimating Aircraft Emissions

In recent years there has been increasing interest in quantifying the emissions from aircraft in order to generate inventories of emissions for climate models, technology and scenario studies, and inventories of emissions for airline fleets typically presented in environmental reports. The preferred method for calculating aircraft engine emissions of NOx, HC, and CO is the proprietary “P3T3” method. This method relies on proprietary airplane and engine performance models along with proprietary engine emissions characterizations. In response and in order to provide a transparent method for calculating aircraft engine emissions non proprietary fuel flow based methods 1,2,3 have been developed. This paper presents derivation, updates, and clarifications of the fuel flow method methodology known as “Fuel Flow Method 2”.
Technical Paper


Buick engineers are well pleased with their '69 Chassis. Benefits of a unique front suspension camber curve are documented. The effects of various suspension parameters on ride and handling are explained. These were varied independently of one another in the course of evaluating over 30 suspension configurations.
Technical Paper

‘Tuning’ the Variable Stiffness Head Gasket an Interactive Computational Approach

Problems of bore distortion, combustion blowby and gasket fatigue in lightweight engine blocks are ultimately related to the gasket sealing pressure distribution. For both conventional embossed steel gaskets and composite ones this distribution can be modified by suitable local changes in gasket stiffness. Current methods of gasket optimization concentrate on large scale iterative finite element analysis of the head/gasket/block system, with major computational costs. We present a more economical alternative in which condensed compliance matrices are obtained either from elementary NASTRAN runs or by experimental means. The algorithm enables the gasket engineer to ‘tune’ the gasket to the desired sealing pressure profile with acceptable stiffness variations.
Technical Paper

the design of Planetary Gear Trains

THE usefulness of planetary gear trains and the engineering techniques necessary for optimum design are discussed in this paper. A simple method for calculating planetary gear ratios is described which can be used to determine quickly the potential usefulness of any planetary configurations. The author lists criteria which help to evaluate the potential of a planetary gear train schematic from the standpoints of gear noise and structural viewpoint. Detailed design of individual members include spacing of the pinions, mounting considerations, thrust direction, lubrication, and stress evaluation.
Technical Paper

some thoughts on optimum combinations of Wings and Vertical Thrust Generators in VTOL Aircraft

THIS PAPER reviews VTOL problems, indicating probable ways toward optimization of whole lifting and propelling system. Also discussed are the power and thrust requirements for optimum cruise and vertical take-offs and landings for propeller-driven and jet-propelled aircraft. Three speed ranges offer the most promise for VTOL aircraft, if thrust requirements for cruise and take-off are to match. The ranges are centered around Mach numbers of 0.65, 0.8, and 2.0+. There is a possibility of overcoming the high thrust needed for hovering by use of bypass augmentation, special hovering jets, or favorable ground effects, the author reports.
Technical Paper

selection of Optimum Modes of Control for aircraft engines

THE optimum mode of control for an aircraft engine is dependent on both the configuration of the engine and its application. Each engine application requires several detail modes of control, one for each definable regime of operation of the engine. Discussions of control requirements can be simplified by classifying these regimes by objectives: physical limiting, thrust, and transient control. The turbojet engine is the basis for the discussion in this paper. Acceptable modes of control can often be selected by inspection of the engine and its application. Selection of an “optimum” control mode requires investigation of the operation of the engine and weapons system at every stage of its use. The selection of a “mode” of control requires a compromise between performance and other design factors. The need for simplicity and accuracy must be balanced against the stability requirements. The availability and flexibility of control components may limit the modes of control considered.
Technical Paper

recent developments make ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS more realistic

SPECIFICATIONS that are realistic for production and result in a product that functions properly can be set with a three-step method evolved from statistical control techniques. The tolerances thus established reduce production costs, as well as costs arising from faulty products, the author states. The author applies the method to a leakage problem encountered on mechanical-hydraulic units. Through the use of statistical control techniques, the cause of the leakage was discovered.
Technical Paper

iLokTM Nut - An Innovative Fastener that Solves a 30 Year Old Problem for Rear Axle Hub Assemblies

Truck and bus manufacturers have been constantly facing an issue to disassemble the rear axle shaft from the hub when transporting the truck from the factory to the dealership. In addition to that, the dealerships have the very same problem every time they have to replace the brake pads in some truck models, which leads to excessive service time, extra costs and aftermarket complaints. The current problematic fastening system is composed by a lock nut, a flat washer and a coned slotted bushing. The concept of this 30 year old design involves the coned slotted bushing being pressed against a tapered hole on the shaft’s flange. After tightening the lock nut, the bushing clamps towards the stud and it gets stuck in between the shaft and the stud generating the problem described above. This paper shows the R&D process that Tekfor used to come up with the 1-piece fastener named iLokTM nut that replaces the problematic 3-piece fastening system.
Technical Paper


THIS PAPER presents the development of the DC-8 suppressor and thrust brake unit from initial test work through the final design. The selection of the production unit was based on a wide background of test work using both model and full-scale facilities. On the basis of this work, the configuration selected for production consisted of a fixed, corrugated, suppressing nozzle with a retractable ejector. A target-type thrust brake, mounted in the ejector, was chosen for the thrust brake production unit. Approximately 12-db suppression and 44% reverse thrust are provided by the unit. The ejector is hydraulically operated and the thrust brake air actuated. Both actuation systems obtain power from the aircraft systems which provides for operation during engine-out conditions. Alternate methods of actuation are provided in case of a primary system failure.
Technical Paper

Zth Thermal Modelling of MOSFET in Sub-Milliseconds Range

1 An FEA (Finite Element Analysis) model was developed based on the physical dimension of the MOSFET device to produce a Zth curve closely matching the experimental Zth curve. This Finite Element Analysis model would then be extrapolated down to the region beyond the capability of the hardware of the Zth measurement system
Technical Paper

Zero Gases for Emission Monitoring - Production, Storage, Treatment and Usage

Increasingly stringent emission levels require better quality facility gas supplies to enable more precise measurements at low levels and reduce variation in test results. The transient and steady state quality of the “zero gas” used in analyzer calibration will directly affect the level of the readings, while variation in the “zero gas” over time will increase the number of tests needed to meet statistical requirements. Facility zero gas supplies for air and nitrogen, at a minimum, require careful evaluation to confirm that the required gas quality is delivered to the test equipment for the desired instrument accuracy. To move from LEV or ULEV to SULEV analysis, a change in methodology of zero gas generation, delivery and handling may be needed to achieve the desired measurement accuracy and repeatability. Traditional tubing, fittings and handling methods can not only limit the possible gas quality, but also contribute to variation.
Technical Paper

Yield Mapping with Digital Aerial Color Infrared (CIR) Images

Yield potential was predicted and mapped for three corn fields in Central Illinois, using digital aerial color infrared images. Three methods, namely statistical (regression) modeling, genetic algorithm optimization and artificial neural networks, were used for developing yield models. Two image resolutions of 3 and 6 m/pixel were used for modeling. All the models were trained using July 31 image and tested using images from July 2 and August 31, all from 1998. Among the three models, artificial neural networks gave best performance, with a prediction error less than 30%. The statistical model resulted in prediction errors in the range of 23 to 54%. The lower resolution images resulted in better prediction accuracy compared to resolutions higher than or equal to the yield resolution. Images after pollination resulted in better accuracy compared to images before pollination.