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Technical Paper

“Rigidization-on-Command”™ (ROC) Resin Development for Lightweight Isogrid Booms with MLI

The “Rigidization-on-Command”™ (ROC™) resin development has focused on the development of resin systems that use UV light cure for rigidization. Polymeric sensitizers have been incorporated into the resin formulations to promote cure using Pen-Ray lamps and UV light-emitting diodes (LED's). Formulations containing the polymeric sensitizers were examined by FTIR and DSC. Complete cure was observed after 15 min. exposure with the Pen-Ray lamps. Performance of the Pen-Ray lamps and UV LEDs was thoroughly characterized. Thermal models were developed to optimize the performance of the of the MLI insulation thermal oven used for orbital cure of the boom. Results show that -12°C is the lowest temperature required for cure of the ROC™ resin systems.
Technical Paper

“Optimization” of Lower Deck Cargo Systems

The ability to carry cargo efficiently in passenger aircraft has influenced airline economics to the point that optimisation of the freight capacity is mandatory. This document discusses the alternative loading possibilities in defined Lover Deck Compartments and their doors to cater for current and future trends in ULD dimensions. As a result items for study centred on: 1) Optimisation of the available volumes Freight capacity resulting in the selection of “Pallets”-doors for both the Forward and AFT Compartments. Flexibility to meet Freight and Baggage requirements. Possible load arrangements to optimize aircraft C of G 2) Bulk Cargo Compartment Additional LD3 Container position in AFT/Bulk compartment to cater for an uneven number of Baggage container, allowing the carriage of an additional pallet. What is regarded as an optimum is presented.
Technical Paper

“Meta-modeling”, Optimization and Robust Engineering of Automotive Systems Using Design of Experiments

This paper describes the application of statistical techniques known as Design of Experiments (D.O.E.) to efficiently use the results of numerical analysis data in order to improve the configuration of automotive systems. The general framework of these techniques is presented in a format aiming at the design engineer as their end user. Besides, a case study is presented with the purpose of illustrating their practical use. The first step of the case study is to build predictive models for the behaviour of the automotive system being developed by means of the Response Surface Method (RSM), using the proper D.O.E. options. Once these predictive models are available, automatic numerical optimization algorithms are used to improve the responses of interest for given operating conditions. Finally, the automotive systems are robust designed taking into account that the operating conditions vary randomly.
Technical Paper

“Fitting Data”: A Case Study on Effective Driver Distraction State Classification

The goal of this project was to investigate how to make driver distraction state classification more efficient by applying selected machine learning techniques to existing datasets. The data set used in this project included both overt driver behavior measures (e.g., lane keeping and headway measures) and indices of internal cognitive processes (e.g., driver situation awareness responses) collected under four distraction conditions, including no-distraction, visual-manual distraction only, cognitive distraction only, and dual distraction conditions. The baseline classification method that we employed was a support vector machine (SVM) to first identify driver states of visual-manual distraction and then to identify any cognitive-related distraction among the visual-manual distraction cases and other non-visual manual distraction cases.
Technical Paper

“Fair” Comparison of Powertrain Configurations for Plug-In Hybrid Operation Using Global Optimization

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) use electric energy from the grid rather than fuel energy for most short trips, therefore drastically reducing fuel consumption. Different configurations can be used for PHEVs. In this study, the parallel pre-transmission, series, and power-split configurations were compared by using global optimization. The latter allows a fair comparison among different powertrains. Each vehicle was operated optimally to ensure that the results would not be biased by non-optimally tuned or designed controllers. All vehicles were sized to have a similar all-electric range (AER), performance, and towing capacity. Several driving cycles and distances were used. The advantages of each powertrain are discussed.
Technical Paper

“Dynamic Analysis of Cabin Tilting System of Heavy Trucks Using ADAMS-View for Development of a Software Interface for Optimization”

Design of a Cabin Tilting System of heavy trucks, a multi degree of freedom mechanism, is a challenge. Factors like adequate tilting angle, cabin styling, packaging, non interference of tilting system with ride comfort, forces in the system, specifications of the hydraulic system, are all very important for designing the system. Numerous considerations make the design process highly iterative hence longer design time. This paper primarily focuses on Kinematics and Dynamic analysis of the system in ADAMS and validation of system with real time testing results. Intention of this work is to make a parametric ADAMS model and link it to a Knowledge Based Engineering application to facilitate designer to quickly carry out design iterations for reducing development time. The Knowledge Based Engineering software is made using object oriented language called ‘Object Definition Language’ which has been developed using C and C++ software languages.
Technical Paper

‘Emotional Controlling’ of Digital Human Models - A New Way to Digital Autonomy?

‘Emotional controlling’ is a very efficient way to realize autonomous behaviour of digital human models by closed loop controls. In particular this is an emotional optimization procedure based upon the ‘Hedonic principle’ and thus following closely the human original. Emotional controlling will be outlined and illustrated by an example demonstrating the specific way force and posture induced discomfort is shaping our movements.
Technical Paper

some thoughts on optimum combinations of Wings and Vertical Thrust Generators in VTOL Aircraft

THIS PAPER reviews VTOL problems, indicating probable ways toward optimization of whole lifting and propelling system. Also discussed are the power and thrust requirements for optimum cruise and vertical take-offs and landings for propeller-driven and jet-propelled aircraft. Three speed ranges offer the most promise for VTOL aircraft, if thrust requirements for cruise and take-off are to match. The ranges are centered around Mach numbers of 0.65, 0.8, and 2.0+. There is a possibility of overcoming the high thrust needed for hovering by use of bypass augmentation, special hovering jets, or favorable ground effects, the author reports.
Technical Paper

modeFRONTIER for Virtual Design and Optimization of Compact Heat Exchangers

The main purpose of this study is the development of an innovative methodology for Heat Exchangers (HE) design to replace the conventional design procedures. The new procedure is based on the definition of a software package managed by modeFRONTIER, a multi-objective optimization software produced by ESTECO, able to create HE virtual models by targeting several objectives, like HE performance, optimal use of material, HE minimal weight and size and optimal manufacturability. The proposed methodology consists first in the definition of a workflow for the automatic CFD simulation of a parametric model of a periodic HE cellular element.
Technical Paper

Yugoslav Approach to the Solution to Problems of Ecological Environment

Development of car production industry in Yugoslavia has three ecological phases. The first one is to satisfy ECE Rules by optimization of engine and vehicle equipment. The second phase is to enter the American market with help of professional foreign development institutions. The third phase is now in focus; to adjust to new European regulations. For the development tasks it is typical to lean on foreign licenses. The real development jobs were occasionally given to faculties, while the research units in factories were overburdened by operative tasks from production. Research jobs were always at mother companies, only some small segment of them was, for the short period, at some faculty or larger institute.
Technical Paper

Yet Another Look At Crash Pulse Analysis

The effect of vehicle acceleration history on dummy loading in the frontal impact NCAP event is explored with help of a one-dimensional mathematical model. Both numerical and analytical approaches are used to identify the ideal vehicle pulse. The numerical solution reveals limitations of square wave pulse. The analytical approach results in explicit formulation of the ideal pulse. Response of the mathematical model used in this paper is statistically correlated to a number of randomly selected NCAP frontal tests. Both the baseline model and the resulting optimized pulse are also confirmed using a validated three-dimensional Madymo model. Based on the analytical results, a simple measure of quality of the vehicle acceleration history is formulated.
Technical Paper

Yaw/Roll Stability Modeling and Control of HeavyTractor-SemiTrailer

This paper sets up a simplified dynamic model for simulating the yaw/roll stability of heavy tractor-semitrailer using Matlab/Simulink. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based on partial-state feedback controller is used to optimize the roll stability of the vehicle. The control objective for optimizing roll stability is to be reducing the lateral load transfer rate while keeping the suspension angle less than the maximum allowable angle. The simulation result shows that the LQR controller is effective in the active roll stability control of the heavy tractor-semitrailer.
Journal Article

Yaw Stability Enhancement of Articulated Commercial Vehicles via Gain-Scheduling Optimal Control Approach

In this paper, a gain-scheduling optimal control approach is proposed to enhance yaw stability of articulated commercial vehicles through active braking of the proper wheel(s). For this purpose, an optimal feedback control is used to design a family of yaw moment controllers considering a broad range of vehicle velocities. The yaw moment controller is designed such that the instantaneous tractor yaw rate and articulation angle responses are forced to track the target values at each specific vehicle velocity. A gain scheduling mechanism is subsequently constructed via interpolations among the controllers. Furthermore, yaw moments derived from the proposed controller are realized by braking torque distribution among the appropriate wheels. The effectiveness of the proposed yaw stability control scheme is evaluated through software-in-the-loop (SIL) co-simulations involving Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim under lane change maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Xenon with Integrated Starter – The Powerful Way for Improved HID Headlighting

HID as lightsource in the automotive world has been proven as the most efficient way to satisfy the main user's requirements on a headlighting bulb: Realize a broad beam pattern with superior performance on visibility, safety and comfort on the one hand, and the fulfillment of long lifetime requirements on the other hand. In the second step, the logical integration of functions and the improvement of automotive system requests such as size and EMC has to be covered. An integrated bulb with starter is the appropriate way to combine these features: Optimized fine tuning between the entire lightsource and the starter to reach optimal electrical and EMI performance on the one side on the other side combined with very compact sizes leads to an automotive source perfectly suiting to the modern trends in headlighting applications.
Technical Paper

Wireless Sensing - Future's Password to Digital Avionics System

Performance of Avionics systems is dictated by the timely availability and usage of critical health parameters. Various sensors are extensively used to acquire and communicate the desired parameters. In today's scenario, sensors are hardwired. The number of sensors is growing due to automation which increases the accuracy of intended Aircraft functions. Sensors are distributed all over the Aircraft and they are connected through wired network for signal processing and communication. LRUs (Line Replaceable Unit) which are integrating various sensors also use a wired approach for communication. The use of a wired network approach poses challenges in terms of cable routing, stray capacitances, noise, mechanical structure and added weight to the structure. The weight of cables contributes significantly to the overall weight of the aircraft. As the weight of Aircraft increases, the required fuel quantity also increases. The Key driver for Airline operational cost is fuel.
Technical Paper

Wireless Charging for EV/HEV with Prescriptive Analytics, Machine Learning, Cybersecurity and Blockchain Technology: Ongoing and Future Trends

Due to the rapid development in the technological aspect of the autonomous vehicle (AV), there is a compelling need for research in the field vehicle efficiency and emission reduction without affecting the performance, safety and reliability of the vehicle. Electric vehicle (EV) with rechargeable battery has been proved to be a practical solution for the above problem. In order to utilize the maximum capacity of the battery, a proper power management and control mechanism need to be developed such that it does not affect the performance, reliability and safety of vehicle. Different optimization techniques along with deterministic dynamic programming (DDP) approach are used for the power distribution and management control. The battery-operated electric vehicle can be recharged either by plug-in a wired connection or by the inductive mean (i.e. wirelessly) with the help of the electromagnetic field energy.
Technical Paper

Wiper Systems With Flexible Structures - Instabilities Analysis and Correlation with a Theoretical Model

Optimizing the wiper system performance motivates the design engineer to create a product as robust as possible against the occurrence of wipe defects related to vibratory phenomena between the rubber blade and the windshield. In some configurations, these vibrations generate visual or audible annoyance for the driver. These instabilities phenomena only appear under specific operating and environmental conditions characterized by windshield moisture and cleanness, contact pressure of the rubber blade on the glass, attack angle of the wiper blade on the windshield, component stiffness, windshield curvature etc. In the process of eliminating all potential instabilities, modeling the wiper system structures can contribute to understand its working dynamics. Therefore, a new computation tool is developed and validated by experimentation on a specific test bench.
Technical Paper

Windshield Shape Optimization Using Neural Network

Wipe quality of wiper systems is influenced not only by the definition of the wiper system, but also by the shape of the glass. In order to optimize the overall performance of the system, Valeo Wiper Systems has developed an optimization algorithm, which is based on geometrical criteria. The multi-criteria objective not only considers wipe quality but also constraints by glass feasibility and respect of optical standards. As the direct derivation of the objective functions is not available, a neural network approximation is used at the place of the real function. A neural network with several outputs enables the engineer to include his knowledge in the optimization loop by changing disciplinary weights.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Investigation of an Inflatable Aerodynamic Boattail for Tractor-Trailers

The objective of this research was to initiate the development of a design procedure to optimize the shape of a drag reducing device to obtain a significant drag reduction on the rear end of a trailer of a tractor-trailer rig. To meet this objective, four wind tunnel experiments were conducted. An optimized shape has not been determined as of yet; however, it was found that the aerodynamic drag could be reduced as much as 17.4 percent, and that there are several important parameters that influence the drag reduction, such as: device length, device edge curvature, and the device-to-trailer attachment angles.
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