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Technical Paper

“Influence of Engine Variables on Exhaust Oxides of Nitrogen Concentrations from a Multi-Cylinder Engine”

The influence of engine variables on the concentration of oxides of nitrogen present in the exhaust of a multicylinder engine was studied. The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured with either a mass spectrometer or a non-dispersive infrared analyzer. The NO concentration was low for rich operation (deficient in oxygen) and increased with air-fuel ratio to a peak value at ratios slightly leaner than stoichiometric proportions. A further increase in air-fuel ratio resulted in reduced NO concentrations. Advanced spark timing, decreased manifold vacuum, increased coolant temperature and combustion chamber deposit buildup were also found to increase exhaust NO concentration. These results support either directly or indirectly the hypothesis that exhaust NO concentration is primarily a result of the peak combustion gas temperature and the available oxygen.
Technical Paper

“Fuel Flow Method2” for Estimating Aircraft Emissions

In recent years there has been increasing interest in quantifying the emissions from aircraft in order to generate inventories of emissions for climate models, technology and scenario studies, and inventories of emissions for airline fleets typically presented in environmental reports. The preferred method for calculating aircraft engine emissions of NOx, HC, and CO is the proprietary “P3T3” method. This method relies on proprietary airplane and engine performance models along with proprietary engine emissions characterizations. In response and in order to provide a transparent method for calculating aircraft engine emissions non proprietary fuel flow based methods 1,2,3 have been developed. This paper presents derivation, updates, and clarifications of the fuel flow method methodology known as “Fuel Flow Method 2”.
Technical Paper

“Catalytic Engine” NOx Reduction of Diesel Engines with New Concept Onboard Ammonia Synthesis System

Ammonia is one of the most useful compounds that react with NOx selectively on a catalyst, such as V2O5-TiO2, under oxygen containing exhaust gas. However ammonia cannot be stored because of its toxicity for the small power generator in populated areas or for the diesel vehicles. A new concept for NOx reduction in diesel engine using ammonia is introduced. This system is constructed from the hydrogen generator by fuel reformer, the ammonia synthesizer, SCR catalyst for NOx reduction and the gas injection system of reformed gas into the cylinder. Experimental results show that, the SCR catalyst provides a very high rate of NOx reduction, reformed gas injection into cylinder is very effective for particulate reduction. WHEN CONSIDERING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES of the 1990's the question of how to harmonize the engine with the natural environments is one of the greatest problems. The internal combustion engine changes a substance into energy via its explosive combustion.
Technical Paper

α-Pinene - A High Energy Density Biofuel for SI Engine Applications

This study proposes a novel biofuel for spark ignition (SI) engine, α-pinene (C10H16), which is non-oxygenated and thus has a gravimetric energy density comparable to that of hydrocarbon fuels. The ignition characteristics of α-pinene were evaluated in an ignition quality tester (IQT) under standard temperature and pressure conditions. The measured ignition delay time (IDT) of α-pinene is 10.5 ms, which is lower than that of iso-octane, 17.9 ms. The estimated research octane number (RON) for pinene from IQT is 85. A temperature sweep in IQT showed that that α-pinene is less reactive at low temperatures, but more reactive at high temperatures when compared to isooctane. These results suggest that α-pinene has high octane sensitivity (OS) and is suitable for operation in turbocharged SI engines. With these considerations, α-pinene was operated in a single cylinder SI engine.
Technical Paper

Zone Length Optimization to Improve PGM Utility

“Zoning” a catalytic converter involves placing higher concentrations of platinum group metals (PGM) in the inlet portion of the substrate. This is done to optimize the cost-to-performance tradeoff by increasing the reaction rate at lower temperatures while minimizing PGM usage. A potentially useful application of catalyst zoning is to improve performance using a constant PGM mass. A study was performed to assess what the optimum ratio of front to rear palladium zone length is to achieve the highest performance in vehicle emission testing. Varying the zone ratio from 1:1 to 1:9 shows a clear hydrocarbon performance optimum at a 1:5.66 (15%/85%) split. This performance optimum shows as both a minimum in FTP75 non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions as well as a minimum in hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide light-off temperature. Overall, an improvement of 18%, or 11 mg/mi of combined NMOG+NOx emissions was obtained without using additional PGM.
Technical Paper

Zirconia Based Ceramic, In-Cylinder Coatings and Aftertreatment Oxidation Catalysts for Reduction of Emissions from Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Diesel engines are coming under stricter requirements to reduce emissions. particularly those of particulates and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Recently, the U. S. EPA put into place staged requirements for heavy duty diesel engines in urban bus applications which are aimed at ultimately bringing pre-1994 engines into particulate emissions compliance with 1994 heavy duty on-road truck standards (0. 1 g/bhp-hr TPM). This reflects the need to control emissions in crowded urban environments. Zirconia based ceramic combustion management coatings, although originally developed for adiabatic or low heat rejection engines to boost thermal efficiency, have also been shown to contribute to the reduction in diesel emissions. Heavy duty transient testing of rebuilt 2-stroke MUI diesel bus engines equipped with stabilized zirconia based coatings applied by thermal spray process have shown significant reduction in exhaust opacity relative to a baseline, uncoated engine.
Journal Article

Zero-Dimensional Simulation of Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Based on CMC Model and Skeletal Reaction Mechanism

A zero-dimensional code is developed to simulate turbulent spray combustion and NOx and soot emission in direct injection diesel engines. The code consists of two major parts; mixing calculation for the probability density function (PDF) based on the multi-zone model by Hiroyasu et al., (1983) and the flame structure by the conditional moment closure (CMC) model (Klimenko & Bilger, 1999). The skeletal mechanism of n-heptane is employed with the elementary reaction steps for heat release and the NOx chemistry in GRI 3.0. The spray model accounts for evaporation and mixing based on momentum balance of the spray zones, while the CMC model incorporates the conditional flame structures with one fuel group or flame structure for each injection. The spatially integrated density-weighted PDF, F(η), is defined to represent inhomogeneous mixture distribution in the cylinder. The one-equation soot model is employed for prediction of the soot emission.
Technical Paper

Wire Mesh Mixer Optimization for DEF Deposit Prevention

Diesel engine NOx emissions requirements have become increasingly stringent over the past two decades. Engine manufacturers have shown through the use of EGR and SCR technology that these requirements can be met. However, the desires for improved fuel efficiency, lower overall cost, and potential legislation to reduce NOx levels further increase the demand for higher DEF dosing rates. To meet this demand, a new DEF mixing technology has been developed. This paper describes the development methods used to create a compact, in-pipe mixer which utilizes an optimized wire mesh along with swirling flow to permit high DEF dosing rates without deposit formation. Its excellent mixing characteristics allowed for high NOx reduction to be achieved. Utilization of this technology makes it possible to reduce regeneration frequency, reduce the overall size of the SCR system, possibly eliminate the EGR system, and improve fuel efficiency through combustion enhancements.
Technical Paper

Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection

This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
Journal Article

Why Cu- and Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalysts Behave Differently At Low Temperatures

Cu- and Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts emerged in recent years as the primary candidates for meeting the increasingly stringent lean exhaust emission regulations, due to their outstanding activity and durability characteristics. It is commonly known that Cu-zeolite catalysts possess superior activity to Fe-zeolites, in particular at low temperatures and sub-optimal NO₂/NOx ratios. In this work, we elucidate some underlying mechanistic differences between these two classes of catalysts, first based on their NO oxidation abilities, and then based on the relative properties of the two types of exchanged metal sites. Finally, by using the ammonia coverage-dependent NOx performance, we illustrate that state-of-the-art Fe-zeolites can perform better under certain transient conditions than in steady-state.
Technical Paper

Where Are All Those Gadgets Going?

With the passage of the federal Clean Air Act, the automotive industry has a clear assignment to reduce automobile emissions drastically by 1975. The control devices presently available have already reduced hydrocarbons 83%, carbon monoxide 70%, and nitrogen oxides 33%. By 1975, these figures must be 98%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. This paper discusses the devices that have been developed to accomplish the reductions to date, and concludes that in the future the crankcase controls will require little change, that the evaporative controls will require some additional improvement but will not change substantially, and that engine modifications do not have much chance of meeting the 1975 standards without a great deal of supplementation. The author feels two methods are available which may be able to reach the 1975 standards: use of manifold reactors and use of catalysts. However, both present problems of materials and thermodynamics, due to high exhaust temperatures.
Technical Paper

Weighting of Parameters in Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) as a predictive tool has been shown to have a broad range of applications. Earlier work by the authors using ANN models to predict carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty diesel engines and vehicles yielded marginal to excellent results. These ANN models can be a useful tool in inventory prediction, hybrid vehicle design optimization, and incorporated into a feedback loop of an on-board, active fuel injection management system. In this research, the ANN models were trained on continuous engine and emissions data. The engine data were used as inputs to the ANN models and consisted of engine speed, torque, and their respective first and second derivatives over a one, five, and ten second time range. The continuous emissions data were the desired output that the ANN models learned to predict through an iterative training process.
Technical Paper

Weight Effect on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Diesel and Lean-Burn Natural Gas Transit Buses

Transit agencies across the United States operate bus fleets primarily powered by diesel, natural gas, and hybrid drive systems. Passenger loading affects the power demanded from the engine, which in turn affects distance-specific emissions and fuel consumption. Analysis shows that the nature of bus activity, taking into account the idle time, tire rolling resistance, wind drag, and acceleration energy, influences the way in which passenger load impacts emissions. Emissions performance and fuel consumption from diesel and natural gas powered buses were characterized by the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory. A comparison matrix for all three bus technologies included three common driving cycles (the Braunschweig Cycle, the OCTA Cycle, and the ADEME-RATP Paris Cycle). Each bus was tested at three different passenger loading conditions (empty weight, half weight, and full weight).
Technical Paper

Ways to meet future emission standards for heavy Sports Utility Vehicles - SUV

Diesel engines belong to the most efficient power sources for any kind of on-road vehicle, but especially in Europe increasingly for passenger cars. However, more stringent exhaust emission regulations, which will come into force world-wide in industrialised countries during the first decade of the next century will require NOx and particulate emissions to be reduced by up to 60% and more from today's levels. To meet these future emission standards particularly for heavier passenger vehicles, such as SUVs, Pickup Trucks and Light Commercial Vehicles, as well as for heavy luxury class passenger cars, the application of new technologies including advanced exhaust gas aftertreatment systems will be indispensable, especially in view of maintaining the thermal efficiency of diesel engines relative to gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Ways to Meet Future Emission Standards with Diesel Engine Powered Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV)

The paper reports on the outcome of a still on-going joint-research project with the objective of establishing a demonstrator high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine in a Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) which allows to exploit the effectiveness of new engine and aftertreatment technologies for reducing exhaust emissions to future levels of US/EPA Tier 2 and Euro 4. This objective should be accomplished in three major steps: (1) reduce NOx by advanced engine technologies (cooled EGR, flexible high pressure common rail fuel injection system, adapted combustion system), (2) reduce particulates by the Continuous Regeneration Trap (CRT), and (3) reduce NOx further by a DeNOx aftertreatment technology. The current paper presents engine and vehicle results on step (1) and (2), and gives an outlook to step (3).
Technical Paper

Water Injection: Disruptive Technology1 to Reduce Airplane Emissions and Maintenance Costs

Water injection is an old aviation technology that was previously used to generate increased engine power during takeoff. If water injection were now to be used without increasing thrust, it could result in large reductions in takeoff NOx emissions and would most likely enable longer engine life and reduced operator costs. Due to the cooling action of evaporating water, a large temperature reduction will be experienced at the point where the water is injected into the engine. This could improve combustion emissions, such as temperature-sensitive NOx, and help reduce temperatures throughout the turbine section of the engine. The two current preferred methods of water injection are: (1) direct injection into the combustor, and (2) misting of the conditioned water before the engine's compressor. Combustor injection could achieve up to 90% NOx reduction and offer few implementation challenges as it has been used in aero-derivative industrial engines for over 30 years.
Technical Paper

Water Injection Effects on NOx Emissions for Engines Utilizing Diffusion Flame Combustion

Inert injection is an often-used technique to reduce NOx emissions from engines. Here the effects of a new Mitsubishi water injection system for a direct injection (DI) Diesel engine on exhaust emissions are examined. Stoichiometric flame temperature correlations of thermal NOx emissions for conventional gas turbine combustors provide an activation energy to form NO of approximately 135 kcal/g-mol, the value for the Zeldovich mechanism with O/O2 equilibrium. Two theoretical limiting temperatures determined to bracket NOx emissions data for gas turbines are computed for the Diesel engine considered here. At low water to fuel ratios, the reductions of NOx for the DI Diesel engine are less than predicted for uniform distribution of an inert throughout the charge, but as the water to fuel ratio is increased the reductions are bounded successfully by the limiting temperatures.
Technical Paper

Water Injection Effects In A Single-Cylinder CFR Engine

Though analysed by a few researches, the practice of water injection in Spark Ignition Engines (SI-ICE) does not yield homogeneous results, owing to various typologies of engines used for experiments. In this paper the effects of water injection in the intake pipe are investigated from both a theoretical and experimental viewpoint. Pressure vs. time diagrams were recorded on a single-cylinder CFR engine at AGIP PETROLI, Priolo (CT). Tests were performed according to Research and Motor Method (ASTM). Water was supplied by a continuous injection system inclusive of comparatively high pressure pump. The engine was fed with low O.N. base gasoline (cheap products, intermediate of refinery processes). The water to fuel mass flow rate ratio was varied in the range 0 to 1.5. The NOx emissions measurements confirm the tremendous effectiveness of water injection in reducing the engine environmental impact.
Journal Article

Waste Management Technology and the Drivers for Space Missions

Since the mid 1980s, NASA has developed advanced waste management technologies that collect and process waste. These technologies include incineration, hydrothermal oxidation, pyrolysis, electrochemical oxidation, activated carbon production, brine dewatering, slurry bioreactor oxidation, composting, NOx control, compaction, and waste collection. Some of these technologies recover resources such as water, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon, fuels, and nutrients. Other technologies such as the Waste Collection System (WCS - the commode) collect waste for storage or processing. The need for waste processing varies greatly depending upon the mission scenario. This paper reviews the waste management technology development activities conducted by NASA since the mid 1980s and explores the drivers that determine the application of these technologies to future missions.
Technical Paper

Wall-scale Reaction Models in Diesel Particulate Filters

Following the successful market introduction of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), this class of emission control devices is expanding to include additional functionalities such as gas species oxidation (such as CO, HC and NO), storage phenomena (such as NOx and NH3 storage) to the extent that we should today refer not to DPFs but to Multifunctional Reactor Separators. This trend poses many challenges for the modeling of such systems since the complexity of the coupled reaction and transport phenomena makes any direct general numerical approach to require unacceptably high computing times. These multi-functionalities are urgently needed to be incorporated into system level emission control simulation tools in a robust and computationally efficient manner. In the present paper we discuss a new framework and its application for the computationally efficient implementation of such phenomena.