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Technical Paper

“Understanding Diesel Engine Lubrication at Low Temperature”

Oil pumpability in passenger car gasoline engines was well-characterized by an ASTM program and by individual researchers in the 1970's and early 1980's. Oil pumpability in diesel engines however, was not investigated to any significant extent until the mid-1980's. This study was initiated to define the performance of several commercial viscosity modifiers in different formulations containing 3 detergent-inhibitor (DI) additive packages and 4 basestock types. The test oils were run at -18°C (0°F) in a Cummins NTC-400 diesel engine. The results, when statistically analyzed, indicated that a new, second generation olefin copolymer (OCP) viscosity modifier had better performance than a first generation OCP and, furthermore, had performance equal to a polymethacrylate (PMA) viscosity modifier. The analysis also showed that one DI/base stock combination had a significant effect on performance.
Technical Paper

“Seizure-Delay” Method for Determining the Seizure Protection of EP Lubricants

IT does not yet seem to be recognized fully that it is the local temperature at the surface of contact and not the local specific pressure that chiefly determines the occurrence of seizure under extreme-pressure-lubrication conditions. This local temperature is the result of the temperature level of the parts lubricated, considered as a whole (“bulk” temperature) and of a superimposed instantaneous temperature rise (temperature “flash”) which is localized in the surface of contact. It appears typical for extreme-pressure-lubrication conditions, as met in gear practice, that the temperature flash is much higher than the bulk temperature. With existing conventional test methods for the determination of the protection against seizure afforded by EP lubricants, a considerable rise of the bulk temperature mostly occurs; as it cannot be controlled sufficiently; thus, leaving an unknown margin for the temperature flash, it renders impossible a reliable determination.
Technical Paper

“Second-Generation” SAE 5W-30 Passenger Car Engine Oils

High performance lubricant additive systems have been developed to formulate SAE 5W-30 passenger car engine oils which meet current and anticipated requirements of the North American original equipment manufacturers. The trend in North America is to recommend SAE 5W-30 oils that not only meet the API SF requirements for gasoline engines (“first-generation” oils), but also meet the stringent API CC requirement for light duty diesel engines (“second-generation” oils). Furthermore, the engine builders have issued “world specifications” for motor oils which incorporate additional “second-generation” SAE 5W-30 characteristics, such as enhanced API SF limits, improved fuel efficiency, an increased margin of bearing protection, and lower finished-oil phosphorus levels. The additive systems described herein exceed API SF and CC requirements as well as “second-generation” performance hurdles.
Technical Paper


Research information on solid lubricants has been compiled for consideration in the possible use of such materials in aircraft electrical equipment. Solid lubricants are capable of lubricating at the maximum temperatures (600° F) for aircraft electrical equipment. Many solids that adhere well to metals may be useful lubricants; those with layer-lattice structure usually give low friction. Solid lubricants are most commonly used as bonded films but the use of fluid carriers and surface reaction products have considerable merit.
Technical Paper

“OptiVent” - A New Approach for Controlling Mass Air Flow and Combustion in Direct Injection SI-Engines

Combustion concepts for future SI engines try to meet CO2-emission commitments and legislation all over the world. Where the Diesel engine has an advantage by principle, the efficiency of the SI engine has to be improved significantly, while of course the exhaust emissions must not become worse. An approach is to reduce the gas exchange losses using fully variable valve trains on the intake side of the combustion engine. OptiVent is a patented new way of controlling the mass air flow in the cylinder of a combustion engine using opening valves during the compression phase of a four stroke engine. This technology regards a wider range of variability on the valvetrain components of the engine especially for opening the valves more than one time during a cycle. On the other hand it is necessary to combine this technology with direct injection to avoid fuel losses in the exhaust system and raising the exhaust hydrocarbon emission of the engine.
Technical Paper

“KATPROG” for the Determination of an Optimal Cost Effective Catalyst System

An two-dimensional axial symmetrical finite volume model will be introduced for the calculation of catalytic converters. It is able to predict transient temperatures and conversion rates in different converter systems according to the driving conditions. Input data are the mass-flow rate, the converter inlet temperature and the raw emissions. The performance of this model is demonstrated on an Indian motorcycle application. Cold start behavior and peak temperatures are investigated. This model has proven to be an effective tool for the preselection of an optimal cost effective catalyst system.
Technical Paper

“Investigation of High Achievable Pollutant Reduction on a “State of the Art” Indian 2 Wheelers - Technology Road Map to a Cleaner Air”

Affordable, efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two and three wheeler industry in developing countries are required to reduce vehicle emissions and to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. As a contribution Continental Emitec started a comprehensive testing program with a state of the art 180 cc Bharat Stage (BS) III Indian motorcycle. The program consists of testing the state of the art of Metallic substrates with structured foils with various catalyst sizes and positions (original or close coupled). The publication presents a short literature survey and the results of the investigation with a big catalyst volume mounted in underfloor position as well as in close coupled position, gained over the World-wide harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle, considering the two possible vehicle classifications of this motorcycle, Sub-Class 2.1 and Sub-Class 2.2.
Technical Paper

“Hot Tube Test”-Analysis of Lubricant Effect on Diesel Engine Scuffing

To prevent engine scuffing in the field a new laboratory test called the Hot Tube Test has been established in order to evaluate the high temperature stability of diesel engine oils. In a strip mining application field test using 47 bulldozers powered by the same engine type, half of the engines suffered from piston scuffing failures when operated on a variety of commercially available API CD quality SAE 30 Grade engine oils. All the field test oils have been investigated using the Hot Tube Test, and an analysis of the results indicates that it would be possible to accurately predict scuffing failures by this test method. Furthermore, the reliability of this analysis has been verified by bench engine testing on reference oils. The reasons why the Hot Tube Test predicts the anti-scuffing performance of engine oils are discussed.
Technical Paper

“All Electric” Controls and Accessories for Ground Vehicle Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems

This paper discusses the use of electromechanical devices as the kinematic portions of a microprocessor based gas turbine control system. Specific applications are: 1. An electric motor driven, positive displacement pump, which provides metered high pressure fuel to the distribution manifold. Fuel metering to be provided by varying the motor angular velocity. 2. An electric motor driven lube oil pump. 3. Electromechnical actuators for motion and control of compressor and power turbine variable geometry. 4. A starter/generator integral with the gas generator. Topics covered include: Comparison to conventional hydro-mechanical systems. Response characteristics of the fuel pump and actuator systems. Brushless D.C. motor characteristics. Power electronics requirements for brushless D.C. motors. Control electronics interface with brushless D.C. motor systems. Reliability and maintainability issues. Diagnostic/prognostic enhancements.
Technical Paper

“Active Mass Absorber” at a 4×4 Transmition System

The extensive use of rotative machines in the diverse branches of the modern world has made the rising undesirable mechanical and acoustic vibration levels to be a problem of special importance for the machines normal operation as for the communities that are each time more affected by the problem. It makes the study of vibration and acoustic phenomena also to be even more important and the applications of its concepts more sophisticated. Several are the concepts used for decreasing vibration levels, like common dampers, hydraulic dampers, active dampers, natural frequencies changes and others. The choice of use of one or another depends greatly on the engineering possibilities (weight, energy, physical space, other components functional interference, vibration levels, etc.) as well as the cost of implementation of each one.
Technical Paper

“A Flame Ionization Technique for Measuring Total Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust”

The method of flame ionization was used for measuring total hydrocarbons in both single-cylinder and multicylinder 4-cycle, direct injection diesel engine exhaust. Use of the emission parameters of hydrocarbon concentration, per cent unburned fuel, specific hydrocarbon rate, mass of hydrocarbons per million cycles, mass of hydrocarbons per mile, and mass of hydrocarbons per ton-mile are discussed. The basic approach used in the flame ionization detector is shown. The hydrocarbon sample was transferred from the exhaust system through a heated sample line and oven operating at 375 F. The sample line was aspirated to reduce the sample residence time to 2 sec. The effect various sampling locations have on hydrocarbon measurements from a single-cylinder engine is shown and discussed. The effects of load, speed, and injection timing on hydrocarbon emission data are shown for a single-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

‘Regulated’ and ‘Non-regulated’ Emissions from Modern European Passenger Cars

Regulated emissions from four current production European vehicles were measured over the Common Artemis Driving Cycles (CADC). Particulate Mass and Particle Number measurements were made in accordance with the newly-developed draft Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) developed for the UN-ECE's expert group on pollution and energy (GRPE). During the test programme measurements were also made of currently non-regulated emissions including PAHs and speciation of the particulate material and key hydrocarbons. CADC results are presented for each of the four vehicles tested (one conventional gasoline vehicle, two different types of diesel without Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and one diesel with DPF) with results measured on the regulated New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) test for comparison. The emissions results on the Artemis cycles showed some significant differences from those on the regulated (NEDC) test cycle.
Technical Paper

µMist® - The next generation fuel injection system: Improved atomisation and combustion for port-fuel-injected engines

The Swedish Biomimetics 3000's μMist® platform technology has been used to develop a radically new injection system. This prototype system, developed and characterized with support from Lotus, as part of Swedish Biomimetics 3000®'s V₂IO innovation accelerating model, delivers improved combustion efficiency through achieving exceptionally small droplets, at fuel rail pressures far less than conventional GDI systems and as low as PFI systems. The system gives the opportunity to prepare and deliver all of the fuel load for the engine while the intake valves are open and after the exhaust valves have closed, thereby offering the potential to use advanced charge scavenging techniques in PFI engines which have hitherto been restricted to direct-injection engines, and at a lower system cost than a GDI injection system.
Journal Article

xD+1D Catalyst Simulation-A Numerical Study on the Impact of Pore Diffusion

This paper presents a numerical study on the impact of washcoat diffusion on the overall conversion performance of catalytic converters. A comprehensive transient 1D pore diffusion reaction model is embedded in state-of-the-art 1D and 3D catalytic converter models. The pore diffusion model is discussed with its model equations and the applied diffusive transport approaches are summarized. The diffusion reaction model is validated with the help of two available analytical solutions. The impact of basic washcoat characteristics such as pore diameters or thickness on overall conversion performance is investigated by selected 1D+1D calculations. This model is also used to highlight the impact of boundary layer transfer, pore diffusion and reaction on the overall converter conversion performance. The interaction of pore diffusion and flow non-uniformities is demonstrated by 3D+1D CFD simulations.
Technical Paper

the identification and characterization of RUMBLE AND THUD

SIMULTANEOUS RECORDINGS of cylinder pressure, audible sound, and crankshaft motion have shown that rumble is a noise associated with bending vibrations of the crankshaft. The vibrations are caused by abnormally high rates of pressure rise near the top dead center piston position. In this study the high rates of pressure rise were obtained by inducting deposits into the the engine. Thud is a torsional vibration of the crankshaft, similar in sound to rumble but resulting from much earlier occurrence of the maximum rates of pressure rise. Rumble vibrations consisted of a fundamental frequency of 600 cps and higher harmonics in the 11/1 compression ratio V-8 laboratory engine used in the investigation. The audible noise of rumble was predominantly composed of the second harmonic or about 1200 cps.
Technical Paper

the behavior of Radiation-Resistant ANP TURBINE LUBRICANTS

RADIATION can produce almost instantaneous failure of modern aircraft lubricants, tests at Southwest Research Institute show. Two types of failures demonstrated are rapid viscosity rise and loss of heat conductivity. Furthermore, it was found that lubricants can become excessively corrosive under high-level radiation. Generally speaking, the better lubricants appeared to improve in performance while marginal ones deteriorated to a greater extent under radiation. When the better lubricants were subjected to static irradiation prior to the deposition test, there was a minor increase in deposition number as the total dose was increased.
Technical Paper

new Fluoroester Lubricants for high-temperature applications

THE NEED for greater speed in military aircraft and missiles is, without question, the primary force behind the current quest for lubricants of increased thermal and oxidative stability. Turbojet engines soon to be available will require improved lubricants for trouble-free operation. Once developed, these oils may find use in the engines of future civilian aircraft as well as in a variety of special applications. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the results of an experimental program in the field of high-temperature lubricants. Problems of relating chemical structure to the physical properties and performance of highly fluorinared ester lubricants will be described. Background information in the field of turbojet engine lubrication will be presented.