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Technical Paper

“Living and Mobility” - Minimization of the Overall Energy Consumption by Using Synergetic Effects and Predictive Information

2012-04-16
2012-01-0496
Issues relating to the reduction of CO₂ emissions and energy consumption are currently more important than ever before. In the construction engineering and automotive sectors research and development efforts are focused closely on efficient buildings and automobiles. The designated target is a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and overall energy demand. However, almost all approaches focus solely on either "buildings" or "mobility." By considering both aspects as a single holistic system, further energy saving potential arises due to synergetic effects. The goal of current research projects relating to Smart Homes and Vehicle to Building (V2B) is to smooth the electrical load profile on a household level rather than to reduce the individual-related total energy consumption and thereby the CO₂ emissions.
Technical Paper

Φ-Sensitivity for LTGC Engines: Understanding the Fundamentals and Tailoring Fuel Blends to Maximize This Property

2019-04-02
2019-01-0961
Φ-sensitivity is a fuel characteristic that has important benefits for the operation and control of low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines. A fuel is φ-sensitive if its autoignition reactivity varies with the fuel/air equivalence ratio (φ). Thus, multiple-injection strategies can be used to create a φ-distribution that leads to several benefits. First, the φ-distribution causes a sequential autoignition that reduces the maximum heat release rate. This allows higher loads without knock and/or advanced combustion timing for higher efficiencies. Second, combustion phasing can be controlled by adjusting the fuel-injection strategy. Finally, experiments show that intermediate-temperature heat release (ITHR) increases with φ-sensitivity, increasing the allowable combustion retard and improving stability. A detailed mechanism was applied using CHEMKIN to understand the chemistry responsible for φ-sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Zn-Ni Plating as a Cadmium Alternative

2007-09-17
2007-01-3837
In a 2-year program sponsored by SJAC, an aqueous electroplating process using alkaline Zn-Ni with trivalent chromium post treatment is under evaluation for high strength steel for aircraft application as an alternative to cadmium. Commercial Zn-15%Ni rack/barrel plating solutions are basis for plating aircraft parts or fasteners. Brightener was reduced from the original formula to form porous plating that enables bake-out of hydrogen to avoid hydrogen embrittlement condition. Properties of the deposit, such as appearance, adhesion, un-scribed corrosion resistance, and galvanic corrosion resistance in contact with Al alloy, were evaluated. Coefficient of friction was compared with Cd plating by torque-tension measurements. Evaluation of the plating for scribed corrosion resistance, primer adhesion, etc. will continue in FY2007.
Technical Paper

Zero-Waste PVD Cadmium for High Strength Steels

1998-11-11
983137
In spite of environmental issues related to cadmium and its electroplating process, electroplated cadmium is still extensively used in the aerospace and defense sectors. This trend is likely to continue especially for high strength steels because cadmium provides the best known corrosion and embrittlement protection for this application. Consequently, the environmental concerns related to the cadmium electroplating have been addressed using an alternative Zero-waste Physical Vapor Deposition (Z-PVD). This method does not use liquids, it recycles cadmium in situ, and is free of hydrogen embrittlement. The Z-PVD process is now in commercial production for the aerospace fasteners. The quality of the coatings has been at least equal to that of the electroplated cadmium.
Technical Paper

ZENITH: A Nano-Satellite for Atmospheric Monitoring

2015-09-15
2015-01-2395
This paper describes the ZENITH Nano-Satellite cum planetary atmospheric entry vehicle, called CanSat, the first Nano-Satellite project that has been developed by Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), India. The satellite will function for monitoring the concentrations of various gases in the atmosphere. For this, the satellite consists of arduino microcontroller interfaced with the various Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gas sensors for measuring the concentrations of various gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, etc. The data obtained from the CanSat will be transmitted to the ground station where all the data will be stored and also the locations will be stored using GPS sensor. The academic goal of this project is to recruit students to the field of space science and technology.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Automotive Powertrain Directions

1981-11-01
811377
Using the overall efficiency obtained with today’s automotive power plants on the U.S. Metro Route as a baseline for comparison purposes, this paper reviews the major efficiency opportunities available in the next decade for a wide variety of automotive engine candidates. The impact of a variety of alternate fuels on candidate engine thermal efficiency is also presented. A family of continuously variable transmissions, having different levels of efficiency, are then used to project the overall efficiency of these engine candidates and fuels on the U.S. Metro Route in the 1990+ time frame. The direction of engine design, material and control trends during this time interval are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Working Fluid Properties Variation During Combustion in Premixed Charge Hydrogen Engines

2012-09-10
2012-01-1646
Several studies have been performed to investigate the effects of using hydrogen in spark ignition (SI) engines. One general conclusion that emerged was that stoichiometric operation of premixed charge hydrogen engines features increased losses compared to other fuels such as methane. Most studies attribute this higher loss to increased rates of heat transfer from the working fluid to the combustion chamber walls. Indeed, heat flux measurements during combustion and expansion recorded much higher values for hydrogen compared to methane stoichiometric operation. With regard to fluid properties, using the same net heat release equation as for gasoline engines results in an over prediction of heat losses to the combustion chamber walls. Also, the variation of specific heats ratio greatly influences calculated values for the rate of heat release. Therefore, a more detailed analysis of heat losses is required when comparing hydrogen to other fuels.
Technical Paper

Winterized Methyl Esters from Soybean Oil:An Alternative Diesel Fuel With Improved Low-Temperature Flow Properties

1997-05-01
971682
Methyl esters from vegetable oils (biodiesel) are very attractive as alternative fuels for combustion in direct injection compression-ignition (diesel) engines. Biodiesel fuels have low-temperature flow properties that limit utilization during cooler weather in moderate temperature climates. Although winterization reduces the cloud point (CP) of methyl soyate from 0 to -2O°C, liquid product yields were relatively low (0.30-0.33 g/g). Winterization of methyl soyate-cold flow improver mixtures decreased CP by -11°C and increased yields to 0.80-0.87 g/g. Winterization of methyl soyate from hexane and isopropanol solvents gave similar results. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses showed that nucleation mechanisms of methyl esters were significantly affected by winterization.
Technical Paper

Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection

2007-08-05
2007-01-3552
This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
Technical Paper

What FutureCar MPG Levels and Technology Will be Necessary?

2002-06-03
2002-01-1899
The potential peaking of world conventional oil production and the possible imperative to reduce carbon emissions will put great pressure on vehicle manufacturers to produce more efficient vehicles, on vehicle buyers to seek them out in the marketplace, and on energy suppliers to develop new fuels and delivery systems. Four cases for stabilizing or reducing light vehicle fuel use, oil use, and/or carbon emissions over the next 50 years are presented. Case 1 - Improve mpg so that the fuel use in 2020 is stabilized for the next 30 years. Case 2 - Improve mpg so that by 2030 the fuel use is reduced to the 2000 level and is reduced further in subsequent years. Case 3 - Case 1 plus 50% ethanol use and 50% low-carbon fuel cell vehicles by 2050. Case 4 - Case 2 plus 50% ethanol use and 50% low-carbon fuel cell vehicles by 2050. The mpg targets for new cars and light trucks require that significant advances be made in developing cost-effective and very efficient vehicle technologies.
Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

1999-05-03
1999-01-1511
The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

What Engines Say About Propane Fuel Mixtures

1964-01-01
640833
Three industrial engines, including one engine at three compression ratios, were operated on LP-gas mixtures and on gasoline. The work was performed by Ethyl Corp. Research Laboratories under contract with the Natural Gas Processors Association and the National LP-Gas Association. The paper presents directly comparable information on engine performance and fuel economy when operated on gasoline and LP-gas. Information is presented to indicate the LP-gas antiknock quality needed to satisfy the engines at best-power fuel-air ratio and various ignition timings.
Journal Article

Well-to-Wheels Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants of Dimethyl Ether from Natural Gas and Renewable Feedstocks in Comparison with Petroleum Gasoline and Diesel in the United States and Europe

2016-10-17
2016-01-2209
Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel fuel for use in compression-ignition engines with modified fuel systems and offers potential advantages of efficiency improvements and emission reductions. DME can be produced from natural gas (NG) or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas (LFG) or renewable natural gas from manure waste streams (MANR) or any other biomass. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of five DME production pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Future Automotive Fuels and Powertrains in the European Context

2004-06-08
2004-01-1924
A consortium of CONCAWE, EUCAR and the EU Commission's JRC carried out a Well-to-Wheels analysis of a wide range of automotive fuels and powertrains. The study gives an assessment of the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for each pathway. It also considers macroeconomic costs and the market potential of alternative fuels.
Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheel Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Various Vehicle Technologies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1343
The well-to-wheel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of selected alternative vehicles are compared to those of a conventional gasoline vehicle. The vehicle technologies investigated are internal combustion engine, hybrid and fuel cell technology. The fuels are assumed to be produced from either crude oil or natural gas. Wherever possible real data has been used. The study shows that hybrid vehicles emit a similar amount of greenhouse gas as fuel cell vehicles. The diesel hybrid uses the least primary energy. The least greenhouse gas emissions are produced by natural gas and hydrogen hybrid and fuel cell vehicles.
Technical Paper

Well-to Wheel Greenhouse Gas Emissions of LNG Used as a Fuel for Long Haul Trucks in a European Scenario

2013-09-08
2013-24-0110
The EU Commission's “Clean Power for Transport” initiative aims to break the EU's dependence on imported oil whilst promoting the use of alternative fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among the options considered is the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a substitute for diesel in long haul trucks. It is interesting to ask how the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of LNG compare with conventional diesel fuel for this application. The LNG available in Europe is mainly imported. This paper considers the “well-to-tank” emissions of LNG from various production routes, including: gas production, treatment and liquefaction, shipping to Europe, terminal, distribution and refuelling operations. “Tank-to-Wheel” emissions are considered for a range of currently-available engine technologies of varying efficiency relative to diesel.
Journal Article

Well-To-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-1309
The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model incorporated fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Based on PSAT simulations of the blended charge depleting (CD) operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle’s total energy use ranging from 6% for PHEV 10 to 24% for PHEV 40 based on CD vehicle mile traveled (VMT) shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. Besides fuel economy of PHEVs and type of on-board fuel, the type of electricity generation mix impacted the WTW results of PHEVs, especially GHG emissions.
Technical Paper

Well to Wheels Analysis of Biofuels vs. Conventional Fossil Fuels : a Proposal for Greenhouse Gases and Energy Savings Accounting in the French Context

2008-04-14
2008-01-0673
The recent development of biofuel production worldwide is closely linked to GHG savings objectives and to regional agricultural policies. Many existing studies intend to evaluate the net non renewable energy and GHG savings associated to the various biofuel production pathways. However, there is no consensus on the results of those studies. The main explanations of variations among the results are the following: energy consumption and GHG emissions of the reference fossil pathway, data used for the representation of farming processes and biofuel production processes, accounting for carbon storage in agricultural soils, reference use of the land, choice of an allocation method in case of coproduction. There is a strong drive in the European Union for a certification on the sustainability of biofuel pathways.
Technical Paper

Weight Effect on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Diesel and Lean-Burn Natural Gas Transit Buses

2007-08-05
2007-01-3626
Transit agencies across the United States operate bus fleets primarily powered by diesel, natural gas, and hybrid drive systems. Passenger loading affects the power demanded from the engine, which in turn affects distance-specific emissions and fuel consumption. Analysis shows that the nature of bus activity, taking into account the idle time, tire rolling resistance, wind drag, and acceleration energy, influences the way in which passenger load impacts emissions. Emissions performance and fuel consumption from diesel and natural gas powered buses were characterized by the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory. A comparison matrix for all three bus technologies included three common driving cycles (the Braunschweig Cycle, the OCTA Cycle, and the ADEME-RATP Paris Cycle). Each bus was tested at three different passenger loading conditions (empty weight, half weight, and full weight).
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