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Technical Paper

Influence of Calcium-Based Additives with Different Properties on Abnormal Combustion in an SI Engine

Technologies for further improving vehicle fuel economy have attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, one problem with some approaches is the occurrence of abnormal combustion such as low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs under low-speed, high-load operating conditions. One proposed cause of LSPI is that oil droplets diluted by the fuel enter the combustion chamber and become a source of ignition. Another proposed cause is that deposits peel off and become a source of ignition. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine was used in this study to investigate the influence of Ca-based additives having different properties on abnormal combustion by means of in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic measurements. The results obtained for neutral and basic Ca-based additives revealed that the former had an effect on advancing the time of autoignition.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Practical Application of Cellulosic Liquefaction Fuel for Diesel Engine

In recent years, it has been expected the conversion of wasted biomass to industry available energy. In this study, 80 wt.% of wood and 20 wt.% of polypropylene were liquefied by the mineral oil used as solvent. The liquefied material was distilled, and distillation fraction of temperature from 493 to 573 K was recognized as light oil fraction CLF (Cellulose Liquefaction Fuel) and that from 378 to 493 K was recognized as naphtha fraction CLF. CLFs were blended with light oil and, in engine performance test, mixing ratio of light oil fraction CLF was 5 wt.%, and in vehicle running test, weight mixing ratios were 5 or 10 wt.%. In engine performance test, indicator diagrams and rate of heat releases of light oil fraction CLF 5 wt.% mixed light oil were almost equivalent to those of light oil in all load conditions, and engine performance and exhaust gas emissions were also almost equivalent to light oil.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Varying the Supercharging Pressure and Fuel Octane Number on Spark Ignition Engine Knocking using Spectroscopic Measurement and In-cylinder Visualization

Engine downsizing with a turbocharger / supercharger has attracted attention as a way of improving the fuel economy of automotive gasoline engines, but this approach can be frustrated by the occurrence of abnormal combustion. In this study, the factors causing abnormal combustion were investigated using a supercharged, downsized engine that was built by adding a mechanical supercharger. Combustion experiments were conducted in which the fuel octane number and supercharging pressure were varied while keeping the engine speed, equivalence ratio and intake air temperature constant. In the experiments, a visualization technique was applied to photograph combustion in the combustion chamber, absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the intermediate products of combustion, and the cylinder pressure was measured. The experimental data obtained simultaneously were then analyzed to examine the effects on combustion.