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Technical Paper

“Multi Vector” Field of View Design Tool

A multi vector design tool to accurately predict instrument panel obscuration was developed to insure that critical legal displays in vehicles are not obscured. The concept provides for a computer generated light source shaped to replicate the human eyes. The light source is then projected onto a 3D math based arrangement and the resultant shadows are visible on the instrument panel surface and its displays. Design studios require criteria for the placement of the instrument cluster gages and displays, various controls, switches, and steering column stalks before an interior theme can be completed. Therefore, instrument panel obscuration and visibility must be determined early in the design process. The obscured areas are a function of the instrument panel surface, steering wheel rim, hub, spokes, and the location of the driver's eyes. This light source method allows engineers and designers the ability to quickly determine obscured areas.
Technical Paper

“Herschel-Quincke Spiral” A New Interference Silencer

Over the last ten years there has been a steady growth in the market share of light-duty diesel engines, especially in Europe. At the same time, a general trend in petrol engine development has been seen, in which normal aspirated engines are being replaced by downsized turbocharged engines. Therefore, NVH engineers have to deal with new challenges. Turbochargers produce an aerodynamic noise in the frequency range above 1000Hz, which might influence the exterior and interior noise level. As a result, the additional requirement for acoustical components to reduce this flow noise is going to pose an increasing challenge for air intake system suppliers. This paper describes a new design of well-known wide band silencer first mentioned by A. Selamet, N.S.Dickey and J.M.Novak [1,2]. The silencer works according to the interference principle. The sound is guided into two or more parallel pipes of different lengths.
Technical Paper

“Dynamic Analysis of Cabin Tilting System of Heavy Trucks Using ADAMS-View for Development of a Software Interface for Optimization”

Design of a Cabin Tilting System of heavy trucks, a multi degree of freedom mechanism, is a challenge. Factors like adequate tilting angle, cabin styling, packaging, non interference of tilting system with ride comfort, forces in the system, specifications of the hydraulic system, are all very important for designing the system. Numerous considerations make the design process highly iterative hence longer design time. This paper primarily focuses on Kinematics and Dynamic analysis of the system in ADAMS and validation of system with real time testing results. Intention of this work is to make a parametric ADAMS model and link it to a Knowledge Based Engineering application to facilitate designer to quickly carry out design iterations for reducing development time. The Knowledge Based Engineering software is made using object oriented language called ‘Object Definition Language’ which has been developed using C and C++ software languages.
Technical Paper

“Active Mass Absorber” at a 4×4 Transmition System

The extensive use of rotative machines in the diverse branches of the modern world has made the rising undesirable mechanical and acoustic vibration levels to be a problem of special importance for the machines normal operation as for the communities that are each time more affected by the problem. It makes the study of vibration and acoustic phenomena also to be even more important and the applications of its concepts more sophisticated. Several are the concepts used for decreasing vibration levels, like common dampers, hydraulic dampers, active dampers, natural frequencies changes and others. The choice of use of one or another depends greatly on the engineering possibilities (weight, energy, physical space, other components functional interference, vibration levels, etc.) as well as the cost of implementation of each one.
Technical Paper

‘Almost’ Real-Time Diagnosis and Correction of Manufacturing Scrap Using an Expert System

This paper describes preliminary findings on an expert system that uses both operator and transducer inputs in ‘almost’ real-time to diagnose scrap type and recommend corrective action to reduce/eliminate further production of this scrap type. During the development of the expert system, equal consideration was given to hardware installation and debugging; system architecture, logic, and triggering; and knowledge acquisition. The system is applied to a specific manufacturing process; however, the ideas are applicable to a wide range of problems in the production environment.
Technical Paper

Zinc Die Castings in Automotive Applications

The role of zinc die castings in the materials marketplace has changed significantly in the last generation. In response to a shift in the available market, the industry has made major advances intended to improve competitiveness in both traditional and non-traditional areas. Better efficiency and performance have been achieved by the application of new methods and technologies. The ZA alloys, introduced to die casting during the last decade, have markedly expanded the capabilities of both zinc and the die casting process. This paper presents a review of several zinc die castings used in automatic applications.
Technical Paper

Zero Prototype Approach in the Development of a Plastic Automotive Component

In the developement process, the engineer is required to design, validate and deliver the components for manufacturing, in an as short as possible lead time. For that, the engineer may use some available tools to save not only time, but also cost. This work presents a zero prototype approach applyied to a plastic component, whose main accomplishment was the decreasing of lead time development due to the intensive use of virtual tools (CAD/CAE). As a result, the product was delivered in a short time, with no need of building physical prototypes, thus reducing development cost.
Technical Paper

Zero Hand Coding Approach for Controller Development

As the demand for more complex system development and the ever-increasing requirement for improvement in software productivity, the need for graphical programming or Zero-Hand Coding for automatic generation of controller software becomes highly desirable. The graphical programming must not be limited to the algorithm development which consists of the application modules but must be extended to the microcontroller platform, which include the middleware (i.e. operating system, I/O device drivers) and hardware. Automatic code generation is very important for programming the complex microcontroller internal parameters and registers. The combined software tool chain is to generate the final target specific executable code. This approach is very beneficial for system development, reduction of the development cycle and bridges the gap between control and software engineers reducing time, effort and cost of the production software.
Technical Paper

Writing Better Real-Time System Requirements with Use Cases and Services

An average person in North America comes in regular contact with an amazing number of real-time systems on a regular basis. For example, an automobile today can have upward of 40 plus real time systems on board. A residential house has real-time systems in many household electronics. Real-time systems today deliver many customer-facing functionalities. There is a need to express requirements in a manner relevant the customers, for purposes of validation and verification. The proliferation of real-time systems on a single device also creates opportunities for reuse of functionality that rarely existed before. Use Case technique approaches requirements from a scenario perspective. Scenario provides context and external view points that are better suited to address the validation, verification and reuse challenges. In this paper, we present: A few examples of extending use cases for real-time systems to capture system functional requirements.
Journal Article

Workflow and Asset Management Challenges in a Distributed Organization

Increasingly Automotive OEMs and their suppliers find themselves spread across different continents. This in turn gives rise to knowledge, physical assets and key decision makers also being spread across the globe. This poses significant challenges for the companies to effectively manage and keep track of their resources. It is also challenging to work with teams spread across globe and for the team to arrive at intelligent decisions quickly and efficiently. In last few years we have spent significant amount of person hours trying to create systems and Software to help manage Workflow and Assets spread across diverse Geographic and Political areas.
Technical Paper

Wiring Harness with Integrated Crashpad

Traditionally, wiring harnesses are devices made of many manually assembled components like cables, connector housings, grommets, electronic components… In these applications, “Polyurethane foam” is often used for sheeting wiring harness components such as connectors and cables. Polyurethane foam is also used to foam special components, e.g. grommets, directly to the wiring harness. This paper describes the possibility of using polyurethane foam molding technology to integrate functions regarding passive safety systems into vehicles. Due to the fact that polyurethane foam delivers excellent results regarding energy absorption, we have tried to overfoam wiring harnesses in these critical areas with special polyurethane foam. Due to the elimination of fastening elements and labor savings at the OEM, integrating crash pads into the wiring system offers considerable potential for cost reduction.
Technical Paper

Wire Harness Simulation and Analysis Techniques

An increasingly important, yet often underestimated task of modern vehicle design is the system interconnect, commonly known as the wire harness. The continual increase in on–board vehicle electronics is causing an exponential expansion in wire harness complexity. To meet these challenges, software tools have been developed to assist the harness designer in the various tasks from system partitioning to signal integrity analysis. This paper will discuss the key problem areas of the wire harness design, along with the design and analysis capabilities of the SaberHarness™ tool suite.
Technical Paper

Windshield Shape Optimization Using Neural Network

Wipe quality of wiper systems is influenced not only by the definition of the wiper system, but also by the shape of the glass. In order to optimize the overall performance of the system, Valeo Wiper Systems has developed an optimization algorithm, which is based on geometrical criteria. The multi-criteria objective not only considers wipe quality but also constraints by glass feasibility and respect of optical standards. As the direct derivation of the objective functions is not available, a neural network approximation is used at the place of the real function. A neural network with several outputs enables the engineer to include his knowledge in the optimization loop by changing disciplinary weights.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Commercial Transport Aircraft Aerodynamics at Extreme Flight Conditions

A series of low-speed static and dynamic wind tunnel tests of a commercial transport configuration over an extended angle of attack/sideslip envelope was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center. The test results are intended for use in the development of an aerodynamic simulation database for determining aircraft flight characteristics at extreme and loss-of-control conditions. This database will be used for the development of loss-of-control prevention or mitigation systems, pilot training for recovery from such conditions, and accident investigations. An overview of the wind-tunnel tests is presented and the results of the tests are evaluated with respect to traditional simulation database development techniques for modeling extreme conditions to identify regions where simulation fidelity should be addressed.
Technical Paper

Wind Tunnel Investigation of an Improved Upper Surface Blown-Flap Transport Semi-Span Model

The ASUKA was based upon the airframe of the home produced C-1 tactical transport which was modified into an Upper Surface Blowing (USB) powered high lift STOL aircraft. But the wing configuration was not changed. Therefore, this Experimental Aircraft doesn't always have the optimum configuration of a USB type aircraft. This paper describes the investigations which have been conducted to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of a subsonic jet transport semi-span model with an Upper Surface Blowing Flap system which has been newly designed using the NAL STOL-CAD program. The tests were conducted in the NAL 2- by 2-meter Gust Wind Tunnel and results were obtained for several flap and slat deflections at engine thrust coefficients from 0 to 1.85. As compared with the aerodynamic characteristics of the ASUKA model, we obtained the possibility of reduction of the airframe weight and significant improvement of the aerodynamic characteristics.
Technical Paper

Why You Should Use Web Based Learning for CAD Training in Your Organization

Since 1992, Caterpillar has invested millions of dollars to purchase CAD software, and spends nearly $2M per year keeping its engineers up-to-date, via instructor lead training (ILT), as new enhancements are introduced. Periodic upgrades to the software also require huge resource (people, costs) commitments for the planning and execution of the training requirements required for a large global workforce. This paper will examine gaps uncovered in the efficiency and effectiveness of the current training process, and the cultural change required as a result of switching from an instructor led environment to a completely web-based solution, which, once deployed, had promised to change the way Caterpillar approached training for the future. The proposed change promised to improve human resource capability by utilizing new technological capabilities, and resulted in improvements in organizational capabilities as well.
Technical Paper

Why Have a Systems Engineering (SE) Capability for Automotive Product Development? - Questions and Answers

A clear understanding of Customer and User requirements is essential to successfully develop, design, build, test and produce components and systems for Customer Programs. Systems Engineering (SE) is defined as “a formal process for the development of a complex system, driven by a set of established requirements, derived from the intended mission of the system throughout its life cycle”. Systems Engineering has been successfully employed for decades in aerospace and commercial product development, but its methodology may not be used or is underutilized by many automotive companies and their suppliers. This paper will describe the characteristics and aspects of a “System” and the corresponding Systems Engineering methodology from educational, professional and corporate perspectives.
Technical Paper

What Every Engineer Should Know About Solid Modeling

A brief description of part creation on the computer by solids is presented. The capabilities, use, and benefits of this method in the product development cycle is given. Solid modeling as the basis for downstream C A E work and specific examples are discussed.
Technical Paper

What Every Engineer Should Know About Finite Element Analysis Methods

The scope of Finite Element Analysis in the Product Development Cycle is given. A brief review of the development process is given. A brief description of the analysis method is presented. A description of how it works, how is it implemented, and where do I use it are included. The entire range of questions are answered through, how do I train for it, how do I manage it, along with what are the limitations and what are the benefits of this analysis method.
Technical Paper

Weight and Friction Optimized Cranktrain Design Supported by Coupled CAE Tools

Due to the contradiction of the market demands and legal issues OEMs are forced to invest in finding concepts that assure high fuel economy, low exhaust emissions and high specific power at the same time. Since mechanical losses may amount up to 10 % of the fuel energy, a key to realise such customer/government specific demands is the improvement of the mechanical performance of the engines, which comprises mainly friction decrease and lightweight design of the engine parts. In order to achieve the mentioned objectives, it has to be checked carefully for each component whether the design potentials are utilized. Many experimental studies show that there is still room for optimization of the cranktrain parts, especially for the crankshaft. A total exploitation of the crankshaft potentials is only possible with advanced calculation approaches that ensure the component layout within design limits.