Dedicated technology has been developed to support long-term biological experiments on-board spacecraft. These developments include a microgravity compatible tubular photo bioreactor for the cultivation of micro algae at very high biomass concentrations and with very high gas exchange rates, a microgravity compatible gas / liquid phase separator which also works as a pneumatic low shear-stress pump, a microgravity compatible dehumidifier, and a maltose separating reverse osmosis unit. Integration of these technologies into a partially closed artificial ecosystem form the foundation of the SYMBIOSE concept (System for Microgravity Bioregenerative Support of Experiments).
This paper presents a conceptual design of a short-radius centrifuge for orbital application, contained in an inflatable structure. The objectives of this design are: to support the physical effectiveness of the crew by offering an exercise facility; to provide a test bed for biomedical experiments on human centrifugation in orbit; and to offer recreational benefits during long periods of confinement. The use of a pneumatic structure that can expand in orbit allows maximizing the radius of the centrifuge within mass and launch constraints. The proposed project is composed of elements with standard interfaces; its environmental design is based on human factor considerations from biomedical literature, and it respects current ergonomics and NASA standards.
A sense of “personal integrity” blocks pilot use of new information about how he thinks. Research on human performance under stress done over the past fifty years indicates increased rigidity and regression to earlier learned behavior in high stress, and in low Stress a shift in attention to any domestic situation or on the job controversy which is of higher stress than that of the job at hand, all without the pilot's knowledge. Informal surveys of commercial pilot training and commercial pilot attitudes towards these studies indicate that the study findings directly confront learned cultural responses. Pilot and trainer reactions prevent the information from being adequately investigated or formally taught. The findings are not written into training manuals and pilots who are informally given the information do not have adequate access to the knowledge when it is needed.
Mathematical modeling and control of artificial ecosystems, such as MELISSA, require first the study of physical and biological characteristics in optimal and limiting conditions. Following the previous determination of the stoichiometric equations (Spirulina compartment) and regarding the two phototrophic compartments of MELISSA (Rhodospirillaceae and Spirulina), we have first to focus our control study on the growth kinetics for the light source. In this paper, we recall the theoretical equations of microbial growth kinetics and emphasise the problem of the light transfer in a photobioreactor. We present their adaptations to our pilot plant taking into account technological and biological specifics (lamp spectrum, working illuminated volume, growth rate,…). We then develop the principles and structure of the control system and describe tests of both the hardware and software for several steady state configurations.
The requirement for crew resource management (CRM), or aircrew coordination training (ACT) in military parlance, has been well documented and attested to. In addition, aircraft systems training has become more intense and more in-depth in the new aircraft designs, especially in multi-crew and complex aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey Tiltrotor. (see Figure 1) Former training systems detailed training procedures that called for classroom training and simulation/simulator training followed by flight training. Improvements in aircraft flight skills training provide increased flying training capability coupled with reduced training time by integrating a mixed simulation/flight training syllabus, e.g. two to three simulation periods followed by one or two flight training periods covering the same material/skills. In addition, the simulation training will introduce new skills; the following flight periods will further refine/hone those skills.
Abstract This paper is an extension of our previous work on the CHASE (Classification by Holistic Analysis of Scene Environment) algorithm, that automatically classifies the driving complexity of a road scene image during day-time conditions and assigns it an ‘Ease of Driving’ (EoD) score. At night, apart from traffic variations and road type conditions, illumination changes are a major predominant factor that affect the road visibility and the driving easiness. In order to resolve the problem of analyzing the driving complexity of roads at night, a brightness detection module is incorporated in our end-to-end nighttime EoD system, which computes the ‘brightness factor’ (bright or dark) for that given night-time road scene. The brightness factor along with a multi-level machine learning classifier is then used to classify the EoD score for a night-time road scene.
In 1961 the Consumers’ Association in Britain set up a car test unit, and in 1962 the first car test reports were published. These later became the ‘Motoring Which?’ quarterly supplement to ‘Which?’ magazine. The methods and general sequence of the CA car testing procedure are first outlined. The Human Factors contribution to this testing programme is then described. The contribution broadly takes two forms. First, human factors reference data and guidance are provided to assist with the planning and interpretation of the objective measurement programme run by the test unit. Second, an extensive Human Factors Questionnaire (HFQ) programme is organised, and the results are reported, quarterly for every group of test cars. The initial planning of the Human Factors contribution is described; then the essential features of the HFQ programme, and its successive stages of development over the years to the current form with computerised analysis and output are reviewed.
‘Emotional controlling’ is a very efficient way to realize autonomous behaviour of digital human models by closed loop controls. In particular this is an emotional optimization procedure based upon the ‘Hedonic principle’ and thus following closely the human original. Emotional controlling will be outlined and illustrated by an example demonstrating the specific way force and posture induced discomfort is shaping our movements.
A zirconia electroysis cell is an all-solid state (mainly ceramic) device consisting of two electrodes separated by a dense zirconia electrolyte. The cell electrochemically reduces carbon dioxide to oxygen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures (800 to 1000°C). The zirconia electrolysis cell provides a simple, lightweight, low-volume system for Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications. This paper describes the fabrication process and discusses the electrochemical performance and other properties of zirconia electrolysis cells made by the tape calendering method. Electrolytes produced by this method are very thin (micrometer-thick); the thin electrolyte reduces ohmic losses in the cell, permitting efficient operation at temperatures of 800°C or below.
Design load values are a prime consideration in space suit design. Pressurized garment assemblies can be accurately modeled as a cylindrical shell under pressure to determine the resulting pressure loads. But, the resulting longitudinal loads are not a complete picture of the load environment. The man induced loads generally act longitudinally and are very often the larger loads the space suit restraint system must withstand. This paper presents the data collected to fill out the human strength data base in the glove area along with a short description of how this data was collected. Also, a description of how this data was used in the design and flight certification of the current Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit space suit is included along with a discussion of techniques to extend this model to include future space suit design.
Guidelines for designing you-are-here (YAH) maps aboard International Space Station (ISS) are proposed, based on results from previous 3D spatial navigation studies conducted by our research group and colleagues. This paper reviews terrestrial YAH maps, the common errors associated with them, and how to appropriately implement what is known from terrestrial to micro-gravity YAH maps. We conclude with a creative example of an ISS YAH map that utilizes given guidelines and information visualization techniques.
This study presents results from x-ray analysis of live human head/neck motion in sled test simulations of low-speed frontal, lateral, and rear-end vehicle impacts. The test subjects were 26 male and female adults, aged 22 to 61 years. Head/neck motion and the kinematic responses of each test subject were measured and analyzed by cineradiograph, high-speed film, accelerometers, and electromyography of the neck muscles. The methodology used may provide insight into the mechanism of neck injuries caused by the head inertia loading. The actual kinematic responses of the head/neck were found to be more complex than previously thought. The experimental results suggest that the most significant factor of the head/neck response is the initial curvature of the cervical and thoracic spine. Looking specifically at the early motion of the head and neck in rear-end impacts, the cervical forward curvature (lordosis) and the thoracic rearward curvature (kyphosis) were found to straighten.
Workspace is an important function for human factors analysis and is widely applied in product design, manufacturing, and ergonomics evaluations. This paper presents the workspace analysis and visualization for Santos™ upper extremity, a new virtual human with over 100 DOFs that is highly realistic in terms of appearance, behavior, and movement. Jacobian Rank deficiency method is implemented to determine the singular surfaces. The joint limits are considered in this formulation; three types of singularities are analyzed. This closed-form formulation can be extended to numerous different scenarios such as different percentiles, age groups, or segments of body. A realtime scheme is used to build the workspace library for Santos™ that will study the boundary surfaces off-line and apply them to Santos™ in the virtual environment (Virtools®). To visualize the workspace, we develop a user interface to generate the cross section of the reach envelope with a plane.
Cockpits have changed dramatically over the last ten years. The electro-mechanical instruments have largely been replaced with electro-optical controls and displays. This change in the pilot-vehicle interface, coupled with a second development, the emergence of a very powerful airborne computer system, an Electronic Crewmember, has had a significant impact on workload in the cockpit. Workload has shifted from physical to mental, and many workload measurement tools applied previously may no longer be appropriate. This paper discusses the prediction, real time measurement and dynamic allocation of cockpit workload in an aircraft with a crew of two -- one human and one electronic.
Current and future generations of transport aircraft are characterized by a high level of automation. This automation is intended to assist the flight crew and make it possible for a crew of two persons to operate these aircraft for all types of flights, including those of extremely long duration. While one of the design goals of automation is to reduce crew workload, little is known about the true relationship between workload and automation. This paper discusses the approaches taken by Airbus Industrie when designing increasing levels of automation into their aircraft. It also addresses the Airbus program of workload research and the need to direct specific attention to the relationship between workload and automation.
Data from man-in-the-loop simulation, where the separation assurance is either ensured by air traffic control or delegated to the pilots, is used to derive and validate models correlating instantaneous self assessment and objective factors. Factors are selected, parameters are computed and models are assessed in terms of correlation and ability to classify. Models for air traffic controllers are based on functions of density, number of aircraft in an airspace and take into account the presence or absence of a conflict detection and resolution tool. Workload models for pilots are centered primarily around a number of functions - those associated with the number of conflicts during present and previous time periods, those contributing to convergence and, finally, those related to conflict detection and resolution horizon. This paper discusses the technical approaches taken to develop these models.
Over the last decade, considerable research has been conducted on the construct of operator workload and its measurement. From this research, both theory and methods have evolved to provide valid assessment of this construct. Two classes of assessment methods, secondary tasks and subjective scales, dominate the literature at this time. This paper traces the development of both methods, ties their use to current theories of human processing resources, and evaluates both with respect to five criteria.
As systems become increasingly more complex, operator workload frequently is the major limitation to system performance. System designers have employed a variety of metrics attempting to assess workload in various settings. Confusion exists as to data interpretation when the metrics used provide different assessments; that is, they dissociate. This paper looks at two metrics - performance and subjective ratings - and suggests a theory-based interpretation as to why dissociation occurs. The implications of this dissociation to system design are then briefly summarized.